- Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus′ ( _ru. Ки́евская Русь, romanised: " Kievskaya Rus' ", IPA2|rusʲ), also written as Kyivan Rus′ ( _uk. Ки́ївська Русь), or Kievan Russia [http://books.google.com.au/books?q=%22kievan+russia%22&btnG=Search+Books] was a medieval state dominated by the city of
Kievfrom about 880 to around the middle of the 12th centuryfounded by the Swedish vikings called " Rus'". From the historiographical point of view, Rus' polity is considered by some historians an early predecessor of three modern East Slavic nations: Belarusians, Russiansand Ukrainians. [cite encyclopedia | ency=The Columbia Encyclopedia| edition= | year=2001-2005| article=Kievan Rus| url=http://www.bartleby.com/65/ki/KievanRu.html] The reigns of Vladimir the Great(980-1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise(1019-1054) constitute the Golden Ageof Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianityand the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the " Russkaya Pravda". The early Rus' were most likely a Scandinavian warrior-elite that ruled a majority of Slavic, Finnic and Baltic subjects. [Robin Milner-Gulland, "The Russians", Blackwell Publishing, 1999, ISBN 0631218491, 9780631218494, p. 45] Scandinavians continued to remain in control until at least the mid- 11th century. [Michael Psellus: "Chronographia", ed. E. Sewter, (Yale University Press, 1953), 91. and R. Jenkins, "Byzantium: The Imperial Centuries AD 610-1071" (Toronto 1987) p. 307]
The Rus' people had probably dominated what is now northwestern Russia since the 8th century. In the early ninth they became loosely organized under the
Rus' Khaganate, which may be regarded as a predecessor state to the Kievan Rus'. ["See, e.g.", Franklin and Shepard 33–36; Jones 249-250; Christian 340-341 Pritsak "passim" for additional sources, see Rus' Khaganate.] According to the " Primary Chronicle", the earliest chronicle of Kievan Rus′, a Varangian( Viking) named Rurikfirst established himself in Novgorod, located in modern Russia (he was selected as common ruler by several Slavic and Finno-Ugrictribes) in about 860 before moving south and extending his authority to Kiev, the capital of modern day Ukraine. The chronicle cites him as the progenitor of the Rurik Dynasty. The Primary Chronicle says:In the year 6367 (859): Varangians from over the sea had tribute from Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Veses, Krivichs...
In the year 6370 (862): [They] [d] rove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves. But there was no law among them, and tribe rose against tribe. Discord thus ensued among them, and they began to war one against the other. They said to themselves, "Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, and judge us according to custom." Thus they went overseas to the Varangians, to the Rus. These particular Varangians were called Rus, just as some are called Swedes, and others Normans and Angles, and still others Goths [Gotlanders] , for they were thus named. The Chuds, the Slavs, the
Krivichs and the Vesthen said to the Rus, "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come reign as princes, rule over us". Three brothers, with their kinfolk, volunteered. They took with them all the Rus and came.
Varangians first settled in Ladoga, then moved southward to Novgorodeventually reaching Kiev, finally putting an end to the Khazars' collecting tribute from Kievans. The so-called Kievan Rus was founded by prince Oleg (Helgu in Khazarian records) about 880. During the next 35 years, Oleg and his warriors subdued the various Eastern Slavic and Finnic tribes. In 907, Oleg led an attack against Constantinople, and in 911 he signed a commercial treaty with the Byzantine Empireas an equal partner. The new Kievan state prospered because it had an abundant supply of furs, beeswax, and honeyfor export and because it controlled three main trade routes of Eastern Europe: the Volga trade routefrom the Baltic Seato the Orient, the Dnieper trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, and the trade route from the Khazars to the Germans.
Given the postulated pro-Scandinavian bias of the Rus' Primary Chronicle, some Slavic historians have debated the role of the Varangians in the establishment of Kievan Rus′ (see Rus′). By the reign of
Sviatoslav I of Kiev(r. 945-972) Kievan rulers had adopted Slavic religion and names, but their druzhinastill consisted primarily of Scandinavians. Sviatoslav's military conquests were astonishing: he dealt lethal blows to two of his strongest neighbours, Khazariaand the Bulgarian Empire, which collapsed soon after his raids.
