- Kingdom of Judah
Judeais a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel.", c.830s BCE.] The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew Name|מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה|Malḫut Yəhuda|Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) (c.930–586 BCE) was one of the successor states to the " United Monarchy" often known as the Kingdom of Israel. It is often referred to as the Southern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Northern Kingdom (of Israel). According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Judah first emerged after the death of Saul the King, when the tribe of Judahelevated King Davidto rule over them. The area of "Har Yehudah" (=the mountain (district) of the gorge(s)) seems to have originally been occupied by Kenites, Calebites, Othnielites, and in Jerusalem Jebusites. The tribe of Judah was Biblically initially the only one of the Twelve Tribes of Israelto follow the house of David to found the Southern Kingdom. Soon after, the tribe of Benjaminjoined the tribe of Judah. According to the 2 Samuel (5:6&7), Jerusalembecame the capitalof the new kingdom.
After the death of Saul's son
Ish-bosheth, David came to rule the other tribes of Israel, creating a united Kingdom of Israel. David's grandson Rehoboamwas rejected by ten of the twelve Tribes of Israelduring the disruption at Shechem, leaving only the Kingdom of Judah ruled by the Davidic line. The Northern Kingdom fell to the Assyrian Empirec. 720 BCE but the Kingdom of Judah survived for almost 350 years until it was conquered in 586 BCE by the Babylonian Empireunder Nebuzar-adan, captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard.("2 Kings" 25:8-21). This event coincided with the destruction of the First Templeof Jerusalem and with the Babylonian Captivity.
thumb|left|Jewish king and soldiers in ancient Judah.The United Monarchy was formed out of the territories of the twelve Hebrew tribes living in the area in and around modern Israel and Palestine. It existed from around 1030-920 BCE.
After the death of
King Solomon, the son of King David, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israelrevolted against the Davidic line, refusing to accept Rehoboamson of Solomon and instead chose as king Jeroboamwho was not a member of King David's family.
When the disruption took place at
Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judahfollowed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjaminjoined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalembecame the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. The Second Book of Chronicles (2 Chronicles 15:9) also says that members of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh and Simeon "fled" to Judah during the reign of Asa.
For the first sixty years, the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years, there was no open war between them. For the most part, they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against
Kingdom of Israel, or Northern Kingdom, existed as an independent state from about 930 BCE until around 720 BCE when it was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. The Bible relates that all Israelites were exiled, becoming known as the The Ten Lost Tribes. However, it is estimated that only a fifth of the population (about 40,000) were actually resettled out of the area during the two deportation periods under Tiglath-pilaser III and Sargon II. [Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, The Bible Unearthed.] Nevertheless, many Israelites fled south to Jerusalem, which appears to have expanded in size by 500% during this period, requiring a new wall to be built, and a new source of water ( Siloam) to be provided by King Hezekiah.
After the destruction of Israel, Judah continued to exist for about a century and a half until being overthrown by the Babylonians.
Hezekiahof Judah (727-698 BCE) is noted in the Bible for initiating reforms that enforced Jewish laws against idolatry(in this case, the worship of Ba'alim and Asherah, among other traditional Near Eastern divinities). [http://scholar.cc.emory.edu:80/scripts/ASOR/BA/Borowski.html] [bibleverse|2|Kings|18-20|HE] In his reign is also dated the Siloam inscriptionin Old Hebrew alphabet. Manasseh of Judah(698-642 BCE), sacrificed his son to Molech, bibleverse|2|Kings|21|HE. He and his son Amon (reigned 642-640 BCE) reversed Hezekiah's reforms and officially revived idolatry. According to later rabbinical accounts, Manasseh placed a grotesque, four-faced idol in the Holy of Holies.
The reign of king
Josiah(640-609 BCE) was accompanied by a religious reformation. According to the Bible, while repairs were made on the Temple, a 'Book of the Law' was discovered (possibly the book of Deuteronomy). [ [http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/gerald_larue/otll/chap19.html] See also bibleverse|1|Kings|13|HE, bibleverse|2|Kings|22-23|HE , bibleverse|2|Chr|34-35|HE]
In 586 BCE, the Babyloníans, under king Nebuchadnezzar II, seized Jerusalem. The
First Templewas destroyed; the date was the 9th of "Av", or " Tisha B'Av". [ [http://www.jajz-ed.org.il/festivls/9avrka.html The Jewish Agency For Israel Homepage ] ]
In the wake of this conquest much of the population of the Kingdom of Judah was deported from the land and dispersed throughout the
Prophets Active in the Kingdom of Judah
Extent of the Kingdom
Its capital was
The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of about convert|8900|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on|sp=us.
The Kings of Judah
For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by
William F. Albrightor Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galilor Kenneth Kitchen, all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.
From the end of the kingdom to the present
After the end of the ancient kingdom the area passed into foreign rule, apart from brief periods, under the following powers:
*332–305 BCE: Empire of Alexander the Great
*305–198 BCE: Ptolemaics
*198–141 BCE: Seleucids
*141–37 BCE: The Hasmonean kingdom in Israel established by the Maccabees, after 63 BCE under Roman supremacy
*37 BCE–70 CE:
Herodian Dynastyruling Judea under Roman supremacy (37 BCE-6 CE and 41-44 CE), interchanging with direct Roman rule (6-41 CE and 44-66 CE). This ended in the first Jewish Revoltof 66-73 AD, which saw the Temple destroyed in 70 CE.
Census of Quiriniusand establishment of Roman Iudaea Province
*70–395: province of
Roman Empirefirst called Judea, after 135 called Palaestina. In 395 the Roman Empire is split into a Western and an Eastern part.
*395–638: Eastern Roman or
Caliphates and subject rulers
Crusader states, most notably the Kingdom of Jerusalem
*1187–1260: dominated by the Ayyubids of Egypt and Damascus
*1260–1516: dominated by the Mamluks of Egypt
*1918–1948: British mandate of Palestine under, first,
League of Nations, then, successor United Nations; the Emirate of Trans-Jordan was separated from the rest of Palestine in 1922, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan became independent upon the expiration of the League of Nations Mandate in 1946.
*May 1948 to present: independent
State of Israel
West Bankwas occupied by, and in 1950 annexed to, Jordan. Gaza Stripwas occupied by Egypt:*1967 to present: the West Bank and Gaza Strip occupied by Israel in the Six Day War, since :1994 a semi-autonomous Palestinian Authoritygoverns territories in the West Bankand Gaza Strip.
Government of ancient Israel
History of ancient Israel and Judah
* [http://www.dinur.org/1.html?rsID=219 The Jewish History Resource Center] Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
* [http://www.complete-bible-genealogy.com/judah_israel_kings.htm Complete Bible Genealogy] A synchronized chart of the kings of Judah and Israel
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