Kingdom of Hungary

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Magyar Királyság"
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Hungary
common_name = Hungary
continent = Europe
region = Carpathian Basin
year_start = 1000
year_end = 1946
date_start =
date_end =
life_span = 1000—1918 1919—1944 1944—1946
event_start = Coronation of Stephen I of Hungary
event_end = Act I/1946
event1 =
date_event1 =
event2 =
date_event2 =
event3 =
date_event3 =
event4 =
date_event4 =
p1 = Hungarian prehistory
flag_p1 = Flag of Hungary (9th c. -1301).svg
p2 = Hungarian Soviet Republic
flag_p2 = Red flag.svg
p3 = Hungarian State
flag_p3 = Flag of Hungary 1940.svg
s1 = Hungarian Democratic Republic
flag_s1 = Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg
s2 = Hungarian State
flag_s2 = Flag of Hungary 1940.svg
s3 = Second Hungarian Republic
flag_s3 = Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg





flag_type = Flag (1867-1918)



symbol_type = |


image_map_caption = Territory of the Kingdom of Hungary
national_motto =
national_anthem =
capital = Esztergom; Fehérvár; Buda; Pozsony; Debrecen; Budapest
common_languages =
government_type = Monarchy
title_leader = Monarch
leader1 = Stephen I of Hungary
year_leader1 = 1001-1038
leader2 = Charles I of Austria
year_leader2 = 1916-1918
title_deputy =
deputy1 =
year_deputy1 =
deputy2 =
year_deputy2 =
legislature =
house1 =
house2 =
stat_year1 =
stat_area1 =
stat_pop1 =
currency =
footnotes =

The Kingdom of Hungary (short form: Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918, then from 1919 to 1946.

Names

In the late middle age, the Latin terms "Natio Hungarica" and "Hungarus" referred to all noblemen of the Kingdom. A "Hungarus"-consciousness (loyalty and patriotism above ethnic origins) existed among all inhabitants of this state. However, according to István Werbőczy's Tripartitum, the "Natio Hungarica" were only the privileged noblemen, subjects of the Holy Crown of Hungary regardless of ethnicity.

The Latin name " _la. Regnum Hungariae/Vngarie" (Regnum meaning kingdom); "Regnum Marianum" (The Kingdom or Reign of St. Mary); or simply "Hungaria" was the form used in official documents from the beginning of the kingdom to the 1840s, the German name (" _de. Königreich Ungarn") from 1849 to the 1860s and the Hungarian name (" _hu. Magyar Királyság") in the 1840s and from the 1860s to 1918. The names in other languages of the kingdom were: _hu. Magyar Királyság, _pl. Królestwo Węgier, _ro. Regatul Ungariei, Croatian: "Kraljevina Ugarska, _sl. Kraljevina Ogrska, _cz. Uherské království, _sk. Uhorské kráľovstvo.

History

Medieval Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France (with only the Holy Roman Empire being larger than Hungary), and the population was the third largest of any country in Europe. The Kingdom of Hungary arose in present-day western Hungary and present-day western Slovakia, and subsequently spread to remaining present-day Hungary, to Transylvania (in present-day Romania), present-day eastern Slovakia, Carpatho-Ruthenia, Vojvodina (in present-day Serbia), today Burgenland Austria, Kingdom of Slavonia (nowdays Croatia) and other smaller nearby territories. The Kingdom of Croatia without Slavonia had autonomy from 1091 to 1868 in the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, then existed in personal union 1868-1918.The first kings of the Kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty. The first Christian King was Stephen I of Hungary who is a Catholic saint. He fought against Koppány and defeated him at near to Veszprém with Bavarian help in 998. Stephen I of Hungary were supported by the Christian Hungarians and also he was helped by the German knights who wanted a Christian European kingdom in Central Europe. After his death there were lot of conflicts and anarchist fights in Hungary, the second greatest Hungarian king (from the Árpád dynasty) was Ladislaus I of Hungary who stabilized and sorted be strong again the Hungarian Kingdom, He is also a catholic saint. After Ladislaus the next famous king was Coloman of Hungary who made conquest Croatia and Dalmatia in 1097. From 1097 onwards, the Kings of Hungary were also Kings of Croatia, because of the political union of the two states. In 1222 Andrew II of Hungary published the Hungarian Golden bull what implied the ancient principles of law. In 1241 Mongolians attacked Hungary, first battles finished with Hungarian victory but it were only stratagem, the Tatars finally destroyed the Hungarian army at Battle of Mohi. After the Tatar invasion after 1241 many strong stone castles built by Béla IV of Hungary who learned from his mistakes and the Hungarians keep him as the "Second Founder of the Homeland". The Hungarian Kingdom became again a considerable force in Europe. In 1301 the Árpáds died out. Andrew III of Hungary was the last king from the Árpád dynasty. In the early 14th century, this dynasty was replaced by the Angevins, and later the Jagiellonians as well as several non-dynastic rulers, notably Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and Matthias Corvinus. The first Angevin king was Charles I of Hungary who created considerable reforms in the economy and defeated most of the oligarchs in the Kingdom. The last battle was between Matthew Csák and Charles I of Hungary what finished with the King's victory. During the reign of Matthias Corvinus the kingdom lived its golden age. The army of the Kingdom of Hungary could resist the Ottomans in the 15th century. Father of Matthias Corvinus: John Hunyadi had a glorious victory at Siege of Nándorfehérvár. The Black Army of Hungary was almost unbeatable, it was a mercenary army and modern, for example Pál Kinizsi leader of the Hungarian army full destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops in 1479 at Battle of Breadfield. Matthias Corvinus had also campaigns against the West. He captured Vienna in 1485 and kept that for 5 years. The most skilled troops of the Hungarian cavalry were the hussars. The Hungarian economy was also powerful at age of Matthias. After his death again the Jagiellonians got the Hungarian throne: Vladislaus II of Hungary. At the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Hungarian army was defeated by the forces of the Ottoman Empire, and Louis II of Hungary ran away and drowned in the Csele Creek. Under the Ottoman attacks the central authority collapsed and a struggle for power broke out. The majority of Hungary's ruling elite elected John Zápolya (10 November 1526). A small minority of aristocrats sided with Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor who was Archduke of Austria and was related to Louis's family by marriage, as King of Hungary; there had been previous agreements that the Habsburgs would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs, as he did. Ferdinand was elected king by a rump diet in December 1526. On 29 February 1528, King John I of Hungary received the support of the Ottoman Sultan.