From the 9th century, the Pecheneg nomads started an uneasy relationship with Kievan Rus. For more than two centuries they launched random raids into the lands of Rus, which sometimes escalated into full-scale wars (like the 920 war on the Pechenegs by
Igor of Kievreported in the Primary Chronicle), but there were also temporary military alliances (e.g. 943 Byzantine campaign by Igor). [ Ibn Haukaldescribes the Pechenegs as the long-standing allies of the Rus, whom they invariably accompanied during the 10th-century Caspian expeditions.] In 968, the Pechenegs attacked and then besieged the city of Kiev. [ [http://www.geocities.com/egfroth1/Pechenegs The Pechenegs, History and Warfare] , Steven Lowe and Dmitriy V. Ryaboy]
Golden age of Kiev
The region of
Kievdominated the state of Kievan Rus′ for the next two centuries. The grand prince( velikiy kniaz') of Kiev controlled the lands around the city, and his theoretically subordinate relatives ruled in other cities and paid him tribute. The zenith of the state's power came during the reigns of Prince Vladimir(Vladimir the Great, r. 980-1015) and Prince Yaroslav (the Wise; r. 1019-1054). Both rulers continued the steady expansion of Kievan Rus′ that had begun under Oleg.
Vladimir rose to power in Kiev after the death of his father
Sviatoslav Iin 972 and after defeating his half-brother Yaropolkin 980. As Prince of Kiev, Vladimir's most notable achievement was the Christianizationof Kievan Rus′, a process that began in 988. The annals of Rus¹ state that when Vladimir had decided to accept a new faith instead of the traditional idol-worship ( paganism) of the Slavs, he sent out some of his most valued advisors and warriors as emissaries to different parts of Europe. After visiting the Roman Catholics, the Jews and the Muslims, they finally arrived in Constantinople. There, they were so astounded by the beauty of the cathedral of Hagia Sophiaand the liturgical service held there, that they made up their minds there and then about the faith they would like to follow. Upon their arrival home, they convinced Vladimir that the faith of the Greeks was the best choice of all, upon which Vladimir made a journey to Constantinople and arranged to marry with Princess Anna, the sister of the Byzantine emperor Basil II.
Vladimir's choice of Eastern Christianity may also have reflected his close personal ties with Constantinople, which dominated the
Black Seaand hence trade on Kiev's most vital commercial route, the Dnieper river. Adherence to the Eastern Orthodox Churchhad long-range political, cultural, and religious consequences. The church had a liturgy written in Cyrillicand a corpus of translations from Greek that had been produced for the Slavic peoples. The existence of this literature facilitated the conversion to Christianity of the Eastern Slavsand introduced them to rudimentary Greek philosophy, science, and historiographywithout the necessity of learning Greek. In contrast, educated people in medieval Western and Central Europelearned Latin. Enjoying independence from the Roman authority and free from tenets of Latin learning, the East Slavs developed their own literature and fine arts, quite distinct from those of other Orthodox countries. See Old East Slavic languageand Architecture of Kievan Rusfor details.
Yaroslav, known as "The Wise", also struggled for power with his brothers. Although he first established his rule over Kiev in 1019, he did not have uncontested rule of all of Kievan Rus until 1036. Like Vladimir, Yaroslav was eager to improve relations with the rest of Europe, especially the
Byzantine Empire. Yaroslav's granddaughter, Eupraxia the daughter of his son Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev, was married to Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Yaroslav also arranged marriages for his sister and three daughters to the kings of Poland, France, Hungary, and Norway. Yaroslav promulgated the first East Slavic law code, " Russkaya Pravda"(Justice of Rus′); built Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kievand Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod; patronized local clergy and monasticism; and is said to have founded a school system. Yaroslav's sons developed the great Kiev Pechersk Lavra( monastery), which functioned in Kievan Rus′ as an ecclesiastical academy.
