- Guan Yin
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Shanxi Province(A.D. 907-1125)
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Quan Thế Âm
Guanyin (觀音, pinyin "guānyīn", Wade-Giles: "kuan-yin") is the
bodhisattvaof compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. She is also known as the Chinese Bodhisattva of Compassion. The name Guanyin is short for Guanshi'yin (觀世音, pinyin: "guānshì yīn", Wade-Giles: "kuan-shih yin") which means "Observing the Sounds (or Cries) of the World".
It is generally accepted that Guanyin originated as the
Sanskrit" Avalokiteśvara" (अवलोकितेश्वर), which is her male form. Commonly known in the West as the Goddess of Mercy, Guanyin is also revered by Chinese Taoistsas an Immortal. It should be noted that in Taoist mythology, Guan Yin has other origination stories which are not directly related to Avalokiteśvara.
Guanyin's origin is still debated among scholars. The official Buddhist view is that Guanyin originated with the male Avalokiteshvara. While it is certain that this is where the name "Guanshi'yin" originated, the image of the Chinese/Korean/Japanese/Vietnamese Bodhisattva (along with her femininity) may be partly derived from other sources. Indigenous to the region where Guanyin first appeared was a local Goddess: the
Queen Mother of the West.
Names in East Asia
Guanshi'yin changed to Guanyin under the
naming tabooof Emperor Taizong of Tang. In Japanese, Guanyin is pronounced Kannon ( _ja. 観音), occasionally Kan'on, or more formally Kanzeon ( _ja. 観世音); the spelling "Kwannon", based on a pre-modern pronunciation, is sometimes seen. In Korean, the Bodhisattvais called "Gwan-eum" (관음) or "Gwanse-eum" (관세음), In Thai, the name is called "Kuan Eim" (กวนอิม) or "Prah Mae Kuan Eim" (พระแม่กวนอิม), and in Vietnamese, the name is "Quan Âm" or "Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát". In Hong Kong where there are many temples to her the name is written as "Kwun Yum". In Indonesian, the name is "Kwan Im" or "Dewi Kwan Im" referring the word "Dewi" as "Devi" or Goddess. In the same countries, especially Japan, the variant Kanjizai (Kanzejizai, 観世自在) is also well attested.
Guanyin is the Chinese name for the
Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. However, folk traditions in China and other East Asian countries have added many distinctive characteristics and legends. Avalokiteśvara was originally depicted as Buddha when he was still a prince, and therefore wears chest-revealing clothing and may even sport a moustache. However, in China, Guanyin is usually depicted as a woman. Additionally, some people believe that Guanyin is both man and woman (or perhaps neither).(link [http://books.google.ca/books?id=WDekApY7Y94C&pg=PA26&vq=%22in+hindu+myth,+kuan-yin+is+of+both+sexes%22&dq=&lr=&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U0_pG2ibSFOmapsMhfidw1rJQMvHw here] )
In China, Guanyin is usually shown in a white flowing robe, and usually wearing necklaces of Indian/Chinese royalty. In the right hand is a water jar containing pure water, and in the left, a
willowbranch. The crown usually depicts the image of AmitabhaBuddha, Guan Yin's spiritual teacher before she became a Bodhisattva.
In some Buddhist temples and monasteries, Guanyin images are occasionally depicted as a young man dressed in Northern Song Buddhist robes sitting gracefully. He is usually depicted looking or glancing down, symbolising that Guanyin continues to watch over the world. region of China, for example, a popular depiction of Guan Yin is as a maiden dressed in Tang dynasty style clothing carrying a fish basket. A popular image of Guan Yin as both Guan Yin of the South Sea and Guan Yin With a Fish Basket can be seen in late 1500s Chinese encyclopedias and in prints that accompany the novel "Golden Lotus".
