Allies of World War I


Allies of World War I

The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, France, the British Empire, Italy and the United States. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire), entered World War I in 1914, as a result of their Triple Entente alliance. Many other countries later joined the Allied side in the war (see below).

It should be noted that U.S. President Woodrow Wilson and his administration were determined not to define the U.S. as an "ally".Fact|date=November 2007 The United States declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated American neutrality by attacking international shipping. [ [http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawardeclaration.htm US Declaration of War] ] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Britain, and maintained that distance throughout the war. The U.S. was not at war with some of the Central Powers, such as the Ottoman Empire or Bulgaria.Fact|date=November 2007

Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian and Canadian army units were grouped in their own separate army corps, under Australian and Canadian commanders, who reported in turn to British and/or French generals.

In April 1918, operational control of all Allied forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch.

Main Allied states

* Kingdom of Belgium (including Belgian colonial forces)
* Kingdom of Montenegro
* Kingdom of Serbia

* French Third Republic (including French colonial forces)
* British Empire:
** flagicon|Australia Australia
** flagicon|UK British crown colonies
** flagicon|Canada|1868 Canada
** flagicon|India|British India
** flagicon|New Zealand New Zealand
** flagicon|South Africa|1910 South Africa
** flagicon|UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
** flagicon|Newfoundland Newfoundland
* (until November 1917)
* United States of America (1917 and after)
* Kingdom of Italy (April 1915 and after)

*
* Portuguese Republic (March 1916 and after) (including Portuguese colonial forces)
* Kingdom of Romania (August 1916-May 1918)
* Kingdom of Greece (November 1916 for the Government of National Defence; June 1917 for the whole country)

Other states which had military participation:

* Albania
* Brazil (October 1917 and after)
* Armenia (May 1918 and after)
* Czechoslovakia - See Czechoslovak Legions
* Kingdom of Finland 1918 (October 1918 and after)
* Kingdom of Siam
* San Marino (June 1915 and after)

States which had declared war (But with no military involvement):

*
* (April 1917 and after)
* (August 1917 and after)
* (May 1918 and after)
* (April 1917 and after)
* (December 1917 and after)
* (April 1918 and after)
* (August 1917 and after)
* (July 1918 and after)
* (July 1918 and after)
* (May 1918 and after)
* (December 1917 and after)
* (October 1917 and after)
* (October 1917 and after)

Leaders

Russia

*flagicon|Russian Empire Nicholas IIRussian Emperor, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland. (Until 15 March 1917)
*flagicon|Russian Empire Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich - Commander-in-chief (1 August 1914 – 5 September 1916) and viceroy in the Caucasus
*flagicon|Russian Empire Alexander Samsonov - Commander of the Russian Second Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 – 29 August 1914)
*flagicon|Russian Empire Paul von Rennenkampf - Commander of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East Prussia (1 August 1914 - November 1914)
*flagicon|Russian Empire Nikolai Ivanov - Commander of the Russian army on the Southwestern Front, (1 August 1914 - March 1916) responsible for much of the action in Galicia
*flagicon|Russian Empire Aleksei Brusilov - Commander of the South-West Front, then provisional Commander-in-Chief after the Tsar's abdication (February 1917 - August 1917)
*flagicon|Russian Empire Lavr Georgievich Kornilov - Commander of the South-West Front, then Commander-in-Chief (August 1917)

France

*flagicon|France Raymond Poincaré - President of France
*flagicon|France René Viviani - Prime Minister of France (13 June 1914 - 29 October 1915)
*flagicon|France Aristide Briand - Prime Minister of France (29 October 1915 - 20 March 1917)
*flagicon|France Alexandre Ribot - Prime Minister of France (20 March 1917 - 12 September 1917)
*flagicon|France Paul Painlevé - Prime Minister of France (12 September 1917 - 16 November 1917)
*flagicon|France Georges Clemenceau - Prime Minister of France (From 16 November 1917)
*flagicon|France Joseph Joffre - Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (3 August 1914 - 13 December 1916) and Marshal of France
*flagicon|France Robert Nivelle - Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (13 December 1916 - April 1917)
*flagicon|France Philippe Pétain - Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (April 1917 - 26 March 1918) and Marshal of France
*flagicon|France Ferdinand Foch - Commander-in-Chief of the French Army and Marshal of France, Supreme Allied Commander (26 March 1918 - 11 November 1918) United Kingdom

*flagicon|United Kingdom George V - King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms, Emperor of India

*flagicon|United Kingdom H. H. Asquith - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (Until 5 December 1916)
*flagicon|United Kingdom D. Lloyd George - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (From 7 December 1916)
*flagicon|United Kingdom John French - Commander-in-Chief of the BEF (4 August - 15 December 1915)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Douglas Haig - Commander-in-Chief of the BEF (15 December 1915 - 11 November 1918)
*flagicon|United Kingdom John Jellicoe - First Sea Lord (November 1916 - December 1917)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Horatio Herbert Kitchener - Secretary of State for War (5 August 1914 - 5 June 1916)