In the centuries that followed the state's foundation,
Rurik's descendants shared power over Kievan Rus′. Princely succession moved from elder to younger brother and from uncle to nephew, as well as from father to son. Junior members of the dynasty usually began their official careers as rulers of a minor district, progressed to more lucrative principalities, and then competed for the coveted throne of Kiev. In the 11th century and the 12th century, the princes and their retinues, which were a mixture of Slavic and Scandinavian elites, dominated the society of Kievan Rus′. Leading soldiers and officials received income and land from the princes in return for their political and military services. Kievan society lacked the class institutions and autonomous towns that were typical of West European feudalism. Nevertheless, urban merchants, artisans, and laborers sometimes exercised political influence through a city assembly, the " veche" (council), which included all the adult males in the population. In some cases, the veche either made agreements with their rulers or expelled them and invited others to take their place. At the bottom of society was a small stratum of slaves. More important was a class of tribute-paying peasants, who owed labor duty to the princes. The widespread personal serfdomcharacteristic of Western Europe did not exist in Kievan Rus′.
The rise of regional centers
Kievan Rus′ was not able to maintain its position as a powerful and prosperous state, in part because of the amalgamation of disparate lands under the control of a ruling clan. As the members of that clan became more numerous, they identified themselves with regional interests rather than with the larger patrimony. Thus, the princes fought among themselves, frequently forming alliances with outside groups such as the
Polovtsians, Poles, and Hungarians. During the years from 1054 to 1224 no fewer than 64 principalities had a more or less ephemeral existence, 293 princes put forward succession claims, and their disputes led to 83 civil wars.
Crusadesbrought a shift in European trade routes that accelerated the decline of Kievan Rus′. In 1204 the forces of the Fourth Crusadesacked Constantinople, making the Dnieper trade route marginal. As it declined, Kievan Rus′ splintered into many principalities and several large regional centers: Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal, Halych(Galich), Polotsk, Smolensk, Chernigov(modern "Chernihiv"), and Pereyaslav. The inhabitants of those regional centers then evolved into three nationalities: Ukrainiansin the southeast and southwest, Belarusiansin the northwest, and Russiansin the north and northeast.
In the north, the
Republic of Novgorodprospered as part of Kievan Rus' because it controlled trade routes from the Volga Riverto the Baltic Sea. As Kievan Rus' declined, Novgorod became more independent. A local oligarchy ruled Novgorod; major government decisions were made by a town assembly, which also elected a prince as the city's military leader. In the 12th century, Novgorod acquired its own archbishop, a sign of increased importance and political independence. In its political structure and mercantile activities, Novgorod resembled the north European towns of the Hanseatic League, the prosperous alliance that dominated the commercial activity of the Baltic regionbetween the 13th century and the 17th century, more than the other principalities of Kievan Rus'.
In the northeast, Slavs colonized the territory that eventually became
Muscovyby subjugating and merging with the Finno-Ugric tribesalready occupying the area. The city of Rostovwas the oldest center of the northeast, but it was supplanted first by Suzdal′ and then by the city of Vladimir, which become the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal′. There was recorded a large wave of migrations from Kiev region northward, to escape continuing excursions of the Turkic nomads from the "Wild Steppe". As the southern lands were being depopulated and more boyars, nobles, artisans arrived to the court at Vladimir, the combined principalityof Vladimir-Suzdal′ asserted itself as a major power in Kievan Rus′. In 1169 Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiyof Vladimir-Suzdal′ dealt a severe blow to the waning power of Kievan Rus′ when his armies sacked the city of Kiev. Prince Andrey then installed his younger brother, who ruled briefly in Kiev while Andrey continued to rule his realm from Suzdal′. Thus, political power began to drift away from Kiev in the second half of the 12th century. In 1299, in the wake of the Mongol invasion, the metropolitan moved from Kiev to the city of Vladimir, and Vladimir-Suzdal′ replaced Kiev as a religious center for the northern regions.
