Slavic peoples

legend|#004040|South Slavic

The Slavic peoples are an ethnic and linguistic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. From the early 6th century they spread from their original homeland (most commonly thought to be in Eastern Europe) to inhabit most of eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans. [ [http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lecture1.html Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans to 1500] ] Many settled later in Siberia [Fiona Hill, [http://www.theglobalist.com/printStoryId.aspx?StoryId=3727 Russia — Coming In From the Cold?] , The Globalist, 23 February 2004] and Central Asia [Robert Greenall, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4420922.stm Russians left behind in Central Asia] , BBC News, 23 November 2005.] or emigrated to other parts of the world. [Terry Kirby, [http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article344755.ece 750,000 and rising: how Polish workers have built a home in Britain] , The Independent, 11 February 2006.] [ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12204c.htm Poles in the United States] , Catholic Encyclopedia]

Modern nations and ethnic groups called by the ethnonym "Slavs" are considerably genetically and culturally diverse and relations between them are varied, ranging from a sense of connection to feelings of mutual resentment."Kundera emphasized that for a thousand years the Czechs never had any direct contact with Russia. In spite of their linguistic kinship, the Czechs and the Russians never shared a common world, neither a common history of common culture.(...) Joseph Conrad wrote that "nothing could be more alien to what is called in literary world "the Slavic spirit" than the Polish temperament with its chivalric devotion to moral constraints and its exaggerated respect for individual rights" History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Robert Bideleux. Routledge 1998.(accentuation added. ] . "From its beginning, Poland drew its primary inspiration from Western Europe and developed a closer affinity with the French and Italians, for example, than with nearer Slavic neighbours of Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine heritage . This westward orientation, which in some ways has made Poland the easternmost outpost of Latinate and Catholic tradition, helps to explain the Poles' tenacious sense of belonging to the "West" and their deeply rooted antagonism toward Russia as the representative of an essentially alien way of life ."U.S. Library of Congress [http://countrystudies.us/poland/5.htm] accentuation added).]

Slavic peoples are classified into West Slavic (including Czechs, Kashubians, Poles, Moravians, Slovaks, Silesians and Sorbs), East Slavic (including Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians), and South Slavic (including Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes). For a more comprehensive list, see Ethno-cultural subdivisions.

Origin of the term "Slav"

Excluding the ambiguous mention by Ptolemy of tribes "Stavanoi" and "Soubenoi", the earliest references of "Slavs" under this name are from the 6th century AD. The word is written variously as "Sklabenoi", "Sklauenoi", or "Sklabinoi" in Byzantine Greek, and as "Sclaueni", "Sclauini", or "Sthlaueni" in Latin. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic and dating from the 9th century attest "slověne" to describe the Slavs around Thessalonica. Other early attestations include Old Russian "slověně" "an East Slavic group near Novgorod", "Slovutich" "Dnieper river", and Croatian "Slavonica", a river.

The name is normally linked with the Slavic forms "sláva" "glory", "fame" or "slovo" "word, talk" (both akin to "slušati" "to hear" from the IE root "*ḱlew-"). Thus "slověne" would mean "people who speak (the same language)", i.e. people who understand each other, as opposed to the Slavic word for foreign nations, "nemtsi", meaning "speechless people" (from Slavic "němi" - mute, silent, dumb). For example, the Polish word "Niemcy" means "Germans" or "Germany" (as do its cognates in many other Slavic languages).

