Manfred Sakel


Manfred Sakel
Manfred Sakel
Born June 6, 1900
Nadwórna
Died December 2, 1957
New York City
Nationality United States
Alma mater University of Vienna
Known for insulin shock therapy

Manfred Joshua Sakel (June 6, 1900 – December 2, 1957) was an Jewish Austrian (later Austrian-American) neurophysiologist and psychiatrist, credited with developing insulin shock therapy in 1927.

Contents

Biography

Sakel was born on June 6, 1900, in Nadwórna, in the former Austria-Hungary Empire (now Ukraine), which was part of Poland between the world wars. Sakel studied Medicine at the University of Vienna from 1919 to 1925, specializing in neurology and neuropsychiatry. In 1933 he became a researcher at the University of Vienna's Neuropsychiatric Clinic. In 1936, he chose to emigrate from Austria to the United States of America. In the USA, he became an attending physician and researcher at the Harlem Valley State Hospital.

Dr. Sakel was the developer of insulin shock therapy in 1927 while a young doctor in Vienna, that would become widely used on individuals with schizophrenia and other mental patients. He noted that insulin-induced coma and convulsions, due to the low level of glucose attained in the blood (hypoglycemic crisis), had a short-term appearance of changing the mental state of drug addicts and psychotics, sometimes dramatically so. He reported that up to 88% of his patients improved with insulin shock therapy, but most other people reported more mixed results and it was eventually shown that patient selection had been biased and that it didn't really have any specific benefits and had many risks, adverse effects and fatalities. However, his method became widely applied for many years in mental institutions worldwide. In the USA and other countries it was gradually dropped by the 1970s. It has been noted that patients would have been terrified of the procedure. Most professionals who were involved are now ashamed, recalling it as inhumane and unscientific, although they may have had the impression of efficacy in the narrow confines of isolated insulin shock units with much extra personal attention and support given to the cherry-picked patients.[1]

Dr. Sakel died from a heart attack[2] on December 2, 1957, in New York City, NY, USA.

Footnotes

References

  • Peters, U H (1992), "[Introduction of shock therapy and psychiatric emigration]", Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie 60 (9): 356–365, 1992 Sep, doi:10.1055/s-2007-999155, PMID 1398417 
  • "MANFRED J. SAKEL", Journal of clinical and experimental psychopathology 15 (3): 319, 1954, PMID 13221647 
  • Fink, M (1984), "Meduna and the Origins of Convulsive Therapy", American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(9): 1034-1041 (This historical and biographical paper discusses the introduction of the shock treatment in psychiatry, the role of a theory of the biological antagonism between epilepsy and schizophrenia, and the contributions of Ladislau von Meduna, Sakel, Ugo Cerletti, and Lucio Bini.)

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Manfred Sakel — Manfred Joshua Sakel, né le 6 juin 1900 à Nadvirna (Autriche Hongrie actuellement Ukraine) et décédé le 2 décembre 1957 à New York City (États Unis) est un psychiatre et neurophysiologiste polonais. Sakel fait ses études de médecine de 1919 à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sakel — Manfred Joshua Sakel (* 6. Juni 1900 in Nadwirna; † 2. Dezember 1957 in New York) war ein polnischer Arzt und Entdecker der Insulin Koma Therapie. Er war ein Onkel des bekannten Psychoanalytikers Otto Kernberg. Sakel wurde in der jüdischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SAKEL, MANFRED JOSHUA — (1900–1957), Austrian psychiatrist. Born in Nadvorna, Galicia (then Austria), Sakel went to Berlin, where he specialized in treating addicts. On an accidental overdosage of the then newly discovered insulin, given to an addict who was diabetic,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Sakel, Manfred J. — ▪ Austrian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist in full  Manfred Joshua Sakel   born June 6, 1900, Nadvorna, Austria Hungary [now Nadvirna, Ukr.] died Dec. 2, 1957, New York, N.Y., U.S.       Polish neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who introduced …   Universalium

  • Sakel — /zah keuhl/, n. Manfred (Joshua), 1906 57, U.S. psychiatrist, born in Austria. * * * Sakel see Sakellaridis …   Useful english dictionary

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  • Cure De Sakel — Les cures de Sakel ont été une technique de soins de la psychose au cours du XXe siècle, avant que des médicaments efficaces, comme les neuroleptiques, ne soient découverts. Les cures de Sakel, du nom du psychiatre Manfred Sakel (1900 1957)… …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Cure de sakel — Les cures de Sakel ont été une technique de soins de la psychose au cours du XXe siècle, avant que des médicaments efficaces, comme les neuroleptiques, ne soient découverts. Les cures de Sakel, du nom du psychiatre Manfred Sakel (1900 1957)… …   Wikipédia en Français


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