Egypt
Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Maṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: 

"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
My country, my country, my country
Capital
(and largest city)
Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Official language(s) Arabic[a]
Ethnic groups  99% Egyptians
0.9% Nubians
0.1% Greeks
Demonym Egyptian
Government Military junta
 -  Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces Mohamed Hussein Tantawi[b]
 -  Prime Minister Essam Sharaf
Establishment
 -  Unified state[1][2] c. 3100 BC 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 28 February 1922 
 -  Republican regime 18 June 1953 
 -  Provisional Constitution[3] 30 March 2011 
Area
 -  Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.632
Population
 -  2011 estimate 81,015,887[4] (16th)
 -  2006 census 76,699,427 (total)[5]
incl. 3,901,396 abroad 
 -  Density Real density:[c]
2,755.2/km2 (38th)
7,136/sq mi
Arithmetic density:
76.3/km2 (126th)
197.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $508.265 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $6,361[6] 
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $231.111 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $2,892[6] 
Gini (1999–00) 34.5 (medium) 
HDI (2010) increase 0.620[7] (medium) (101st)
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2 (No DST Since 2011))
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code EG
Internet TLD .eg, مصر.
Calling code +20
a.^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.[3] Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.
b.^ De facto interim head of state.[8][9]
c.^ Densities are based on 2006 population figures. The gap between arithmetic and real densities is due to the fact that 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.[10]

Egypt Listeni/ˈɪpt/ (Arabic: مصر, Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: [mɑsˤɾ] ; Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, Kīmi ; Sahidic Coptic: ⲕⲏⲙⲉ, Kēme), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: About this sound جمهوريّة مصر العربيّة , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi), Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 80 million people[4] live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Monuments in Egypt such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx were constructed by its ancient civilization. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, and Karnak and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study. The tourism industry and the Red Sea Riviera employ about 12% of Egypt's workforce.

The economy of Egypt is one of the most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and service at almost equal production levels.

In early 2011, Egypt underwent a revolution, which resulted in the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak after nearly 30 years in power.

Contents

Names

The English name Egypt was borrowed from Middle French Egypte, from Latin Aegyptus, from ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), from earlier Linear B


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