In Chinese art, Guan Yin is often depicted either alone, standing atop a dragon, accompanied by a bird, flanked by two children, or flanked by two warriors. The two children are her acolytes who came to her when she was meditating at
Mount Putuo. The girl is called "Long Nü" and the boy "Shan Tsai". The two warriors are the historical character Guan Yuwho comes from the Three Kingdomsperiod and the mythological character Wei Tuo who features in the Chinese classic Canonisation of the Gods. The Buddhist tradition also displays Guan Yin, or other buddhas and bodhisattvas, flanked with the two said warriors, but as bodhisattvas who protect the temple and the faith itself.
In Chinese Buddhist iconography, Guan Yin is often depicted as meditating or sitting alongside one of the Buddhas and usually accompanied by another bodhisattva. Which buddha or bodhisattva usually depends upon which school it represents. In the Pure Land school, for example, Guan Yin is frequently depicted as standing alongside Amitabha Buddha and bodhisattva
Mahasthamaprapta. Temples that revere the bodhisattva Ksitigarbhausually depict him meditating alongside the Buddha and Guan Yin.
Along with Buddhism, Guanyin's veneration was introduced into
Chinaas early as the 1st century CE, and reached Japanby way of Koreasoon after Buddhism was first introduced into the country in the mid-7th century. Some Taoist records claim Guanyin was a Chinese female who became immortal during Shang Dynasty.
More recently in Europe and America, a new wave of believers have spread a devotional cult beyond Buddhism, Taoism and folk traditional beliefs. Guan Yin is not only a bodhisattva or a goddess but a focus of devotion by some Eastern New Age movements.
Representations of the bodhisattva in China prior to the
Song Dynasty (960-1279)were masculine in appearance. Images which later displayed attributes of both genders are believed to be in accordance with the Lotus Sutra, where Avalokitesvara has the supernatural power of assuming any form required to relieve suffering, and also has the power to grant children (possibly relating to the fact that in this Sutra -unlike in others- both men and women are believed to have ability to achieve enlightenment). Because this bodhisattva is considered the personification of compassion and kindness, a mother-goddess and patron of mothers and seamen, the representation in China was further interpreted in an all-female form around the 12th century. In the modern period, Guan Yin is most often represented as a beautiful, white-robed woman, a depiction which derives from the earlier "Pandaravasini" form.
Guanyin and the Thousand Arms
One Buddhist legend presents Guan Yin as vowing to never rest until she had freed all sentient beings from
samsara, reincarnation. Despite strenuous effort, she realized that still many unhappy beings were yet to be saved. After struggling to comprehend the needs of so many, her head split into eleven pieces. Amitabha Buddha, seeing her plight, gave her eleven heads with which to hear the cries of the suffering. Upon hearing these cries and comprehending them, Avalokitesvara attempted to reach out to all those who needed aid, but found that her two arms shattered into pieces. Once more, Amitabha came to her aid and appointed her a thousand arms with which to aid the many. Many Himalayan versions of the tale include eight arms with which Avalokitesvara skillfully upholds the Dharma, each possessing its own particular implement, while more Chinese-specific versions give varying accounts of this number.
In China, it is said that fishermen used to pray to her to ensure safe voyages. The titles "Guan Yin of the Southern Ocean" (南海觀音) and 'Guan Yin (of/on) the Island' stem from this tradition.
Legend of Miao Shan
Another story describes Guan Yin as the daughter of a cruel king who wanted her to marry a wealthy but uncaring man. The story is usually ascribed to the research of the Buddhist monk Chiang Chih-ch'i in 1100 AD. The story is likely to have a
Taoistorigin. Chiang Chih-ch'i, when he penned the work, believed that the Guan Yin we know today was actually a Buddhist princess called Miao Shan (妙善), who had a religious following on Fragrant Mountain. Despite this, however, there are many variants of the story in Chinese mythology.
According to the story, after the king asked his daughter Miao Shan to marry the wealthy man, she told him that she would obey his command, so long as the marriage eased three misfortunes.