However, some scholars have advanced alternative theories as to the origin of the name. B.P. Lozinski argues that the word "sláva" once had the meaning of "worshipper", in this context meaning "practicer of a common Slavic religion", and from that evolved into an ethonym. [Lozinski B.P., "The Name SLAV", Essays in Russian History, Archon Books, 1964.] S.B. Bernstein speculates that it derives from a reconstructed Proto-Indo-European "PIE|*(s)lawos", cognate to Greek "laós" "population, people", which itself has no commonly accepted etymology. [Bernstein S. B., Очерк сравнительной грамматики славянских языков, vol. 1-2, Moscow, 1961.] . Meanwhile Max Vasmer and others suggest that the word originated as a river name (compare the etymology of the Volcae), comparing it with such cognates as Latin "cluere" "to cleanse, purge", a root not known to have been continued in Slavic, although it appears in other languages with similar meanings (cf. Greek "klyzein" "to wash", Old English "hlūtor" "clean, pure", Old Norse "hlér" "sea", Welsh "clir" "clear, clean", Lithuanian "šlúoti" "to sweep").

Proto-Slavic language

Proto-Slavic, the ancestor language of all Slavic languages, branched off at some uncertain time in a disputed location from common Proto-Indo-European, passing through a Balto-Slavic stage in which it developed numerous lexical and morphophonological isoglosses with Baltic languages. In the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, "the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations became speakers of Balto-Slavic" [ [http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/art111e.pdf F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans] , p.4] .

Proto-Slavic proper, or more commonly referred to as "Common Slavic" or "Late Proto-Slavic", defined as the last stage of the language preceding the geographical split of the historical Slavic languages, was likely spoken during the 6th and 7th centuries on a vast territory from Novgorod to southern Greece. That language was unusually uniform, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and Slavic borrowings into other languages, can't be said to have any recognizable dialects. Slavic linguistic unity lasted for at least 1-2 centuries more, as can been seen in Old Church Slavonic manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic speech of Thessaloniki in the Southern Balkans, could still serve the purpose of the first common Slavic literary language.

Origins

Homeland debate

The location of the speakers of pre-Proto-Slavic and Proto-Slavic is subject to considerable debate. Serious candidates are cultures on the territories of modern Belarus, Poland, European Russia and Ukraine. The proposed frameworks are:

#Lusatian culture hypothesis: The pre-Proto-Slavs were present in north-eastern Central Europe since at least the late 2nd millennium BC, and were the bearers of the Lusatian culture and later the Przeworsk culture (part of the Chernyakhov culture).
#Milograd culture hypothesis: The pre-Proto-Slavs (or Balto-Slavs) were the bearers of the Milograd culture
#Chernoles culture hypothesis: The pre-Proto-Slavs were the bearers of the Chernoles culture of northern Ukraine

The starting point in the autochtonic/allochtonic debate was the year 1745, when Johann Christoph de Jordan published "De Originibus Slavicis." From the 19th century onwards, the debate became politically charged, particularly in connection with the history of the Partitions of Poland and German imperialism known as Drang nach Osten. The question as to whether Germanic or Slavic peoples were indigenous on the land east of the Oder river was used by factions to pursue their respective German and Polish political claims to governance of those lands.

Earliest accounts

Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy mention a tribe of the Veneti around the river Vistula. The lands east of the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, and west of the Vistula river were referred to as "Magna Germania" by Tacitus in AD 98. Romans occupied the land west of the Rhine. From Romanticism, the allochthonic school theorem is that the 6th century authors re-applied this ethnonym to hitherto unknown Slavic tribes, whence the later designation "Wends" for Slavic tribes, and medieval legends purporting a connection between Poles and Vandals.

The Slavs under name of "Venethi", the "Antes" and the "Sclaveni" make their first appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under Justinian I (527-565), such as Procopius of Caesarea, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire. Jordanes mentions that the Venethi sub-divided into three groups: the "Venethi", the "Antes" and the "Sklavens" ("Sclovenes", "Sklavinoi"). The Byzantine term "Sklavinoi" was loaned as "Saqaliba" by medieval Arab historiographers.

cenarios of ethnogenesis

The Globular Amphora culture stretches from the middle Dniepr to the Elbe in the late 4th and early 3rd millennia BC. It has been suggested as the locus of a Germano-Balto-Slavic continuum (compare Germanic substrate hypothesis), but the identification of its bearers as Indo-Europeans is uncertain. The area of this culture contains typical for IE originators numerous tumuli.