A three-sided conflict ensued as Ferdinand moved to assert his rule over as much of the Hungarian kingdom as he could. By 1529 the kingdom had been split into two parts: Habsburg Hungary and "eastern-Kingdom of Hungary". At this time there were no Ottomans on Hungarian territories, except Srem's important castles. In 1532 Nikola Jurišić defended Kőszeg and stopped a powerful Turk army. By 1541, the fall of Buda marked a further division of Hungary, in three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. However in 1552 happened a glorious Hungarian victory over the Ottomans: Siege of Eger, it gave back the hope for the Hungarians. Although the borders were changing very frequently during this period, the three parts can be identified more or less as follows:

*Present-day Slovakia, north-western Transdanubia, Burgenland, western Croatia, and adjacent territories were under Habsburg rule. This area was referred to as Royal Hungary, and though it nominally remained a separate state, it was administered more or less as part of the Habsburgs' Austrian holdings, to which it was immediately adjacent. This was the continuation of the Kingdom of Hungary.
*The Great Alföld (i.e. most of present-day Hungary, incl. south-eastern Transdanubia and the Banat), partly without north-eastern present-day Hungary, became part of the Ottoman Empire (see Ottoman Hungary).
*The remaining territory became the newly independent principality of Transylvania, under Zápolya's family. Transylvania was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. In 1644 was the Winter Campaign when Miklós Zrínyi burnt the crucial Bridge of Eszék what was a Turkish supply line in Hungary.

At Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664) Austrians and Hungarians defeated the Turkish army.After a failed Ottoman invasion of Austria in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive against the Turks; by the end of the 17th century, they had managed to conquer the remainder of the historical Kingdom of Hungary and the principality of Transylvania. In 1686 Buda the capital became again free for a little time. After the Ottomans, Austrians possessed the Hungarian Kingdom, and started a new war the: Rákóczi's War for Independence. First times the Kuruc army accomplished very important military successes duly for the light cavalry troops. One of the greatest Hungarian victory happened at Battle of Saint Gotthard (1705). János Bottyán totally beat the Austrian army. A famous Hungarian colonel called Ádám Balogh almost captured Joseph I the Austrian king in a battle action, but finally the Habsburgs won, defeated the main Hungarian army at Battle of Trencin in 1708, since from this moment Kuruc army hadn't more military success. The next ruler of Hungary was Charles VI who settled lot of Vlach ethnic groups in Transylvania. At this point, the "Royal Hungary" terminology was dropped, and the area was once again referred to as the "Kingdom of Hungary", although it was still administered as a part of the Habsburg realm. In the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary had its own Diet (parliament) and constitution, but the members of the Governor's Council "(Helytartótanács," the office of the palatine) were appointed by the Habsburg monarch, and the superior economic institution, the Hungarian Chamber, was directly subordinated to the Court Chamber in Vienna. The official language of the Kingdom of Hungary remained Latin until 1844; it was Hungarian between 1844 and 1849 then from 1867. In 1848 started the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 what finished with almost Hungarian victory (Austrians with Russian supporters defeated Hungary) but the Ideas of 1848 didn't die, it followed the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. One of the most glorious campaign was in Spring of 1849 with the greatest Hungarian general: Artúr Görgey. The greatest poet of the Revolution was Sándor Petőfi.