The king asked his daughter what were the three misfortunes that the marriage should ease. Miao Shan explained that the first misfortune the marriage should ease was the suffering people endure as they age. The second misfortune it should ease was the suffering people endure when they fall ill. The third misfortune it should ease was the suffering caused by death. If the marriage could not ease any of the above, then she would rather retire to a life of religion forever.
When her father asked who could ease all the above, Miao Shan pointed out that a doctor was able to do all these.
Her father grew angry as he wanted her to marry a person of power and wealth, not a healer. He forced her into hard labor and reduced her food and drink but this did not cause her to yield.
Every day she begged to be able to enter a
templeand become a nuninstead of marrying. Her father eventually allowed her to work in the temple, but asked the monks to give her very hard chores in order to discourage her. The monks forced Miao Shan to work all day and all night, while others slept, in order to finish her work. However, she was such a good person that the animals living around the temple began to help her with her chores. Her father, seeing this, became so frustrated that he attempted to burn down the temple. Miao Shan put out the fire with her bare hands and suffered no burns. Now struck with fear, her father ordered her to be put to death.
In one version of this legend, when she was executed, a supernatural tiger took Guan Yin to one of the more hell-like realms of the dead. However, instead of being punished by demons like the other inmates, Guan Yin played music and flowers blossomed around her. This completely surprised the head demon. The story says that Guan Yin, by merely being in that
hell, turned it into a paradise.
A variant of the legend says that Miao Shan allowed herself to die at the hand of the executioner. According to this legend, as the executioner tried to carry out her father's orders, his axe shattered into a thousand pieces. He then tried a sword which likewise shattered. He tried to shoot Miao Shan down with arrows but they all veered off.
Finally in desperation he used his hands. Miao Shan, realising the fate the executioner would meet at her father's hand should she fail to let herself die, forgave the executioner for attempting to kill her. It is said that she voluntarily took on the massive karmic guilt the executioner generated for killing her, thus leaving him guiltless. It is because of this that she descended into the Hell-like realms. While there she witnessed firsthand the suffering and horrors beings there must endure and was overwhelmed with grief. Filled with compassion, she released all the good karma she had accumulated through her many lifetimes, thus freeing many suffering souls back into Heaven and Earth. In the process that Hell-like realm became a paradise. It is said that Yanluo, King of Hell, sent her back to Earth to prevent the utter destruction of his realm, and that upon her return she appeared on Fragrant Mountain.
Another tale says that Miao Shan never died but was in fact transported by a supernatural tiger, believed to be the Deity of the Place, to Fragrant Mountain.
, vowing never to leave till such time as all suffering has ended.
After her return to Earth, Guan Yin was said to have stayed for a few years on the island of
Mount Putuowhere she practised meditation and helped the sailors and fishermen who got stranded. Guan Yin is frequently worshipped as patron of sailors and fishermen due to this. She is said to frequently becalm the sea when boats are threatened with rocks. After some decades Guan Yin returned to Fragrant Mountain to continue her meditation.
Guanyin and Shan Tsai
Legend has it that Shan Tsai (also called
Sudhanain Sanskrit) was a disabled boy from India who was very interested in studying the Buddha Dharma. When he heard that there was a Buddhist teacher on the rocky island of Putuo he quickly journeyed there to learn. Upon arriving the island, he managed to find Bodhisattva Guan Yin despite his severe disability.
Guan Yin, after having a discussion with Shan Tsai, decided to test the boy's resolve to fully study the Buddhist teachings. She conjured the illusion of three sword-wielding pirates running up the hill to attack her. Guan Yin took off and dashed off to the edge of a cliff, the three illusions still chasing her.
Shan Tsai, seeing that his teacher was in danger, hobbled uphill. Guan Yin then jumped over the edge of the cliff, and soon after this the three bandits followed. Shan Tsai, still wanting to save his teacher, managed to crawl his way over the cliff edge.
