- Air Raid Precautions
Air Raid Precautions (ARP) was an organisation in the
United Kingdomset up as an aid in the prelude to the Second World Wardedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air-raids. It was created in 1924 as a response to the fears about the growing threat from the development of bomber aircraft. Giulio Douhethad published his influential " Command of the Air" in 1921 and his main thesis had been memorably taken into English as " the bomber will always get through."
The bombing of Britain in the First World War began on January 19, 1915 when
zeppelins dropped bombs on the Yarmouth area, killing six people. German bombing operations of the First World War were surprisingly effective, especially after the Gotha bombers surpassed the zeppelins. The most devastating raids inflicted 121 casualties for each tonof bombs dropped and it was this figure that was used as a basis for predictions. The 1924 ARP Committee produced figures estimating that in Londonthere would be 9,000 casualties in the first two days and then a continuing rate of 17,500 casualties a week. These rates were thought conservative. Fact|date=February 2007
It was believed that associated there would be "total chaos and panic" and hysterical neurosis as the people of London would try to flee the city. To control the population harsh measures were proposed—bringing London under almost military control; physically cordoning London with 120,000 troops to force people back to work. A different government department proposed setting up camps for
refugeesfor a few days before sending them back to London.These schemes remained on paper only and while estimates of potential damage remained high, the Air Raids Commandant (Major General H. Pritchard of the Royal Engineers) favoured a more reasoned solution. He discerned that panic and flight were basically problems of morale, if the people could be organised, trained and provided with protection then they would not panic. As part of this scheme the country was divided into regions each having its own command and control structure, "in potentia" at least.
The 1924 estimates were, during the build up to
World War II, regularly revised upwards, particularly in the light of the 1937 German bombing of Guernica, Spain. In 1938 the Air Ministry predicted 65,000 casualties a week—in the first month of war the British government was expecting a million casualties, 3 million refugees and the majority of the capital destroyed. Measures to control this devastation were largely limited to grisly discussions about body disposal and the distribution of over a million burial forms to local authorities. At the outbreak of the war the British government knew that air attacks would be a main part of the Germans war tactics so they ordered 1,000,000 coffins after war was declared. Fact|date=February 2007 The 1939 Hailey Conference had decided that providing deep shelters would lead to workers staying underground rather than working. This policy was reversed in 1940 when 79 tube stations opened for use as overnight shelters and specialised deep shelter construction begun.
World War II
During the Second World War, ARP was responsible for the handing out of
gas masks, pre-fabricated air-raid shelters (such as Anderson shelters, as well as Morrison shelters), the upkeep of local public shelters, the maintenance of the blackout and the rescue of people after raids.
As the war proved, the effectiveness of aerial bombardment was, beyond the destruction of property, very limited. There were less than three casualties for each ton of bombs dropped by the
Luftwaffein many British cities and the expected social consequences hardly happened— The morale of the British people remained high, 'shell-shock' was not at all common, and the rates of other mental ailments declined.
The ARP was disbanded in 1946, to be reconstituted as the
Civil Defence Corpsin 1948.
ARP wardensor air-raid wardens had the task of patrolling the streets during blackout, to ensure that no light was visible. If a light was spotted, the warden would alert the person/people responsible by shouting something like "Put that light out!" or "Cover that window!". They also patrolled the streets during air raids and doused incendiary bombs with sandbags where possible.
Other duties included helping to police areas suffering bomb damage and helping the householders. ARP wardens were trained in fire-fighting and
first aid, and could keep an emergency situation under control until official help arrived.
There were around 1.4 million ARP wardens in Britain during the war, almost all unpaid part-time volunteers who also held day-time jobs. They had a basic uniform consisting of a cheap set of overalls and an armlet, along with a steel helmet. The steel helmet had ARP in bold white writing across it.
Many wardens went considerably beyond the call of duty and a search of the medal citations in the "
London Gazette" will demonstrate this. The first ARP warden to receive the George Crosswas Thomas Alderson, who won his award for actions saving civilian life in Bridlingtonin 1940. [ [http://www.gc-database.co.uk/facts.htm George Cross Database - GC facts and statistics ] ]
Fire Guard Messengers
With a general lack of radio communications and telephone communications prone to disruption by air raids, many towns appointed children volunteers aged between 14 and 18 as messengers or runners. These "Fire Guard Messengers" would run or cycle through the night raids ferrying messages between ARPs and the fire department units and incendiary volunteers with their buckets of sand. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/18/a2883918.shtml Wartime memories as a Fire Guard Messenger] ]
Air raid shelter
Auxiliary Fire Service
*Basic link about the ARP in the UK [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWarp.htm]
*More detailed link about the ARP in the UK [http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/homefront/arp/arp5.html]
*Half the Battle: Civilian Morale in Britain During the Second World War By Robert Mackay
*Article commissioned by the BBC [http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a6651425.shtml]
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