Union of South Africa

*flagicon|South Africa|1910 Jan Smuts - Led forces in South-West Africa Campaign and East African Campaign

Serbia

*flagicon|Serbia|1882 Peter I - King of Serbia
*flagicon|Serbia|1882 vojvoda Radomir Putnik - Chief of General Staff of the Serbian Army
*flagicon|Serbia|1882 vojvoda Petar Bojović - Commander of 1st Serbian Army, later Chief of General Staff
*flagicon|Serbia|1882 vojvoda Stepa Stepanović - Commander of 2nd Serbian Army
*flagicon|Serbia|1882 vojvoda Živojin Mišić - Commander of 1st Serbian Army
*flagicon|Montenegro|1910 serdar Janko Vukotić - Commander of 1st Serbian ArmyBelgium

*flagicon|Belgium|state Albert I of Belgium - King of Belgium (23 December 1909 - 17 February 1934)

Czechoslovakia

*flagicon|Bohemia Milan Rastislav Stefanik - Czechoslovak Minister of War

Italy

*flagicon|Italy|1861 Victor Emmanuel III - King of Italy
*flagicon|Italy|1861 Luigi Cadorna - Commander-in-Chief of the Italian army

*flagicon|Italy|1861 Armando Diaz - Chief of General Staff of the Italian army
*flagicon|Italy|1861 Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi - Commander-in-Chief of the Adriatic Fleet of Italy (1914 - 1917)Romania

*flagicon|Romania Constantin Prezan - Chief of the General Staff of Romania
*flagicon|Romania Alexandru Averescu - Commander of the Romanian 2nd Army, 3rd Army, then Army Group SouthUnited States

*flagicon|United States|1912 Woodrow Wilson - President of the United States/Commander-In-Chief of the U.S. armed forces

*flagicon|United States|1912 Newton D. Baker - U.S. Secretary of War
*flagicon|United States|1912 John J. Pershing - Commander of the American Expeditionary ForceJapan

*flagicon|Empire of Japan Emperor Taishō - Emperor of Japan
*flagicon|Empire of Japan Ōkuma Shigenobu - Prime Minister of Japan (16 April 1914 - 9 October 1916)

*flagicon|Empire of Japan Terauchi Masatake - Prime Minister of Japan (9 October 1916 - 29 September 1918)

Personnel and casualties of the Allied powers

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914-1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved, or the number of casualties. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Bibliography

See List of World War I books
* Ellis, John and Mike Cox. "The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants" (2002)
* Esposito, Vincent J. "The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900-1918" (1997) despite the title covers entire war; [http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/great%20war/great%20war%20index.htm online maps from this atlas]
* Falls, Cyril. "The Great War" (1960), general military history
* Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. "Researching World War I: A Handbook" (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
* Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. "The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War" (1995)
* Strachan, Hew. "The First World War: Volume I: To Arms" (2004)
* Trask, David F. "The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918" (1961)
* Tucker, Spencer, ed. "The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History" (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
* Tucker, Spencer, ed. "European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia" (1999)

Footnotes

References

*mnb|UK|1cite book |title=Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—-1920 |author=The War Office |place=London |date=March 1922 |publisher=Naval & Military Press |isbn=1-84734-681-2
*mnb|Gilbert|2cite book |author=Gilbert Martin |title=Atlas of World War I |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1994 |isbn=0-19-521077-8
*mnb|Tucker|3cite book |author=Tucker Spencer C |title=The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia |publisher=Garland |place=New York |year=1999 |isbn=0-8153-3351-X
*mnb|CWWG|4cite web |author=The Commonwealth War Graves Commission |title=Annual Report 2005-2006 |url=http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/6%20Statistics.pdf |format=PDF
*mnb|CWGC|5cite web |author=The Commonwealth War Graves Commission |title=Debt of Honour Register |url=http://www.cwgc.org/debt_of_honour.asp?menuid=14
*mnb|Urlanis|6cite book |author=Urlanis Boris |title=Wars and Population |place=Moscow |year=1971 |isbn=
*mnb|Huber|7cite book|author=Huber M |title=La Population de la France pendant la guerre |place=Paris |year=1931 |language=French
*mnb|Bujac|8cite book |author=Bujac Jean |title=Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918--1922 |place=Paris |year=1930 |language=French
*mnb|Mortara|9cite book |author=Mortara G |title=La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra |place=New Haven, Connecticut |publisher=Yale University Press |year=1925 |language=Italian
*mnb|Harries|10cite book |author=Harries Merion |title=Soldiers of the Sun - The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army |publisher=Random House |year=1991 |isbn=0-679-75303-6
*mnb|Clodfelter|11cite book |author=Clodfelter Michael |title=Warfare and Armed Conflicts - A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500--2000 |edition=Second Edition |year=2002 |isbn=0-7864-1204-6

See also

*Triple Entente
*Participants in World War I
*Central Powers


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