To the southwest, the
principality of Galichhad developed trade relations with its Polish, Hungarian, and Lithuanian neighbors and emerged as the local successor to Kievan Rus′. In the early 13th century, Prince Roman Mstislavichunited the two previously separate principalities, conquered Kiev, and assumed the title of grand duke of Kievan Rus′. His son, Prince Daniil(r. 1238-1264) was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′ to accept a crown from the Roman papacy, apparently doing so without breaking with Constantinople. Early in the 14th century, the patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Churchin Constantinople granted the rulers of Galicia-Volhyniaa metropolitan to compensate for the move of the Kievan metropolitan to Vladimir. Lithuanian rulers also requested and received a metropolitan for Novagrudok shortly afterwards. Early in the 15th century, these Metropolia were ruled again from Kiev by the "Metropolitan of Kiev, Galich and all Rus′".
However, a long and unsuccessful struggle against the Mongols combined with internal opposition to the prince, and foreign intervention weakened Galicia-Volhynia. With the end of the
Mstislavichbranch of the Rurikids in the mid-14th century, Galicia-Volhynia ceased to exist; Poland conquered Galich; Lithuania took Volhynia, including Kiev, conquered by Gediminasin 1321 ending the rule of Rurikids in the city. Lithuanian rulers then assumed the title over Ruthenia.
Reasons for decline and fall
The combination of events brought on the decline of
As mentioned earlier the rise of the regional centers played a great role. Also unconventional power succession system where the power was transferred form father to son (not always the eldest, usually the favorite one) to brother to son, bred constanthatered and rivalry within the royal family. Brutal killing of siblings and relatives was a very common (more common than in Western Europe) way to obtain power.
Constantinople- a main trading partner of Kiev Rus, played a tremendous role in the decline. The trade route From Varangians to Greeks, along which the goods were moving from the Black Sea(mainly Byzantine) through Eastern Europe to the Baltic, was a cornerstone of Kiev wealth and prosperity. Kiev was the main power and initiator in this relationship, once the Byzantine Empirefell into turmoil and the supplies became erratic, profits dried out, and Kiev lost its appeal. Other routes that went through Kiev were not remotely as significant. The other major Volga Trade Routelaid far to the east and north of Kiev and later contributed to the rise of Muskovia. Moving of the Orthodox Metropolitan See from Kievto Vladimirsignificantly undermined Kiev authority. The Mongol Invasionfinished off all hopes for reintegration.
Kievan Rus', although sparsely populated compared to Western Europe [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/pop-in-eur.html] , was not only the largest contemporary European state in terms of area but also culturally advanced."The adoption of Christianity by Vladimir... was followed by commerce with the Eastern Empire. In its wake came Byzantine art and culture. And in the course of the next century what is now Southeastern Russia became "more advanced in civilization than any western European State of the period", for Russia came in for a share of Byzantine culture, then vastly superior to the rudeness of Western nations."cite book | last = Sherman| first = Charles Phineas| authorlink = |title = Roman Law in the Modern World| origdate = | origyear = | origmonth = | url = http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=OCLC00824429&id=zh6ksO3bn0YC&dq=%22Roman+Law+in+the+Modern+World%22&pg=PP7&printsec=2&lpg=PP7| format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = 1917 | month = | publisher = The Boston Book Company, | location = Boston | language = | id = | pages = 191 | chapter = Russia | chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=OCLC00824429&id=zh6ksO3bn0YC&pg=PA191&lpg=PA191&dq=advanced+culture+OR+cultural+Kiev+novgorod&vq=%22Russia+became+more+advanced++in+civilization+than+any+western+European+State+of+the+period%22 | quote =] Literacy in Kiev,
Novgorodand other large cities was high.cite book | last = Tikhomirov | first = Mikhail Nikolaevich | authorlink = Mikhail Tikhomirov | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title = Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus)| origdate = | origyear = | origmonth = | url = http://www.archeologia.ru/Library/Book/3bcf6c93aa36/Info| format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = 1956 | month = | publisher = | location = Moscow | language = Russian | id = | pages = 261| chapter = Literacy among the citi dwellers | chapterurl = http://www.archeologia.ru/Library/Book/3bcf6c93aa36/page261 | quote =] cite book | last = Vernadsky| first = George| authorlink = George Vernadsky| title = Kievan Russia
