- Geothermal power
Geothermal power (from the Greek roots "geo", meaning earth, and "therme", meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored in the earth, or the collection of absorbed heat derived from underground, in the atmosphere and oceans. Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal generator on 4 July 1904, at the
Larderellodry steam field in Italy. [ [http://www.geothermie.de/iganews/no64/the_celebration_of_the_centenary.htm "THE CELEBRATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GEOTHERMAL-ELECTRIC INDUSTRY WAS CONCLUDED IN FLORENCE ON DECEMBER 10th, 2005"] in IGA News #64, April - June 2006. Publication of UGI/Italian Geothermal Union.] The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located in The Geysers, a geothermal field in California. [ [http://www.geysers.com/] Calpine Corporation page on The Geysers] As of 2008, geothermalpower supplies less than 1% of the world's energy. [ 2008 IEA Key World Energy Statistics: [http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2008/key_stats_2008.pdf "Total Primary Energy Supply"] ]
"Geothermal" can generally refer to any heat contained in the ground.
Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even further down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Wells over a mile deep can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications.
Geothermal technologies include:
Geothermal heat pump: Almost everywhere, the upper 10 feet of Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 50 and 60°F (10 and 16°C). A geothermal heat pump system consists of pipes buried in the shallow ground near the building, a heat exchanger, and ductwork into the building. In winter, heat from the relatively warmer ground goes through the heat exchanger into the house. In summer, hot air from the house is pulled through the heat exchanger into the relatively cooler ground. Heat removed during the summer can be used as no-cost energy to heat water.cite web|url=http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/overview.html|title=Geothermal Basics Overview|publisher=Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy|accessdate=2008-10-01]
Direct exchange geothermal heat pump: A heat pump without a heat exchanger, which circulates the working fluid through pipes in the ground.
* Hot water near Earth's surface can be piped directly into facilities and used to heat buildings, grow plants in greenhouses, dehydrate onions and garlic, heat water for fish farming, and pasteurize milk. Some cities pipe the hot water under roads and sidewalks to melt snow.
District heatingapplications use networks of piped hot water to heat buildings in whole communities.
Hot dry rock geothermal energy: Using deep wells into hot rock, a fluid is heated and used to generate power:
** Dry steam plants, which directly use geothermal steam to turn turbines;
** Flash steam plants, which pull deep, high-pressure hot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drive turbines; and
** Binary-cycle plants, which pass moderately hot geothermal water by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines.
Geothermal energy offers a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuel based sources, primarily that the heat source requires no purchase of fuel. From an environmental standpoint, emissions of undesirable substances are small. [ [http://www.solarnavigator.net/geothermal_energy.htm Geothermal Energy] ] It is also nearly sustainable because the heat extraction is small compared to the size of the heat reservoir, which may also receive some heat replenishment from greater depths. In addition, geothermal power plants are unaffected by changing weather conditions. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4473111.stm Kenya Looks Underground for Power] ] Geothermal power plants work continuously, day and night, making them
base load power plants. From an economic view, geothermal energy is extremely price competitive in some areas and reduces reliance on fossil fuels and their inherent price unpredictability. [ [http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/overview.html/ Overview] , U.S. Department of Energy] It also offers a degree of scalability: a large geothermal plant can power entire cities while smaller power plants can supply more remote sites such as rural villages. [http://www.solarnavigator.net/geothermal_energy.htm Geothermal Energy] ]
From an engineering perspective, the geothermal fluid is corrosive, and worse, is at a relatively low temperature (compared to steam from boilers), which by the laws of
thermodynamicslimits the efficiency of heat engines in extracting useful energy as in the generation of electricity. Much of the heat energy is lost, unless there is also a local use for low-temperature heat; greenhouses, timber mills, district heating, etc.
There are several environmental concerns behind geothermal energy. Construction of the power plants can adversely affect land stability in the surrounding region. This is mainly a concern with Enhanced Geothermal Systems, where water is injected into hot dry rock where no water was before. Dry steam and flash steam power plants also emit low levels of carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, and sulphur, although at roughly 5% of the levels emitted by fossil fuel power plants. However, geothermal plants can be built with emissions-controlling systems that can inject these substances back into the earth, thereby reducing carbon emissions to less than 0.1% of those from fossil fuel power plants. Hot water from geothermal sources will contain trace amounts of dangerous elements such as mercury, arsenic, antimony, etc. which if disposed of into rivers can render their water unsafe to drink.
Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down. It is likely that in these locations, the system was designed too large for the site, since there is only so much energy that can be stored and replenished in a given volume of earth. Some interpret this as meaning a specific geothermal location can undergo depletion, and question whether geothermal energy is truly renewable. For example, the world's second-oldest geothermal generator at Wairakei has reduced production. If left alone, however, these places will recover some of their lost heat, as the mantle has vast heat reserves . An assessment of the total potential for electricity production from the high-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland gives a value of about 1500 TWh (total) or 15 TWh per year over a 100 year period. The electricity production capacity from geothermal fields is now only 1.3 TWh per year.
If heat recovered by ground source heat pumps is included, the non-electric generating capacity of geothermal energy is estimated at more than 100 GW (gigawatts of thermal power) and is used commercially in over 70 countries. During 2005, contracts were placed for an additional 0.5 GW of capacity in the United States, while there were also plants under construction in 11 other countries. [http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf The Future of Geothermal Energy] , Idaho National Laboratory ]
Estimates of exploitable worldwide geothermal energy resources vary considerably. According to a 1999 study, it was thought that this might amount to between 65 and 138 GW of electrical generation capacity 'using enhanced technology'. [cite web
title = Geothermal Energy Association - Washington, DC
url = http://www.geo-energy.org/aboutGE/potentialUse.asp#world
format = http
accessdate = 2007-02-07 ]
A 2006 report by
MIT, that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050 in the United Statesalone, for a maximum investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years.
The MIT report calculated the world's total EGS resources to be over 13,000 ZJ. Of these, over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2,000 ZJ with technology improvements - sufficient to provide all the world's present energy needs for several millennia.
The key characteristic of an EGS (also called a Hot Dry Rock system), is that it reaches at least 10 km down into hard rock. At a typical site two holes would be bored and the deep rock between them fractured. Water would be pumped down one and steam would come up the other. The MIT report estimated that there was enough energy in hard rocks 10 km below the United States to supply all the world's current needs for 30,000 years.
Drilling at this depth is now possible in the petroleum industry, albeit expensive. (Exxon announced an 11 km hole at the Chayvo field, Sakhalin. Lloyds List 1/5/07 p 6) Wells drilled to depths greater than 4000 metres generally incur drilling costs in the tens of millions of dollars. The technological challenges are to drill wide bores at low cost and to break rock over larger volumes. Apart from the energy used to make the bores, the process releases no greenhouse gases.
Other important countries considered high in potential for development are the
People's Republic of China, Hungary, Mexico, Iceland, and New Zealand. A number of potential sites are being developed or evaluated in South Australiathat are several kilometres in depth.
Favourable locations for EGS (eg in central Australia) may only require wells 4 km deep (see
hot dry rock geothermal energy).
History of development
Geothermal steam and
hot springshave been used for centuries for bathing and heating, but it was not until the 20th century that geothermal power started being used to make electricity.
Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on
4 July 1904, at the Larderellodry steam field in Italy. It was a small generator that lit four light bulbs. [Tiwari, G. N.; Ghosal, M. K. "Renewable Energy Resources: Basic Principles and Applications." Alpha Science Int'l Ltd., 2005 ISBN 1842651250] Later, in 1911, the world's first geothermal power plant was built there. It was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until 1958, when New Zealandbuilt a plant of its own.
The first Geothermal power plant in the United States was made in 1922 by John D. Grant at
The GeysersResort Hotel. After drilling for more steam, he was able to generate enough electricity to light the entire resort. Eventually the power plant fell into disuse, as it was not competitive with other methods of energy production.cite web|url=http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/history.html |title=A History of Geothermal Energy in the United States |accessdate=2007-09-10 |publisher=U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program]
In 1960, Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal power plant in the United States at The Geysers. The original turbine installed lasted for more than 30 years and produced 11 MW net power. The Geysers are currently owned by the Calpine corporation and the Northern California Power agency; and it currently produces over 750 MW of power.
Development around the world
Geothermal power is generated in over 20 countries around the world including the
United States, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Turkey, France, The Netherlands, Lithuania, New Zealand, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China, Japanand Saint Kitts and Nevis. Chevron Corporationis the world's largest producer of geothermal energy. Canada's government (which officially notes some 30,000 earth-heat installations for providing space heating to Canadian residential and commercial buildings) reports a test geothermal-electrical site in the Meager Mountain-Pebble Creek area of British Columbia, where a 100 MW facility could be developed.
Geothermal power is very cost-effective in the Rift area of
Africa. Kenyawas the first African country to build geothermal energysources. Kenya's [http://www.kengen.co.ke/ KenGen] has built two plants, Olkaria I (45 MW) and Olkaria II (65 MW), with a third private plant Olkaria III (48 MW). Plans are to increase production capacity by another 576 MW by 2017, covering 25% of Kenya's electricity needs, and correspondingly reducing dependency on imported oil. In Ethiopiathere is another plant for geothermal power (in 2008 some experts from Icelandcalculated that Ethiopia has at least 1000 MW of that energy). Hot spots have been found across the continent, especially in the Great Rift Valley.
