- French American
Infobox Ethnic group
group =flagicon|France French American flagicon|US
Brett Favre, Angelina Jolie, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Col. Peter Julien Ortiz, Captain Jean Lafitte, Jack Kerouac
poptime = 11,800,000 [cite web |url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPCharIterationServlet?_lang=en&_ts=237851898864 |title=Selected Population Groups: French and French Canadian |work=2000 U.S. Census |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau |quote=French ancestry: 9,529,969, French Canadian ancestry: 2,265,648 ]
4% of the U.S. population
New England, the Midwest, Louisiana
American English, French
rels = Predominantly
Roman Catholicism Protestantism
French people, French Canadian, Quebecois, Cajuns, Acadians
French Americans or Franco-Americans are citizens or permanent residents of the
United Statesof French descent. About 11.8 million U.S. residents are of French descent, and about 1.6 million speak French at home. [cite web |url=http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-29.pdf |title=Language Use and English-speaking Ability: 2000 |author=Shin, Hyon B. |coauthors=Bruno, Rosalind |year=2003 |month=October |format=PDF |work=2000 U.S. Census |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau ] An additional 450,000 U.S. residents speak a French-based creole language, according to the 2000 census.
While Americans of French descent make up a substantial percentage of the American population, French Americans arguably are less visible than other similarly-sized ethnic groups. This is due in part to the high degree of assimilation among
Huguenot(French Protestant) settlers, as well as the tendency of French American groups to identify more strongly with "New World" regional identities such as Québécois, French Canadian, Acadian, Cajun, or Louisiana Creole. This has inhibited the development of a wider French American identity.
French American Population
While found throughout the country, they are most numerous in
New England, Northern New York, Louisiana(where more than 15% of the population of the Cajun Countryreported in the last census that French was spoken at home) and Michigan. French Louisiana, when it was sold by Napoleonin 1803, covered all or part of than fifteen current U.S. statesand contained French colonists dispersed across it, though they were most numerous in its southernmost portion.
Often, Franco-Americans are identified more specifically as being of French Canadian, Cajun, or
Louisiana Creoledescent. An important part of French American history is the Quebec diasporaof the 1840s-1930s, in which one million French Canadians moved to the United States, principally to the New England states, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Historically, the French in Canada had among the highest birth rates in world history, which is why their population was large even though immigration from France was relatively low. They also moved to different regions within Canada, namely Ontario and Manitoba. Many of the early male migrants worked in the lumber industry in both regions, and, to lesser degree, in the burgeoning mining industry in the upper Great Lakes.
Another significant source of immigrants was
Saint Domingue, which gained its independence as the Republic of Haitiin 1804 following a bloody revolution; much of its white population (along with some mulattoes) fled during this time, often to Louisiana, where they largely assimilated into the Creole culture.
The Cajuns of Louisiana have a unique heritage. Their ancestors settled
Acadia, in what is now the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In 1755, after capturing Fort Beauséjourin the region, the British army forced the Acadians to either swear an oath of loyalty to the British crown or face expulsion. Thousands refused to take the oath, causing them to be sent, penniless, to the 13 coloniesto the south in what has become known as the Great Upheaval. Over the next generation, some four thousand managed to make the long trek to Louisiana, where they began a new life. The name "Cajun" is a corruption of the word "Acadian". Many still live in what is known as the Cajun Country, where much of their colonial culture survives.
Because the ancestors of most French Americans had for the most part left France before the
French Revolution, they usually identify more with the Fleur-de-lisof monarchical France than with the modern French tricolor.
French American communities
French Americans according to the 2000 census] According to the U.S. Census Bureauof 2000, French Americans (of French and French-Canadian ancestry) made up close to, or more than, 10% of the population of:
National percentage of Americans of French & French-Canadian ancestry: 5.3%
; States with the largest French communities include (according to the 2000 U.S. Census)French and French-Canadian
French Americans are divided between those of
Roman Catholicheritage (which includes most French Canadians and Cajuns) and those of Huguenot( Protestant) background, most of whom came during the colonial period. For most of its existence, New Francewas open only to Catholic settlement. In response, many Huguenots – who sought to emigrate as they faced religious discrimination in France – moved instead to other countries (mainly England, the Netherlandsand Prussia) and their overseas territories, including the 13 coloniesof Great Britain and the Dutch Cape Colony. Huguenots tended to assimilate more quickly into English-speaking society than their Catholic counterparts. One-third of all American Presidents have some proven Huguenot ancestryFact|date=September 2007, along with other famous politicians such as Alexander Hamiltonand U.S. Supreme CourtChief Justice John Jay.Fact|date=September 2007
French language in the United States
According to the National Education Bureau, French is the second most commonly taught foreign language in U.S. high schools, colleges and universities behind Spanish. French was the most commonly taught foreign language until the 1980s, when the influx of
Hispanicimmigrants aided the growth of Spanish. According to the U.S. 2000 Census, French is the fourth most spoken language in the United States after English, Spanish and Chinese with over 1.6 million speakers. In addition to parts of Louisiana, the language is also commonly spoken in Florida, northern Maine, Vermontand New York City, home to large French-speaking communities from France, Canada, and Haiti.
As a result of French immigration to what is now the United States in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the French language was once widely spoken in much of the country, especially in the former
Louisiana Territory, as well as in the Northeast. French-language newspapers existed in many American cities, especially New Orleans. Americans of French descent often lived in French-dominated neighborhoods, where they attended schools and churches that used their language. In New England, Upstate New York and the Midwest, French-Canadian neighborhoods were known as "Little Canadas".