Austria-Hungary

Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Habsburg Empire became the "dual monarchy" of Austria-Hungary.The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the existence of the Dual Monarchy. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its fifty-year existence. The obsolete medieval institutions continued to disappear. By the early 20th century most of the Empire had started to experience rapid economic growth. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).The historic lands of the Hungarian Crown (the Kingdom of Hungary proper, to which Transylvania was soon incorporated, and Croatia-Slavonia, which maintained a distinct identity and a certain internal autonomy) was granted equal status with the rest of the Habsburg monarchy; the two states comprising Austria-Hungary each had considerable independence, with certain institutions and matters (notably the reigning house, defence, foreign affairs, and finances for common expenditures) remaining joint. This arrangement was to last until 1918, when 72% of the Hungarian historical territory of the Kingdom of Hungary was divided between neighbouring states of Austria/Romania and newly formed states of Czechoslovakia/Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as the Central Powers went down in defeat in World War I. The new borders were set in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon leaving more than 3,5 million ethnic Hungarians outside the new borders that were originally meant to accord ethnic borders.

Kingdom of Hungary between 1920-1944

After the pullout of occupation forces of Romania in 1920 from its war against the Communist regime of Béla Kun, the country went into civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists purging the nation of communists, leftists and others they felt threatened by. Later in 1920, a coalition of right-wing political forces united and returned Hungary to being a constitutional monarchy. Selection of the new King was delayed due to civil infighting, and a regent was appointed to represent the monarchy. Former Austro-Hungarian navy admiral Miklós Horthy became that regent.

The "Kingdom of Hungary" existing from 1920 to 1944 was a "de facto" regency state under Regent Miklós Horthy officially representing the abdicated Hungarian monarchy. Attempts by Charles IV King of Hungary to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from neighbouring countries, and by lack of support from Horthy (see Charles IV of Hungary's conflict with Miklós Horthy). The first ten years of the reinstated kingdom saw increased repression of Hungarian minorities. Limits on the number of Jews permitted to go to university were placed, corporal punishment was legalized. Under the leadership of Prime Minister István Bethlen, democracy dissipated as Bethlen manipulated elections in rural areas which allowed his political party, the Party of Unity to win repeated elections. Bethlen pushed for the revision of the Treaty of Trianon. After the collapse of the Hungarian economy from 1929 to 1931, national turmoil pushed Bethlen to resign.This state was conceived of as a "kingdom without a king," since there was no consensus on either who should take the throne of Hungary, or what form of government should replace the monarchy. The Kingdom of Hungary was one of the Axis powers during World War II until its defection in 1944, in which the state was occupied and dissolved by Nazi Germany and replaced by a briefly-existing puppet state.

Historical perceptions

In today's Hungary, the Kingdom of Hungary is regarded as one long stage in the development of the same state. This sense of continuity is reflected in the republic's national symbols, holidays, official language and the capital city of the country. The short form of the name is the same in Hungarian ("Magyarország"). The millennium of the Hungarian statehood was commemorated in 2000 and codified by the Millennium Act of 2000. [http://www.1000ev.hu/index.php?a=3&param=9797 Text of the Millennium Act] hu icon]

In contrast, scholars outside Hungary observe that the Kingdom of Hungary, being a multiethnic and later multinational state, "bore little resemblance, in territory or population, to today’s Hungary".cite journal|title=1848 in 1998: The Politics of Commemoration in Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia|journal=Comparative Studies in Society and History|date=2002|first=Rogers|last=Brubaker|coauthors=Margit Feischmidt|volume=44|issue=|pages=700–744|id= |url=|format=|accessdate=2008-01-20] This observation is reflected also by the fact that the Croatian, Serbian, Slovak and Slovenian languages (groups formerly within Hungary) have different names for the Kingdom of Hungary and modern Hungary.

References

ee also

*List of Hungarian rulers
*Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary
*Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary
*Demographics of the Kingdom of Hungary
*Comitatus (Kingdom of Hungary)
*History of Hungary
*Croatia in the union with Hungary
*History of Slovakia
*Transylvania
*Vojvodina
*Transcarpathia
*Prekmurje

External links

* [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/HOR_I25/HUNGARY_Hungarian_Magyarorszdg_.html Hungary in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
* [http://www.talmamedia.com/ Atlas and gazetteer of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1914]

Hun-hist-develop
before=← Principality of Hungary (896-1000)



after=Habsburg Hungary
(1526-1571)
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
(1526-1571)
Southern parts occupied by the Ottoman Empire
(1541-1699)
current=Kingdom of Hungary

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