http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0300016476&id=1HEdAP9N6ikC&dq=0300016476&pg=PP1&printsec=0&lpg=PP1&sig=CXuT_EW2-NCZeL2kiHy2-k9KlwU| edition = | date = | year = 1973|publisher = Yale University Press| location = | id =0300016476 | pages = 426| chapter = Russian Civilization in the Kievan Period: Education| chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0300016476&id=1HEdAP9N6ikC&pg=PA277&lpg=PA277&dq=george+vernadsky&vq=education&sig=5qLzu9sfZQ2JdQ3jiM-nb3Ycm8Y | quote =It is to the credit of Vladimir and his advisors they built not only churches but schools as well. This compulsory baptism was followed by compulsory education... Schools were thus founded not only in Kiev but also in provincial cities. From the "Life of St. Feodosi" we know that a school existed in Kursk around the year of 1023. By the time of Yaroslav's reign (1019-54), education had struck roots and its benefits were apparent. Around 1030 Iaroslav founded a divinity school in Novgorod for three hundred children of both laymen and clergy to be instructed in "book-learning". As a general measure he made the parish priests to "teach the people."] As
birch bark documents attest, they exchanged love letters and prepared cheat sheets for schools. Novgorod had a sewage systemcite book | last = Miklashevsky | first = N.| authorlink = | coauthors = and others | editor = | others = | title = Chistaya voda (Clean water)| origdate = | origyear = | origmonth = | url = http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/RP/ | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = 2000 | month = | publisher = ? | location = Saint Petersburg, Russia | language = Russian| id = ISBN 5-8206-0114-0| pages = 240| chapter = Istoriya vodoprovoda v Rossii (History of water-supply in Russia | chapterurl =http://ecoflash.narod.ru/likbez_8.htm | quote =] and wood paving not often found in other cities at the time. The Russkaya Pravdaconfined punishments to fines and generally did not use capital punishment. ["The most notable aspect of the criminal provisions was that punishments took the form of seizure of property, banishment, or, more often, payment of a fine. Even murderand other severe crimes ( arson, organized horse thieving, robbery) were settled by monetary fines. Although the death penalty had been introduced by Vladimir the Great, it too was soon replaced by fines." Magocsi, Paul Robert(1996). "A History of Ukraine", p. 90, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5. ] Certain inalienable rightswere accorded to women, such as property and inheritancerights.cite book | last = Tikhomirov | first = Mikhail Nikolaevich | authorlink = Mikhail Tikhomirov | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title = Пособие для изучения Русской Правды | origdate =
origyear = | origmonth = | url = http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/RP/ | format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = 2nd
date = | year = 1953 | month = | publisher = Издание Московского университета | location = Moscow
language = Russian | id = | pages = 190 | chapter = | chapterurl =
quote =] Janet Martin, "Medieval Russia, 980-1584", (Cambridge, 1995), p. 72] cite book | last = Vernadsky| first = George| authorlink = George Vernadsky| title = Kievan Russia
http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0300016476&id=1HEdAP9N6ikC&dq=0300016476&pg=PP1&printsec=0&lpg=PP1&sig=CXuT_EW2-NCZeL2kiHy2-k9KlwU| edition = | date = | year = 1973|publisher = Yale University Press| location = | id =0300016476 | pages = 426| chapter = Social organization: Woman| chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0300016476&id=1HEdAP9N6ikC&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=george+vernadsky&vq=woman&sig=orLBptS63b4rGG_0QIUaFeCtp5o| quote =]
The economic development of Kievan Rus may be translated into demographic statistics. Around 1200, Kiev had a population of 50,000 people, Novgorod and Chernigov both had around 30,000 people.Janet Martin, "Medieval Russia, 980-1584", (Cambridge, 1995), p. 61] By comparison, in Anglo-Norman
England, where urbanization was as advanced as anywhere in Europe north of the Mediterranean, Londonhad around 12,000 inhabitants, and England's second city, Winchester, about 5,000. [Bartlett, "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings", (New York, 2000), p. 332] Constantinoplehad population of about 400,000 people around 1180.J. Phillips, "The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople" page 144] The Soviet scholar Mikhail Tikhomirovcalculated that Kievan Rus' on the eve of the Mongol invasion had around 300 urban centers.cite book | last = Tikhomirov | first = Mikhail Nikolaevich | authorlink = Mikhail Tikhomirov | coauthors = | editor = | others = | title = Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus)| origdate = | origyear = | origmonth = | url = http://www.archeologia.ru/Library/Book/3bcf6c93aa36/Info| format = | accessdate = | accessyear = | accessmonth = | edition = | date = | year = 1956 | month = | publisher = | location = Moscow | language = Russian | id = | pages = 36, 39, 43| chapter = The origin of Russian cities | chapterurl = http://www.archeologia.ru/Library/Book/3bcf6c93aa36/page9| quote =]
Kievan Rus' also played an important genealogical role in European politics.