*Founded by the French and the Indians,
Chicagois pronounced with the French pronunciation of the sound "ch" as opposed to the English "ch" ("Ch"ina, "Ch"air, etc...)
Detroitwas founded by Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, a French army captain and was originally called "Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit", after the minister of marine under Louis XIVand the French word for " strait."
limousine, invented as a co-project between Ford and Cadillac, is named for the French province of Limousin, and is associated with the long cloaks once worn by the shepherds there"The Random House College Dictionary" p. 777 Random House, Inc., 1975 ISBN 0-394-43600-8]
Louisiana Territory, sold to the United States in 1803, comprised 15 of today's modern states (from North to South: Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and parts of Texas and New Mexico).
Little Canada, Minnesotalocated between Minneapolisand Saint Paul, Minnesotahas the largest French-American (or "Canado-Américaine") community outside the Northeast. Fact|date=May 2008
* The US state of
Vermontcomes from a contraction of French words, "Vert(e)", green, and "Montagne", mountain. Hence the Green Mountain state.
The Huguenot Society of America
List of French Americans
* Marianne Fedunkiw. " [http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Du-Ha/French-Canadian-Americans.html French-Canadian Americans] ", in "everyculture.com", retrieved April 24, 2008
* Bradley G. Bond (2005). "French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World", LSU Press, 322 pages ISBN 0807130354 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=_aWXrQd-u98C online excerpt] )
* James S. Pritchard (2004). "In Search of Empire. The French in the Americas, 1670-1730", Cambridge University Press, 484 pages ISBN 0521827426 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=kK9wa98I4eEC online excerpt] )
* Yves Roby (2004). "The Franco-Americans of New England. Dreams and Realities", Montreal: Les éditions du Septentrion, 543 pages ISBN 2894483910 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=Ht6gEInWTB4C online excerpt] ) translated by Mary Ricard.
* Jean Lamarre (2003). "The French Canadians of Michigan", Wayne State University Press, 209 pages ISBN 0814331580 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=cOZSIlCd19wC online excerpt] )
* Franc̦ois Lagarde (2003). "The French in Texas. History, Migration, Culture", University of Texas Press, 330 pages ISBN 029270528X ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=EcT3dJJ38sYC online excerpt] )
* Jacqueline Lindenfeld (2002). "The French in the United States. An Ethnograpic Study", Greenwood Publishing Group, 184 pages ISBN 0897899032 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=1BANzjrDe1EC online excerpt] )
* Patricia Keeney Geyh, Joyce Soltis Banachowski, Linda Boyea, Patricia Sarasin Ustine, Marilyn Holt Bourbonais, Beverly Ploenske Labelle (2002). "French Canadian Sources. A Guide for Genealogists", Ancestry Publishing, 320 pages ISBN 1931279012 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=svJKKvIWfUcC online excerpt] )
* [http://www.quintinpublications.com/category/Author_Peter_Gagne Peter J. Gagné] and Adrien Gabriel Morice (2000). "French-Canadians of the West. A Biographical Dictionary of French-Canadians and French Métis of the Western United States and Canada", [http://www.quintinpublications.com/qp/00-085/Author_Peter_Gagne/French-Canadians+of+the+West%3A+Complete+3-Volume+Set Quintin Publications] , ISBN 1582112231
* Carl J. Ekberg (2000). "French Roots in the Illinois Country. The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times", University of Illinois Press, 376 pages ISBN 0252069242 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=NOdf3FRXms0C online excerpt] )
* Armand Chartier and Claire Quintal (1999). "The Franco-Americans of New England. A History", Manchester and Worcester: ACA Assurance and Institut français of
Assumption College, 537 p. ISBN 1880261057
* Albert Valdman (1997). "French and Creole in Louisiana", Springer, 372 pages ISBN 0306454645 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=te0zFNTEFuEC online excerpt] )
* Dean R. Louder, Eric Waddell (1993). "French America. Mobility, Identity, and Minority Experience Across the Continent", Louisiana State University Press, 371 pages ISBN 0807116696
* Carl A. Brasseaux (1987). "The Founding of New Acadia. The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1765-1803", LSU Press, 229 pages ISBN 0807120995
* Gérard-J Brault (1986). "The French-Canadian Heritage in New England", Hanover: University Press of New England, 1986, 282 p. ISBN 0874513596 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=5ZkXdBzYjzcC online excerpt] )
Louis Fréchette(1982). "The United States for French Canadians", 345 pages ISBN 0665177941 (was originally published in the 1890s)
* Pierre Anctil (1979). "A Franco-American Bibliography: New England", Bedford, N. H.: National Materials Development Center, 137 p.
* J.L.K. Laflamme, David E. Lavigne & J. Arthur Favreau. CathEncy|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06271c.htm|title=French Catholics in the United States
Charles Washington Baird(1885). "History of the Huguenot Emigration to America", Dodd, Mead & Company, (online: [http://books.google.ca/books?id=BakNAAAAQAAJ Volume I] )
* Philip Henry Smith (1884). "Acadia. A Lost Chapter in American History", published by the author, 387 pages ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=NwVLTJqSjQYC online] )
* [http://www.francoamerican.org/ Franco American Center]
* [http://www.fawi.net/ Franco American Women's Institute]
* [http://www.assumption.edu/dept/Institutes/Frinstitute.html Institut français]
* Dave Martucci, [http://www.fotw.net/flags/us-reg.html#fr "Franco-American flags"] , in Flags of the World
* [http://www.vivreenoc.com Vivre en Orange County] - French Community in
Orange County, California
* [http://www.codofil.org Council for the Development of French in Louisiana] - a state agency.
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