The Chernoles culture (8th to 3rd c. BC, sometimes associated with the "Scythian farmers" of Herodotus) is "sometimes portrayed as either a state in the development of the Slavic languages or at least some form of late Indo-European ancestral to the evolution of the Slavic stock" [James P. Mallory, "Chernoles Culture", EIEC] The Milograd culture (700 BC - 100 AD), centered roughly on present day Belarus, north of the contemporaneous Chernoles culture, have also been proposed as ancestral to either Slavs or Balts.

The ethnic composition of the bearers of the Przeworsk culture (2nd c. BC to 4th c. AD, associated with the Lugii) of central and southern Poland, northern Slovakia and of Ukraine, including the Zarubintsy culture (2nd c. BC to 2nd c. AD, also connected with the Bastarnae tribe) and the Oksywie culture are other candidates.

The area of southern Ukraine is known to have been inhabited by Scythian and Sarmatian tribes prior to the foundation of the Gothic kingdom. Early Slavic stone stelae found in the middle Dniestr region are markedly different from the Scythian and Sarmatian stelae found in the Crimea.

The (Gothic) Wielbark Culture displaced the eastern Oksywie part of the Przeworsk culture from the 1st century AD. While the Chernyakhov culture (2nd to 5th c. AD, identified with the multi-ethnic kingdom established by the Goths immigrating from the Wielbark culture) leads to the decline of the late Sarmatian culture in the 2nd to 4th centuries, the western part of the Przeworsk culture remains intact until the 4th century, and the Kiev culture flourishes during the same time, in the 2nd-5th c. AD. This latter culture is recognized as the direct predecessor of the Prague-Korchak and Pen'kovo cultures (6th-7th c. AD), the first archaeological cultures the bearers of which are indisputably identified as Slavic. Proto-Slavic is thus likely to have reached its final stage in the Kiev area; there is, however, substantial disagreement in the scientific community over the identity of the Kiev culture's predecessors, with some scholars tracing it from the Ruthenian Milograd culture, others from the "Ukrainian" Chernoles and Zarubintsy cultures and still others from the "Polish" Przeworsk culture. The Kiev culture was overrun by the Huns around 400 AD, which may have triggered the Proto-Slavic expansion to the historical locations of the Slavic languages.

Genetics

The modern Slavic peoples come from a wide variety of genetic backgrounds. The frequency of Haplogroup R1a [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/Science_2000_v290_p1155.pdf] ranges from 63.39% by the Sorbs, 56.4% in Poland and 54% in Ukraine, to 15.2% in Macedonia, 14.7% in Bulgaria and 12.1% in Herzegovina. [ [http://vetinari.sitesled.com/slavic.pdf "Full paper "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe" "] ] [ [http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/10/1964 "Abstract "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe" "] ] Haplogroup R1a may be connected to the spread of Proto-Indo-Europeans (see Kurgan hypothesis for more information).

A new study [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/c3ht013txp686v71/ Rebala K et al. (2007), "Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin", Journal of Human Genetics, 52:406-14] ] studied several Slavic populations with the aim of localizing the Proto-Slavic homeland. The significant findings of this study are that:

# Two genetically distant groups of Slavic populations were revealed: One encompassing all Western-Slavic, Eastern-Slavic, and two Southern - Slavic populations (Croats, Slovenes), and one encompassing all remaining Southern Slavs. According to the authors most Slavic populations have similar Y chromosome pools - R1a, and this similarity can be traced to an origin in middle Dnieper basin of Ukraine from Ukrainian LGM refuge 15 kya. [ibid., p. 408]
# However, some southern Slavic populations such as Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians, and Bosnians are clearly separated from the tight DNA cluster of the rest of Slavic populations. According to the authors this phenomenon is explained by "...contribution to the Y chromosomes of peoples who settled in the Balkan region before the Slavic expansion to the genetic heritage of Southern Slavs..." [ibid., p. 410]