Shan Tsai fell down the cliff but was halted in midair by Guan Yin, who now asked him to walk. Shan Tsai found that he could walk normally and that he was no longer crippled. When he looked into a pool of water he also discovered that he now had a very handsome face. From that day forth, Guan Yin taught Shan Tsai the entire Buddha Dharma.
Guanyin and Lung Nü
Many years after Shan Tsai became a disciple of Guan Yin, a distressing event happened in the South Sea. The sons of one of the Dragon Kings (a ruler-god of the sea) was caught by a fisherman while taking the form of a fish. Being stuck on land, he was unable to transform back into his dragon form. His father, despite being a mighty Dragon King, was unable to do anything while his son was on land. Distressed, the son called out to all of Heaven and Earth.
Hearing this cry, Guan Yin quickly sent Shan Tsai to recover the fish and gave him all the money she had. The fish at this point was about to be sold in the market. It was causing quite a stir as it was alive hours after being caught. This drew a much larger crowd than usual at the market. Many people decided that this prodigious situation meant that eating the fish would grant them immortality, and so all present wanted to buy the fish. Soon a bidding war started, and Shan Tsai was easily outbid.
Shan Tsai begged the fish seller to spare the life of the fish. The crowd, now angry at someone so daring, was about to prise him away from the fish when Guan Yin projected her voice from far away, saying "A life should definitely belong to one who tries to save it, not one who tries to take it."
The crowd realising their shameful actions and desire, dispersed. Shan Tsai brought the fish back to Guan Yin, who promptly returned it to the sea. There the fish transformed back to a dragon and returned home. Paintings of Guan Yin today sometimes portray her holding a fish basket, which represents the aforementioned tale.
But the story does not end here. As a reward for Guan Yin saving his son, the Dragon King sent his granddaughter, a girl called Lung Nü ("dragon girl"), to present to Guan Yin with the Pearl of Light. The Pearl of Light was a precious jewel owned by the Dragon King that constantly shone. Lung Nü, overwhelmed by the presence of Guan Yin, asked to be her disciple so that she might study the Buddha Dharma. Guan Yin accepted her offer with just one request: that Lung Nü be the new owner of the Pearl of Light.
In popular iconography, Lung Nü and Shan Tsai are often seen alongside Guan Yin as two children. Lung Nü is seen either holding a bowl or an
ingot, which represents the Pearl of Light, whereas Shan Tsai is seen with palms joined and knees slightly bent to show that he was once crippled.
Guanyin and Vegetarianism
Due to her symbolising compassion, in
East AsiaGuan Yin is associated with vegetarianism. Chinese vegetarian restaurants are generally decorated with her image, and she appears in most Buddhist vegetarian pamphlets and magazines.
Guanyin in Chinese Buddhism
In Chinese Buddhism, Guanyin/Kuan Yin/Kannon/Kwannon is synonymous with the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the pinnacle of mercy and compassion. Among the Chinese, Avalokitesvara is almost exclusively called "Guan Shi Yin Pu Sa" (觀世音菩薩). The Chinese translation of many Buddhist sutras has in fact replaced the Chinese transliteration of Avalokitesvara with "Guan Shi Yin" (觀世音) Some Taoist scriptures give her the title of "Guan Yin Da Shi", and sometimes informally as "Guan Yin Fo Zu".
In Chinese Buddhism, the popular myth and worship of Guan Yin as a goddess by the populace is generally not viewed to be in conflict with the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara's nature. In fact the widespread worship of Guan Yin as a "Goddess of Mercy and Compassion" is seen as the boundless salvific nature of bodhisattva Avalokitesvara at work. The Buddhist canon states that bodhisattvas can assume whatsoever gender and form is needed to liberate beings from ignorance and
dukkha. With specific reference to Avalokitesvara, he is stated both in the Lotus Sutraand the Surangama Sutrato have appeared before as a woman or a goddess to save beings from suffering and ignorance. Some Buddhist schools refer to Guan Yin both as male and female interchangeably.