Electricity from geothermal sources is expected to grow in Germany mainly because a law that benefits the production of geothermal electricity and guarantees the feeding. Less than 0.4 percent of Germany's total primary energy supply came from geothermal sources in 2004. But after a renewable energy law that introduced a tariff scheme of EU €0.15 [US $0.23] per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for electricity produced from geothermal sources came into effect that year, a construction boom was sparked and the new power plants are now starting to come online.However the first German geothermal power plant had been build in 2003 in Neustadt-Glewe located in northern Germany. This plant was not just the first one operating with the ORC-technology
Organic Rankine Cyclebut also with the lowest temperature.
Germany's geothermal resources are stated to be capable of supplying the country's annual electrical base load for 600 years. [ [http://www.gmk.info/ORC-geothermal.power.535.html?/ Geothermal ORC-power modules] ]
Iceland is situated in an area with a high concentration of volcanoes, making it an ideal location for generating geothermal energy. 19.1% of Iceland's electrical energy is generated from geothermal sources. [cite web | url = http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=IS | title = International Energy Agency, Energy Statistic - Electricity/Heat in Iceland in 2005 | accessdate = 2007-04-24] In addition,
geothermal heatingis used to heat 87% of homes in Iceland. Icelanders plan to be 100% non-fossil fuel in the near future. [cite web | url = http://www.os.is/Apps/WebObjects/Orkustofnun.woa/swdocument/3879/Orkut%C3%B6lur+enska+2005.pdf | title = Energy Statistics in Iceland | publisher = Orkustofnun (Iceland Energy Authority) | accessdate = 2006-09-20]
Mexico has the third greatest geothermal energy production with an installed capacity of 959.50 MW by December 2007. This represents 3.24% of the total electricity generated in the country. [ [http://www.cfe.gob.mx/es/LaEmpresa/generacionelectricidad/termoelectrica/geotermoelectrica/ Federal Comission of Electricity of Mexico/Geothermal-electric production 2007] ] [ [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VCN-49M0JY2-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=4f7cb9f02fc2de7f813ae8d2fa6ecf4d Main aspects of geothermal energy in Mexico] ] [ [http://iga.igg.cnr.it/geoworld/geoworld.php?sub=map&country=mexico IGA electricity generation for Mexico] ]
New Zealand has operated geothermal power stations since the 1950s. First developments were at Wairakei and Kawerau (direct heat and power). Other stations include Ohaaki, Rotokawa, Poihipi, Nagwha and Mokai.
New Zealand geothermal fields [http://www.nzgeothermal.org.nz/geothermal_energy/nz_geothermal_fields.asp]
North Dominica recently installed a geothermal power plant near the city of Opravy.
Denmark has two geothermal power plants, one in Thisted started in 1988, and one in Copenhagen started in 2005. [ [http://www.geotermisk.dk/ Thisted Varmeforsyning Geotermi] ] [ [http://www.dongenergy.com/NR/rdonlyres/E230504C-A507-40DE-B931-9886D9A4C809/0/geotermi_paper.pdf Allan Mahler & Jesper Magtengaard, Proceeding World Geothermal Congress 2005, Geothermal Development in Denmark, Country Update WGC 2005] ]
Portugalhas a geothermal power plant on São Miguel Island, in the Azoresislands.
The Geothermal Education Office and a 1980 article entitled "The Philippines geothermal success story" by Rudolph J. Birsic published in the journal Geothermal Energy (vol. 8, Aug.-Sept. 1980, p. 35-44) note the remarkable geothermal resources of the
Philippines. [ [http://geothermal.marin.org/map/phil.html Geothermal Education Office - The Philippines] ] Birsic, R.J. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980GeoE....8...35B The Philippines geothermal success story] "Geothermal Energy" (vol. 8, Aug.-Sept. 1980, p. 35-44)] During the World Geothermal Congress 2000 held in Beppu, ŌitaPrefecture of Japan(May-June 2000), it was reported that the Philippinesis the largest consumer of electricity from geothermal sources and highlighted the potential role of geothermal energy in providing energy needs for developing countries. [ [http://www.convention-news.co.jp/geothermal6.1.htm World Geothermal Congress 2000] ]
According to the International Geothermal Association (IGA), worldwide, the Philippines ranks second to the United States in producing geothermal energy. As of the end of 2003, the US has a capacity of 2020 megawatts of geothermal power, while the Philippines can generate 1930 megawatts. (Mexico is third with 953 MW according to IGA). [ [http://iga.igg.cnr.it/geoworld/geoworld.php?sub=map&country=mexico IGA electricity generation for Mexico] ] Early statistics from the Institute for Green Resources and Environment stated that Philippine geothermal energy provides 16% of the country's electricity. [ [http://staff.aist.go.jp/hiro-muraoka/AsianSympoE.html Institute for Green Resources and Environment: Asian Geothermal Symposium] ] By 2005, geothermal energy accounted for 17.5% of the country's electricity production. [cite web | url = http://www.iea.org/Textbase/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=PH | title = International Energy Agency, Energy Statistic - Electricity/Heat in Philippines in 2005 | accessdate = 2007-04-24 ] . More recent statistics from the IGA show that combined energy from geothermal power plants in the islands of Luzon, Leyte, Negros and Mindanao account for approximately 27% of the country's electricity generation. Leyte is one of the islands in the Philippines where the first geothermal power plant started operations in July 1977.
