Rusyn language

Rusyn language

Infobox Language
name = Rusyn
nativename = _ry. Русинськый transl|ry|"Rusyns'kŷi"
region = flagicon|Ukraine Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukraine)
flagicon|Slovakia eastern Slovakia
flagicon|Poland southern Poland
flagicon|Hungary Hungary
flagicon|Romania northern Romania
flagicon|Serbia Vojvodina (Serbia)
speakers = Estimated: At least 600,000. [cite book |editor=Raymond G. Gordon, Jr. | title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World | url= | accessdate=2007-04-27 | edition=15th edition | year=2005 | publisher=SIL International | location=Dallas, TX | language=English |isbn=13 978-1-55671-159-6 |pages=1272 |chapter=Ethnologue report for language code:rue (Rusyn) |chapterurl= ]
Census population: 60,000. [These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics:
*Slovakia - 24,201
**( )
*Serbia - 15,626
**( )
*Ukraine - 10,100
**( )
*Croatia - 2,337
**( )
*Poland - 5,800
**( )
*Hungary - 1,098
**( )
*Czech Republic - 1,106
**($File/kap_I_05.pdf ).

familycolor = Indo-European
fam3 = Slavic
fam4 = East Slavic
nation = flagicon|Serbia Vojvodina (Serbia)
Fact|date=February 2008
iso1 =
iso2 = sla
iso3 = rue

Rusyn ( _ry. русинськый язык; transl|ry|"rusyns'kŷi iazŷk") is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, with which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. Opinions differ among linguists concerning whether Rusyn is a separate East Slavic language or a dialect of Ukrainian. [ [ RFE/RL on intolerance in Belarus and Ruthenians in Ukraine ] ] The political implications of the dispute add to the controversy.

Rusyn is spoken in the Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine, in northeastern Slovakia, southeastern Poland (where it is often called "łemkowski" 'Lemko', from their characteristic word "lem/лем" 'only'), and Hungary (where the people and language are called "Ruten"). The Pannonian Rusyn language in Serbia is sometimes considered part of the Rusyn language group, although some linguists consider that language to be West SlavicFact|date=January 2007. In Ukraine, Rusyn is usually considered a dialect of Ukrainian, as it is very close to the Ukrainian Hutsul dialect, but some speakers sometimes prefer to consider themselves distinct from Ukrainians.

Attempts to standardize the language suffer from its being divided among four countries, so that in each of these countries there has been devised a separate orthography (in each case with Cyrillic letters) and grammatical standard, based on different Rusyn dialects. The cultural centres of Carpatho-Rusyn are Prešov in Slovakia, Uzhhorod and Mukacheve in Ukraine, Krynica and Legnica in PolandFact|date=December 2007, and Budapest in Hungary. Many very active Rusyns also live in Canada and the USA.

It is very difficult to count the speakers of Rusyn, but their number is sometimes estimated at almost a million, most of them in Ukraine and Slovakia. The first country to officially recognize Rusyn,Dubious|date=March 2008 more exactly Pannonian Rusyn, as an official language was former Yugoslavia. In 1995, Rusyn was recognized as a minority language in Slovakia, enjoying the status of official language in municipalities where more than 20% of the inhabitants speak Rusyn.

* The Rusyn language is divided as follows:
** "Hutsul" is spoken in the mountainous part of Suceava County and Maramures County in Romania and the extreme southern parts of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast of Ukraine (as well as in parts of the Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian Oblasts), and on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains.
** "Boyko" is spoken on the northern side of the Carpathian Mountains in the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblasts of Ukraine. It can also be heard across the border in the Subcarpathian Voivodship of Poland
** "Lemko" is spoken outside Ukraine in the Prešov Region of Slovakia along the southern side of the Carpathian Mountains. It was formerly spoken on the northern side of the same mountains, in what is now southeastern Poland, prior to Operation Wisła, but is being revived.
** "Dolinian Rusyn or Subcarpathian Rusyn" is spoken in the Transcarpathian Oblast of Ukraine.
** "Pryashiv Rusyn" is the Rusyn spoken in the Prešov Region (in Rusyn: Pryashiv/Pryashuv) of Slovakia, as well as by some émigré communities, primarily in the United States of America.
** "Pannonian Rusyn" is spoken in northwestern Serbia and eastern Croatia. Also called Bačka dialect, it is one of the official languages of the Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina).Boiko, Hutsul and Dolinian are identified (and for the same speakers) as Ukrainian dialects and not Rusyn for several speakers that they are identified themselves Ukrainians.

In the introduction to the book "Slavic languages," written in 1973, ten years before glasnost, Samuel Bernshtein writes about "western Ukrainians" and the "literary language" which they "until recently [i.e., 1973] " had.


ee also

* Old Ruthenian
* Pannonian Rusyn
* Rusyns
* Pannonian Rusyns
* Alexander Duchnovič's Theatre
* Metodyj Trochanovskij, Lemko Grammarian


Further reading

* "A new Slavic language is born. The Rusyn literary language in Slovakia." Ed. Paul Robert Magocsi. New York 1996.
* Magocsi, Paul Robert. "Let's speak Rusyn. _ry. Бісідуйме по-руськы." Englewood 1976.
* Дуличенко, Александр Дмитриевич. "Jugoslavo-Ruthenica. Роботи з рускей филолоґиї." Нови Сад 1995.
* Taras Kuzio, " [ The Rusyn question in Ukraine: sorting out fact from fiction] ", Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XXXII (2005)
* Elaine Rusinko, "Rusinski/Ruski pisni" selected by Nataliia Dudash; "Muza spid Karpat (Zbornik poezii Rusiniv na Sloven'sku)" assembled by Anna Plishkova. Books review. "The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Summer, 1998), pp. 348-350. [ JSTOR archive]
* Marta Harasowska. "Morphophonemic Variability, Productivity, and Change: The Case of Rusyn", Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1999, ISBN 3110157616.
** [ Book review] by Edward J. Vajda, Language, Vol. 76, No. 3. (Sep., 2000), pp. 728-729
* I. I. Pop, Paul Robert Magocsi, Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture, University of Toronto Press, 2002, ISBN 0802035663

External links

* [ Rusyn language at the World Academy of Rusyn Culture]
* [ Ethnologue report for Rusyn]
* [ Руска Матка (Ruska Matka), the central cultural organization of the Pannonian Rusyns]
* [ Transliterating Rusyn into the Latin alphabet]
* [ Rusyn Greco Catholic Church in Novi Sad (Vojvodina-Serbia)]

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