Northern Eastern Slavs are distinguished by the presence of Y Haplogroup N in their genome. Postulated to originate from Central Asia, it is found at high rates in Finnic peoples. Its presence in Northern Russians [Oleg Balanovsky, Siiri Rootsi, et al., [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8JDD-4RHHD95-12&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F10%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=7618bf88940cc6aef5a106f9a063d69c "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context"] ] attests to the Northern Eastern Slavic tribes mixing with Finnic peoples in northern Eurasia.

lavic migrations

Prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia- such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. [ Velentin Sedov: "Slavs in Middle Ages"] The Slavs emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germans in the 5th and 6th centuries AD (necessitated by the onslaught of people from Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, and later Avars and Bulgars) started the great migration of the Slavs, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns and their allies: westward into the country between the Oder and the Elbe-Saale line; southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present day Austria, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans; and northward along the upper Dnieper river. Perhaps some Slavs migrated with the movement of the Vandals to Iberia and north Africa. [Mallory & Adams "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture] .

Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers. [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/mango.html Cyril Mango. Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome. Scribner's, 1980.] ] The Byzantine records note that after they marched through grass wouldn't regrow under their footprints. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3763/is_200106/ai_n8980372 Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs] ] This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. [ [http://www.hri.org/docs/macque/text5.html The "Macedonian Question": Middle Ages] ] . By the end of the 6th century, Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps region.

When their migratory movements ended, there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and a defense force. Moreover, it was the beginnings of class differentiation, and nobles either pledged allegiance to the Frankish/ Holy Roman Emperors or the Byzantine Emperors.

In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, who supported the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, which, however, most probably did not outlive its founder and ruler. This provided the foundation for subsequent Slavic states to arise on the former territory of this realm. Arguably, Carantania is the oldest Slavic state. Very old also are the Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia). In this period, there existed central Slavic groups and states such as the Balaton Principality, but the subsequent expansion of the Magyars, as well as the Germanisation of Austria, separated the northern and southern Slavs. The First Bulgarian Empire, ruled by a core of Bulgars, was founded in AD 681. After their subsequent Slavicisation, it was instrumental in the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the Slavic world.

Throughout their history, Slavs came into contact with non-Slavic groups. In the postulated "homeland" region (present-day Ukraine), they had contacts with Sarmatians and the Germanic Goths. After their subsequent spread, they began assimilating non-Slavic peoples. For example, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples, such as Thracians, Illyrians and Greeks. Having lost their indigenous language due to persistant Hellenisation and the Roman conquest, what remained of the Thracians and Illyrians were completely absorbed into the Slavic tribes. Later invaders such as Bulgars and even Cumans mingled with the Slavs also, particularly in eastern parts (ie Bulgaria). In the western Balkans, south Slavs and Germanic Gepids intermarried with Avar invaders, eventually producing a Slavicised population. In central Europe, the Slavs intermixed with Germanic, Celtic and Raetian peoples, while the eastern Slavs encountered Uralic and Scandinavian peoples. Scandinavians were involved in the early formation of the Russian state but were completely Slavicised after a century. Some Finno-Ugric tribes in the north were also absorbed into the expanding Russian population. [ [http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(07)00025-0 Oleg Balanovsky. Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context] ]

Cossacks, although Slavic-speaking and Orthodox Christians, came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars and other Turks. Many early members of the Terek Cossacks were Ossetians.

The Gorals of southern Poland and northern Slovakia are partially descended from Romance-speaking Vlachs who migrated into the region from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local population.

Conversely, some Slavs were assimilated "into" other populations. Although the majority continued south, attracted by the riches of the territory which would become Bulgaria, a few remained in the Carpathian basin and were ultimately assimilated into the Magyar or Romance speaking population. There is a large number of river names and other placenames of Slavic origin in Romania. [Alexandru Xenopol, "Istoria românilor din Dacia Traiană", 1888, vol. I, p. 540] Similarly, the populations of Austria and the eastern parts of Germany to some degree comprised of people with Slavic ancestry who became Germanised.