There is a geothermal plant on the north slope of
Mutnovskyvolcano in Kamchatka, presumably supplying power to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
aint Kitts and Nevis
The island of
Nevis, long known for its numerous hot springs, commenced drilling for the construction of a geothermal powerplant at Spring Hill, Nevis, in January 2008. When completed (estimated 2010), the plant will supply 50 megawatts of electricity, enough to fulfill all of Nevis' demand (approximately 10 megawatts), and also enough to export to neighbouring Saint Kittsas well as other nearby islands via submarine electrical transmission cables. The project, being undertaken by West Indies Power, will make Saint Kitts and Nevisthe first country in the Caribbean to utilize large-scale Geothermal energy, and, when complete, will make Saint Kitts and Nevis one of the least dependent nations in the world on fossil-fuels. [ [http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/stkitts/stkitts.php?news_id=5613&start=0&category_id=35 Geothermal Development Drilling Begins on Nevis] ]
Turkey currently has the 5th highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal energy in the world. [cite journal |doi=10.1016/j.geothermics.2005.09.003 |title=Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review |year=2005 |author=Lund, J |journal=Geothermics |volume=34 |pages=691]
The United States of America is the country with the greatest geothermal energy production. cite web|url=http://www.geo-energy.org/aboutGE/currentUse.asp |title=All About Geothermal Energy - Current Use |accessdate=2007-01-25 |publisher=Geothermal Energy Association ]
The largest dry steam field in the world is
The Geysers, 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco. The Geysers began in 1960, has 1360 MW of installed capacity and produces over 750 MW net. Calpine Corporationnow owns 19 of the 21 plants in The Geysers and is currently the United States' largest producer of renewable geothermal energy. The other two plants are owned jointly by the [http://www.ncpa.com Northern California Power Agency] and the City of Santa Clara's municipal [http://www.ci.santa-clara.ca.us/pub_utility/eu_index.html Electric Utility] (now called Silicon Valley Power). Since the activities of one geothermal plant affects those nearby, the consolidation plant ownership at The Geysers has been beneficial because the plants operate cooperatively instead of in their own short-term interest. The Geysers is now recharged by injecting treated sewage effluent from the City of Santa Rosaand the Lake County sewage treatment plant. This sewage effluent used to be dumped into rivers and streams and is now piped to the geothermal field where it replenishes the steam produced for power generation.
Another major geothermal area is located in south central
California, on the southeast side of the Salton Sea, near the cities of Niland and Calipatria, California. As of 2001, there were 15 geothermal plants producing electricity in the area. CalEnergy owns about half of them and the rest are owned by various companies. Combined the plants have a capacity of about 570 megawatts.
The Basin and Range geologic province in
Nevada, southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, Arizonaand western Utahis now an area of rapid geothermal development. Several small power plants were built during the late 1980s during times of high power prices. Rising energy costs have spurred new development. Plants in Nevada at Steamboat near Reno, Brady/Desert Peak, Dixie Valley, Soda Lake, Stillwater and Beowawe now produce about 235 MW.
*Hot-dry-rock geothermal power
Geothermal power in Iceland
Geothermal exchange heat pump
List of renewable energy topics by country
* [http://hotrock.anu.edu.au/ Australian National University - Hot Rock Energy]
* [http://www.bassfeld.ch/Energy/assets/Geothermal_Power.pdf Bassfeld Technology Transfer - Introduction to Geothermal Power Generation (3.6 MB PDF file)]
* [http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Geothermal Technologies Program]
* [http://geothermal.id.doe.gov Idaho National Laboratory - Geothermal Program]
* [http://www.ees4.lanl.gov/hdr/ Los Alamos National Laboratory - Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Technology]
* [http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf MIT - The Future of Geothermal Energy (14 MB PDF file)]
* [http://geocen.iyte.edu.tr/ Geothermal Energy Research Center]
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