Yaroslav the Wise, whose stepmotherbelonged to the greatest dynastyto rule Byzantium, married the only legitimate daughter of the king who Christianized Sweden. His daughters became Queens of Hungary, France, and Norway, his sons married the daughters of a Polish king and a Byzantine emperor (not to mention a niece of the Pope), while his granddaughters were a German Empress and (according to one theory) the Queen of Scotland. A grandson married the only daughter of the last Anglo-Saxonking of England. Thus the Rurikidswere the most well-connected royal family of the time. ["In medieval Europe, a mark of a dynasty's prestige and power was the willingness with which other leading dynasties entered into matrimonial relations with it. Measured by this standard, Iaroslav's prestige must have been great indeed... . Little wonder that Iaroslav is often dubbed by historians as 'the father-in-law of Europe.'" -(cite book | first= Orest| last= Subtelny | title=Ukraine: A History | location= Toronto | publisher=University of Toronto Press | year=1988 | id=ISBN 0-8020-5808-6 | pages= 35)] ["By means of these marital ties, Kievan Rus’ became well known throughout Europe." — Magocsi, Paul Robert(1996). "A History of Ukraine", p. 76, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.]
Unsurprisingly, Kievan Rus' left a powerful legacy. The leader of the Riurikid Dynasty united a large territory inhabited by East Slavs into an important, albeit unstable, state. After Vladimir accepted
Eastern Orthodoxy, Kievan Rus' came together under a church structure and developed a Byzantine-Slavic synthesis in culture, statecraft, and the arts.
In the Western periphery, the Kievan Rus' legacy was carried for two more centuries by the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. Later, as these lands along with the territories of modern central
Ukraineand Belarusfell to the Gediminids, the powerful, largely Ruthenized Grand Duchy of Lithuania, drew heavily on Rus' cultural and legal traditions. On the northeastern periphery of Kievan Rus', those traditions were adapted to form the legacy that gradually gravitated towards the Moscowrulers, eventually leading to modern Russian statehood. Thus, modern Russia can trace a lineage to historic Rus' via Vladimir-Suzdal, Muscovy, and the Russian Empire. In the very north, the Novgorod and Pskov Feudal Republics carried on a separate and less autocratic version of Rus' legacy into the 16th century until they were absorbed by Muscovite Russia.
Etymology of Rus and derivatives
Rulers of Kievan Rus'
History of Belarus
History of Russia
History of Ukraine
De Administrando Imperio
* Christian, David. "A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia." Blackwell, 1999.
* Franklin, Simon and Shepard, Jonathon, "The Emergence of Rus, 750–1200." (Longman History of Russia, general editor Harold Shukman.) Longman, London, 1996. ISBN 0-582-49091-X
* Fennell, John, "The Crisis of Medieval Russia, 1200–1304." (Longman History of Russia, general editor Harold Shukman.) Longman, London, 1983. ISBN 0-582-48150-3
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* Martin, Janet, "Medieval Russia 980–1584." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. ISBN 0-521-36832-4
* Obolensky, Dimitri, "The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe 500–1453." Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971. ISBN 0-297-00343-7
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*loc - [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html Russia]
* [http://www.kievanrus.tk Graphic History of Kievan Rus from c. 800 to 988]
* [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pagesRURushDA.htm Rus’, Encyclopedia of Ukraine]
* [http://www.russia-ic.com/business_law/trade_and_crafts/331/ Ancient Rus: trade and crafts]
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