Because of the vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation. In the 19th century, Pan-Slavism developed as a movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics and didn't find support in all nations that had Slavic origins. Pan-Slavism became compromised when Russian Empire started to use it as an ideology justifying its territorial conquests in Central Europe as well as subjugation of other ethnic groups of Slavic origins such as Poles or Ukrainians, and the ideology became associated with Russian imperialism. The common Slavic experience of communism combined with the repeated usage of the ideology by Soviet propaganda after World War II within the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) was a forced high-level political and economic hegemony of the USSR dominated by Russians. A notable political union of the 20th century that covered many South Slavs was Yugoslavia, but it was broken apart as well.

The word "Slavs" was used in the national anthem of the Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Yugoslavia (1943-1992) and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003), later Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006).

Religion and alphabet

Most Slavic populations gradually adopted Christianity between 6th and 10th century, and consequently their old pagan beliefs declined. See also Rodnovery.

The majority of contemporary Slavs who profess a religion are Eastern Orthodox (and/or Greek Catholic) and Roman Catholic. A very small minority are Protestant, mainly in the north. In the south, Bosniaks and some minority groups are Sunni Muslim. Religious delineations by nationality can be very sharp; in many Slavic ethnic groups the vast majority of religious people share the same religion. Many Slavs are atheist or agnostic: recent estimates suggest 18% in Russia.cite web|title=ru_icon Опубликована подробная сравнительная статистика религиозности в России и Польше|publisher=religare.ru|date=6 June 2007|url=http://www.religare.ru/article42432.htm|accessdate=2007-12-27] and 59% in the Czech Republic [cite web |url=http://www.czso.cz/csu/2003edicniplan.nsf/o/4110-03--obyvatelstvo_hlasici_se_k_jednotlivym_cirkvim_a_nabozenskym_spolecnostem |title=Obyvatelstvo hlásící se k jednotlivým církvím a náboženským společnostem |language=Czech |accessdate=2006-12-19 |publisher=Czech Statistical Office] ; nevertheless some Slavs who profess no faith still may traditionally associate themselves with a particular religion in a cultural and historical sense.

1. Those who are mainly Eastern Orthodox or/and Greek Catholic:

* Russians
* Ukrainians
* Belarusians
* Serbs
* Pannonian Rusyns
* Rusyns
* Bulgarians
* Macedonians
* Montenegrins

2. Those who are mainly Roman Catholic with small Protestant and Eastern Orthodox minorities:

* Poles
* Silesians
* Kashubians
* Moravians
* Slovaks
* Slovenes
* Croats
* Krashovans
* Bunjevs

3. Those who are mainly Muslim:

* Bosniaks
* Gorani
* Torbesh
* Pomaks
* Muslims by nationality

4. Those who are a religious mixture:

* Sorbs (Catholic/Protestant)
* Yugoslavs (Catholic/Orthodox/Muslim)

5. Those who are mainly atheist and Roman Catholic with Protestant minorities:

* Czechs

The Orthodox/Catholic religious divisions become further exacerbated by the use of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Orthodox and Greek Catholics and of the Roman alphabet by Roman Catholics. However, the Serbian language (including Montenegrin) can be written using both the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets. There is also a Latin script to write in Belarusian, called the Lacinka alphabet. The Bosnian language has at times been written using the Arabic alphabet (mostly in Muslim documents), but it nowadays uses exclusively Roman alphabet, though Cyrillic alphabet is in theory available as an alternative.

