Welsh phonology


Welsh phonology

The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages, such as the voiceless lateral fricative IPA| [ɬ] and voiceless nasal consonants. Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable.

Consonants

Welsh has the following consonant phonemes:Glyn E. Jones (1984), "The distinctive vowels and consonants of Welsh". In "Welsh Phonology: Selected Readings", ed. M. J. Ball and G. E. Jones. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 40–64. ISBN 0-7083-0861-9.]

The diphthongs containing IPA|/ɨ/ occur only in Northern dialects; in Southern dialects IPA|/ʊɨ/ is replaced by IPA|/ʊi/, IPA|/ɨu, əɨ, ɔɨ/ are merged with IPA|/ɪu, əi, ɔi/, and IPA|/aɨ, ɑːɨ/ are merged with IPA|/ai/.

tress and pitch

Stress in polysyllabic words occurs most commonly on the syllable, more rarely on the final syllable (e.g. verbs ending in -áu). Exceptions can arise in relation to borrowings from foreign words, such as _cy. "ambiwlans" and _cy. "testament". According to its positioning, related words or concepts (or even plurals) can sound quite different, as syllables are added to the end of a word and the stress moves correspondingly, e.g.:

:

Note also how adding a syllable to " _cy. ysgrifennydd" to form " _cy. ysgrifenyddes" changes the pronunciation of the second "y". This is because the pronunciation of "y" depends on whether or not it is in the final syllable.

Stress on penultimate syllables is characterised by a low pitch, which is followed by a high pitch on the (unstressed) word-final syllable. In words where stress is on the final syllable, that syllable also bears the high pitch.Briony J. Williams (1983), "Stress in Modern Welsh". Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge. Distributed by Indiana University Linguistics Club.]

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Welsh language — Welsh Cymraeg, y Gymraeg Pronunciation [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ] Spoken in   …   Wikipedia

  • Welsh grammar — consists of the rules governing the use of the Welsh language. Grammar in general includes syntax, morphology and phonology. Please see the following articles for more specific information:* Welsh syntax * Welsh morphology * Welsh phonologyee… …   Wikipedia

  • Welsh numerals — The traditional counting system used in the Welsh language is vigesimal, i.e. based on twenties, as in the French numerals for 60 99, where numbers from 11–14 are x on ten , 16–19 are x on fifteen (though 18 is more usually two nines ); numbers… …   Wikipedia

  • English phonology — See also: Phonological history of English English phonology is the study of the sound system (phonology) of the English language. Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect. In… …   Wikipedia

  • Middle Welsh — Kymraec Spoken in Wales Extinct Evolved into Modern Welsh about the 15th century Language family Indo E …   Wikipedia

  • Old Welsh — Hen Gymraeg Spoken in Wales Era Evolved into Middle Welsh about the 12th century Language family Indo European …   Wikipedia

  • Navajo phonology — is the study of how speech sounds pattern and interact with each other in that language. The phonology of Navajo is intimately connected to its morphology. For example, the entire range of contrastive consonants is found only at the beginning of… …   Wikipedia

  • Old English phonology — This article is part of a series on: Old English Dialects …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Welsh language — The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh …   Wikipedia

  • Modern Hebrew phonology — Main article: Hebrew language For assistance with IPA transcriptions of Hebrew for Wikipedia articles, see WP:IPA for Hebrew. This article is about the phonology of the Hebrew language based on the Israeli dialect. It deals with current phonology …   Wikipedia