Also in Mahayana Buddhism, to which Chinese Buddhism belongs, gender is no obstacle to Enlightenment. The Buddhist concept of non-duality applies here. The Vimalakirti Sutra in the Goddess chapter clearly illustrates an Enlightened being who is also a female and deity. In the Lotus Sutra a maiden became Enlightened in a very short time span. That bodhisattva Avalokitesvara is also the goddess Guan Yin is not seen as contradictory.
Given that bodhisattvas are known to incarnate at will as living people according to the sutras, the princess Miao Shan is generally viewed as an incarnation of Avalokitesvara.
Guanyin is immensely popular among Chinese Buddhists, especially those from devotional schools. She is generally seen as a source of unconditional love and more importantly as a savior. In her bodhisattva vows, Guan Yin promises to answer the cries and pleas of all beings and to liberate all beings from their own karmic woes. Based upon the Lotus Sutra and the Shurangama sutra, Avalokitesvara is generally seen as a savior, both spiritually and physically. The sutras state that through his saving grace even those who have no chance of being Enlightened can be Enlightened, and those deep in negative karma can still find salvation through his compassion.
In Pure Land Buddhism, Guan Yin is described as the "Bark of Salvation". Along with Amitabha Buddha and the bodhisattva Mahastamaprata, She temporarily liberates beings out of the Wheel of Samsara into the Pure Land, where they will have the chance to accrue the necessary merit so as to be a Buddha in one lifetime.
Even among Chinese Buddhist schools that are non-devotional, Guan Yin is still highly venerated. Instead of being seen as an active external force of unconditional love and salvation, the personage of Guan Yin is highly revered as the principle of compassion, mercy and love. The act, thought and feeling of compassion and love is viewed as Guan Yin. A merciful, compassionate, loving individual is said to be Guan Yin. A meditative or contemplative state of being at peace with oneself and others is seen as Guan Yin. In the Mahayana canon, the Heart Sutra is ascribed entirely to the bodhisattva Kuan Yin/Kwannon. This is unique, as most Mahayana Sutras are usually ascribed to Shakyamuni Buddha and the teachings, deeds or vows of the bodhisattvas are described by Shakyamuni Buddha. In the
Heart Sutra, Guan Yin/Avalokitesvara describes to the Arhat Sariputrathe nature of reality and the essence of the Buddhist teachings. The famous Buddhist saying "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form" comes from this sutra.
Guanyin and Chinese Folk Belief
Guan Yin is an extremely popular Goddess in Chinese folk belief and is worshiped in Chinese communities throughout East and South East Asia. Guan Yin is revered in the general Chinese population due to her unconditional love, compassion and mercy. She is generally regarded by many as the protector of women and children. By this association she is also seen as a fertility goddess capable of granting children. She is also seen as the champion of the unfortunate, the sick, the disabled, the poor, and those in trouble. Some coastal and river areas of China regard her as the protector of fishermen, sailors, and generally people who are out at sea, thus many also come to believe that Mazu, the Taoist goddess of the sea, is a manifestation of Guan Yin. Due to her association with the legend of the
Great Floodwhere she sent down a dog filled with ricegrains in its tail after the flood, she is worshiped as a rice goddess. In some quarters, especially among business people and traders, she is looked upon as a Goddess of Luck and Fortune. In recent years there have been claims of her being the protector of air travelers.
Guanyin and the Virgin Mary
Christianobservers have commented on the similarity between Guan Yin and the Blessed Virgin Maryof Christianity, the mother of Jesus Christ. The Tzu-ChiFoundation, a Taiwanese Buddhist organization, also noticing the similarity, commissioned a portrait of Guan Yin and a baby that resembles the typical Roman Catholic Madonna and Childpainting.