Ethno-cultural subdivisions

Slavs are customarily divided along geographical lines into three major subgroups: East Slavs, West Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a different and a diverse background based on unique history, religion and culture of particular Slavic group within them. The East Slavs may all be traced to Slavic-speaking populations that were loosely organized under the Kievan Rus' empire beginning in the 10th century A.D. Almost all of the South Slavs can be traced to ethnic Slavs who mixed with the local European population of the Balkans (Illyrians, Dacians/Thracians, Greeks); with some Slavs of modern-day Bulgaria mixing with later invaders from the East, the Bulgars, then fell under the hegemony of the Ottoman Empire. The West Slavs and Slovenes do not share either of these backgrounds, as they expanded to the West and integrated into the cultural sphere of Western (Roman Catholic) Christianity around this time also mixing with nearby Germanic tribes.

In addition there has been a tendency to consider the category of Northern Slavs. Presently this category is considered to be of East and West Slavs, in opposition to South Slavs, however in 19th century opinions about individual languages/ethnicities varied.

Some of the following subdivisions remain debatable, particularly for smaller groups and national minorities.

East Slavs

"Main article: East Slavs"

*Russians
**Goryuns
**Kamchadals
**Lipovan Russians
**Polekhs
**Pomors
*Ukrainians
**Bojko
**Hutsuls
**Lemko 4
**Poleszuks 2
*Belarusians
**Poleszuks 2
*Rusyns 3
**Lemko 4

West Slavs

"Main article: West Slavs"

*Lechitic group
**Poles
***Masovians
***Polans
***Vistulans
**Silesians 5
**Pomeranians
***Kashubians 5
***Slovincians
**Polabians
***Sorbs
***Obodrites/Abodrites
****Obotrites proper
****Wagrians
****Warnower
****Polabians proper
****Linonen
****Travnjane
****Drevani
***Veleti (Wilzi, later Liutici)
****Kissini ("Kessiner", "Chizzinen", "Kyzziner")
****Circipani ("Zirzipanen")
****Tollenser
****Redarier
***Ucri ("Ukr(an)i, Ukranen")
***Rani (Rujani)
***Hevelli ("Stodorani")
***Volinians (Velunzani)
***Pyritzans (Prissani)
*Czech-Slovak group
**Czechs
**Moravians 6
**Slovaks
**Pannonian Rusyns 1
*Sorbs (Serbo-Lusatians)
**Milceni (Upper Sorbs)
**Lusatians (Lower Sorbs)

outh Slavs

"Main article: South Slavs"

*Eastern (Bulgaro-Macedonian) group
**Bulgarians
***Pomaks (Muslim Bulgarians)
***Palćene (Banat Bulgarians)
***Bessarabian Bulgarians
***Anatolian Bulgarians
***Shopi7
***Torlaks
**Macedonians
***Torbesh (Muslim Macedonians)
***Aegean Macedonians

*Western group
**Slovenes
***Carantanians
***Carinthian Slovenes
***Hungarian Slovenes
***Resians
**Serbs
***Montenegrins9
***Torlaks8
***Gorani 11
**Montenegrins9
**Croats
***Janjevci (Catholic Slavs in Kosovo)
***Molise Croats (in eastern Italy)
***Krashovans (Croats in Romania)
***Burgenland Croats (in Austria)
***Bunjevci 10
***Šokci 10
**Bunjevci 10
**Bosniaks
***Muslims by nationality 12
**Gorani 11
***Muslims by nationality 12
**Yugoslavs (mostly in Serbia, Bosnia, few in Croatia) 13

Extinct
1 Also considered part of Rusyns
2 Considered transitional between Ukrainians and Belarusians
3 Also considered part of Ukrainians
4 A part of Lemkos identify themselves as Ukrainians and another part as Rusyns [http://lemko.org/lih/whoarewe.html]
5 Also considered part of Poles
6 Today, often considered part of Czechs, originally closer to Slovaks

7 Most Shopi self-declare as Bulgarians. Cognate with Torlaks.
8 Most Torlaks self-declare as Serbs. Cognate with Shopi.

9 Half of the Montenegrins opt Serb ethnicity, with a historical tradition, dating back to the Serb tribes that settled Montenegro many centuries ago. While others opt for Montenegrin ethnicity, are followers of the same Serbian Orthodox Church, speak the same language but do not have a historical tradition (prior to 1948 "Montenegrin" was used solely as a regional affiliation of a Serb, meaning a "Serb from Montenegro"). A small number of ethnic Montenegrins, mostly supporters of Montenegrin independence and adherents of the small Montenegrin Orthodox Church call their native language Montenegrin, considering it a separate language from Serbian.