Some Chinese of the overwhelmingly Roman Catholic
Philippines, in an act of syncretism, have identified Guan Yin with the Virgin Mary. [Victoria and Albert Museum, 2004 London Proms Performing Art Lecture with Christopher Cook and Marjorie Trusted http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/sculpture/audio_proms_talk/index.html (mp4 audio, requires Apple Quicktime).] During the Edo Periodin Japan, when Christianity was banned and punishable by death, some underground Christian groups venerated the Virgin Mary disguised as a statue of Kannon; such statues are known as "Maria Kannon". Many had a cross hidden in an inconspicuous location.
Guanyin in popular culture
* Guan Yin plays a central role in the plot of the classic Chinese novel "
Journey to the West".
space probecalled "Kuan-Yin" features in the 1982 science fictionnovel " Voyage from Yesteryear" by James P. Hogan.
* The name of the Japanese company
Canon Inc.derives from the Japanese name of the deity.cite web
title = Prototype-version "Kwanon", Japan's First 35mm Focal-Plane Shutter Camera
publisher = Canon Inc.
url = http://www.canon.com/about/history/episode01b.html
accessdate = 2007-10-17]
* Her birthday, the 19th day of 2nd lunar month (6 April in 2007), based on
Chinese calendaris a holiday in the Republic of China.
* She is played by
Gloria Yipin the 2005 television miniseries, " Magic Sword of Heaven and Earth".
* In the Japanese anime Gensoumaden Saiyuki, Guan Yin appears as Kanzeon Bosatsu, the Goddess of Mercy, who watches over the four on their Journey to the West.
Alanis Morrisette's song "Citizen Of The Planet" on her 2008 Album Flavors of Entanglementreferences Kuan-Yin in the line "I am a citizen of the planet / my president is Kuan-Yin".
* Martin Palmer, Jay Ramsay, Man-Ho Kwok: "Kuan Yin. Myths and Prophecies of the Chinese Goddess of Compassion", Thorsons, San Francisco 1995, ISBN 1-85538-417-5
* Kuan Ming: "Popular Deities of Chinese Buddhism", Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc, 1985
* Chun-fang Yu, "Kuan-yin, The Chinese Transformation of Avalokitesvara", Columbia University Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-231-12029-X
* John Blofeld: "Bodhisattva of Compassion. The Mystical Tradition of Kuan Yin", Shambhala, Boston 1988, ISBN 0-87773-126-8
* Miao Yun: "Teachings in Chinese Buddhism: Selected Translation of Miao Yun", Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc, 1995
* [http://www.fsu.edu/~arh/events/athanor/athxix/AthanorXIX_kim.pdf#search=%22sudhana%20legend%22 Evolution of Avalokitesvara ]
Zhang Jigang(creator of the Thousand Hand Guan Yin dance)
Buddhism in China
Tieguanyin, a variety of Chinese oolong tea named after Guan Yin
* Putuoshan (Mount Putuo), an island in
Zhejiangprovince, China, considered to be the bodhimandalaof Guan Yin
Tara (Buddhism)(Tara is the female aspect of Avalokitesvara in Tibetan Buddhism.)
Guanyin Statue of Hainan, the third tallest statue in the world
* [http://www.geocities.com/isisdownunder1/index.html Isisdownunder's Kuan Yin Pictures and Information] Explanation on Kuan Yin, Pictures, Prayers and more
* [http://www.geocities.com/devadip45/108.html The Revelation of Master Devadip] The 108 Glories of Kwan Yin
* [http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/kuanyin-txt.htm Buddhanet: Kuan Yin ] Description on Kuan Yin
* [http://www.baus.org/baus/library/ekye2.html Heart Sutra ] Explanation on Kuan Yin and the Heart Sutra
* [http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/miao-sha.html Detailed history of Miao Shan ] Legend of Miao Shan
* [http://taipei.tzuchi.org.tw/tzquart/99spring/qp99-11.htm Tzu-Chi organisation: Kuan Yin, Buddhist perspective ]
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