10 Both occur widely in northeastern Croatia and also in northern Serbia; their Ikavian dialect is subequal as southern Croats in Hercegovina and Dalmatian mainland from where they once emigrated. Considered part of Croats by most of them, although recently (since Yugoslav disaster) some within Serbia consider themselves a separate peoples

11 These Gorani are Slavs in Kosovo; but not to be confound with other Gorani (or Gorinci) in the highlands of western Croatia (Gorski Kotar county).

12 A census category recognized as an ethnic group. Most Slavic Muslims now opt for Bosniak ethnicity, but some still use the "Muslim" designation.

13 This identity continues to be used by a minority throughout the former Yugoslav republics. The nationality is also declared by diasporans living in the USA and Canada. There are a multitude of reasons as to why people prefer this affiliation, some published on the article.

Note: Besides ethnic groups, Slavs often identify themselves with the local geographical region in which they live. Some of the major regional South Slavic groups include: Zagorci in northern Croatia, Istrani in westernmost Croatia, Dalmatinci in southern Croatia, Boduli in Adriatic islands, Slavonci in eastern Croatia, Bosanci in Bosnia, Hercegovci in southern Bosnia (Herzegovina), Krajišnici in western Bosnia, Semberci in northeast Bosnia, Srbijanci in Serbia proper, Šumadinci in central Serbia, Vojvođani in northern Serbia, Sremci in Syrmia, Bačvani in northwest Vojvodina, Banaćani in Banat, Sandžaklije (Muslims in Serbia/Montenegro border), Kosovci in Kosovo, Crnogorci in Montenegro proper, Bokelji in southwest Montenegro, Trakiytci in Upper Thracian Lowlands, Dobrudzhantci in north-east Bulgarian region , Balkandzhiiin Central Balkan Mountains, Miziytci in north Bulgarian region, Pirintsi [Performing Democracy: Bulgarian Music and Musicians in Transition Page 11 By Donna Anne Buchanan ISBN 0226078264] in Blagoevgrad Province, Rupchi in the Rhodopes, etc.

Another interesting note is that the very term Slavic itself was registered in the US census of 2000 by more than 127,000 residents.

References

See also


* Early East Slavs
* East Slavs
* European ethnic groups
* Gord (Slavic settlement)
* Lech, Czech and Rus
* List of ethnic groups
* Pan-Slavic colours
* Pan-Slavism
* Slavic mythology
* South Slavs
* West Slavs
* Other European ethnic groupings:
** Baltic peoples
** Celtic peoples
** Finno-Ugric peoples
** Germanic peoples
** Romance peoples
** Turkic peoples
** Uralic peoples

External links

*.
*
* [http://kestutisturbo.sitesled.com/ THE ORIGIN OF THE BALTIC, GERMAN AND SLAVIC PEOPLE. THE ICELAND AGES]
* [http://macedonian.atspace.com/knigi/derz_Slov.htm "Najstariji period istorije Slovena (Venedi, Sloveni i Anti)"] - N. S. Deržavin
* [http://indaba.i8.com/stranky/historia/hist01.html SLOVENI: UNDE ORTI ESTIS? SLOVÁCI, KDE SÚ VAŠE KORENE?] , by Cyril A. Hromník (mainly in Slova).
* [http://slavicworld.org Site about Slavics, Slavic Countries, Cultures, Languages, etc] (mainly in Russian)
* [http://macedonian.atspace.com/knigi/mnu_mkslv.htm The early wars between the Macedonian Slavs and the Byzantines] (from medieval sources)
* [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/Science_2000_v290_p1155.pdf "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective"]
*


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