1680- November 22, 1718
caption=Blackbeard (1734 engraving)
Ocracoke, Province of Carolina
serviceyears=1712 – 1718
base of operations=Atlantic
Queen Anne's Revenge"
Edward Teach (IPA2|tɛtʃ; c. 1680cite book | last = Perry | first = Dan | title = Blackbeard: The Real Pirate of the Caribbean | origyear = 2006 | publisher = Thunder's Mouth Press | isbn = 1-56025-885-3 |pages= 14] –
November 22, 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English piratein the Caribbean Seaand western Atlantic during the early 18th century, a period referred to as the Golden Age of Piracy. His best known vessel was the " Queen Anne's Revenge", which is believed to have run aground near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolinain 1718. [ [http://www.qaronline.org/education/edintro.htm Queen Anne's Revenge Online] ]
Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself, wearing a big feathered
tricorn, and having multiple swords, knives, and pistols at his disposal. It was reported in "A General Historie of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates" that he had hempand lit matches woven into his enormous black beard during battle to intimidate his enemies. Blackbeard is often regarded as the archetypal image of the seafaring pirate.
Nothing is known about Blackbeard's early life. The best sources have Blackbeard's real name as Edward Teach. An alternative spelling is Edward Thatch; another name is Edward Drummond. Most think Blackbeard was born in
Bristol, but some speculate London, Jamaica, Philadelphia, Accomack County, VirginiaTeach went to sea at an early age. He served on a British ship in the War of the Spanish Successionwhich also included Queen Anne's war, privateering in the Spanish West Indiesand along the Spanish Main. After Britain withdrew from the war in 1713, Teach, like many other privateers, turned to piracy. He got his first legs from the pirate Benjamin Hornigold, whose base was in Jamaica. When Hornigold decided to retire from piracy and took the Crown's offer of a pardon, Blackbeard refused the pardon, taking a ship Hornigold captured that same year, a French slave-ship named "Le Concorde", (later research revealed that the ship was actually built in Britain)Fact|date=May 2008 renaming it "Queen Anne's Revenge". SomeWho|date=May 2008 think that the name was a tribute to the war where he got his first taste of piracy, Queen Anne's War. "Queen Anne's Revenge" was armed with 40 guns.Ross, I. "Blackbeard" "United States Naval Institute Proceedings" October 1974 pp. 72-74]
had an image of the devil holding an hourglass (signifying time running out), and a spear pointing at a bleeding heart.Fact|date=May 2008
Blackbeard the Pirate
According to Charles Johnson, Blackbeard fought a running duel with the British thirty-gun man-of-war "HMS Scarborough", which added to his notoriety. However, historian David Cordingly has noted that the "Scarborough"'s log has no mention of any such battle.
Blackbeard would plunder merchant ships, forcing them to allow his crew to board their ship. The pirates would seize all of the valuables, food, liquor, and weapons. Despite his ferocious reputation, there are no verified accounts of him actually killing anyone. "For Blackbeard, at least, this investment paid off. According to historian Angus Konstam who has investigated Blackbeard's life and piratical career extensively, until Blackbeard's final battle with the lieutenant of HMS Pearl, Robert Maynard, who took the bearded icon's life, the world's most notorious and fearsome pirate had not so much as killed a single man (2006: 157). Apparently he didn't need to." pg 21, [http://www.peterleeson.com/Pirational_Choice.pdf "Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices"] , Peter T. Leeson] He deliberately cultivated his barbaric reputation, and so could prevail by terror alone. ["Rather than the result of flamboyance, madness, or eccentricity, pirates like Blackbeard deliberately constructed their bizarre and frightful physical appearances to facilitate piratical plunder. "There is no doubt that Blackbeard," for instance, "was conscious of the public image he had created" and worked diligently to maintain it (Lee 1974: 22)." Leeson 2008.]
However, colorful legends and vivid contemporary newspaper portrayals had him committing acts of cruelty and terror. One tale claims he shot his own first mate, saying "if he didn’t shoot one or two crewmen now and then, they’d forget who he was." Another legend is that having had too much to drink, he said to his crew, "Come, let us make a hell of our own, and try how long we can bear it." Going into the ship's hold, they closed the hatches, filled several pots with brimstone and set it on fire. Soon the men were coughing and gasping for air from the sulphurous fumes. All except Blackbeard scrambled out for fresh air. When Blackbeard emerged, he snarled, "Damn ye, ye yellow-bellied sapsuckers! I'm a better man than all ye milksops put together!" [Pendrand, Norman C. (1975) "Blackbeard: The Fiercest Pirate of All".] According to Captain Charles Johnson's "A General History of the Robberies & Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates": cquote|Before he sailed upon his adventures, he married a young creature of about sixteen years of age . . . and this I have been informed, made Teach's fourteenth wife . . . with whom after he had lain all night, it was his custom to invite five or six of his brutal companions to come ashore, and he would force her to prostitute herself to them all, one after another, before his face.
Teach had headquarters in both the Bahamas and the
Carolinasas well as Sonoma. He lived on the island of Nassau where he was named the magistrate of the "Privateers Republic". Legends circulate that Governor Charles Edenof North Carolina received booty from Teach in return for unofficial protection. (Eden would eventually offer Teach an official pardon.) Teach left Nassau to avoid meeting with Royal Governor Woodes Rogers, unlike the majority of the pirate inhabitants who welcomed the governor and accepted the royal pardons he brought.
Blockade of Charleston
Blackbeard's chief claim to fame is his blockade of Charleston,
South Carolina. In approximately late May 1718, Blackbeard entered the mouth of Charleston harbour with the "Queen Anne's Revenge" and three lighter vessels. He plundered five merchant freighters attempting to enter or leave the port. No other vessels could transit the harbour for fear of encountering the pirate squadron.
Aboard one of the ships that Blackbeard captured in the harbor mouth was a group of prominent Charleston citizens, including
Samuel Wragg. Blackbeard held these hostages for ransom, making an unusual demand: a chest of medicines. He sent a deputation ashore to negotiate this ransom. Due partly to his envoys' preference for carousing rather than bargaining, the ransom took some days to be delivered, and Blackbeard evidently came close to murdering his prisoners. Eventually, the medicines were turned over, and Blackbeard released the hostages, without their clothing, but otherwise unharmed. Blackbeard's whole squadron then escaped northward.
Shortly afterward, Blackbeard ran two of his vessels aground at Topsail Inlet (now Beaufort Inlet), including the "Queen Anne's Revenge", and the ship "Adventure" when trying to 'save' the grounded ship. He has been accused by many, including his own crew, of doing this deliberately in order to downsize his crew and increase his own share of the treasure. Deliberate or not, he stripped three of the ships of all treasure, beached or marooned most of his crew, and went to Bath,
North Carolina, where he finally accepted a pardon under the royal Act of Grace. He then went off to Ocracoke Inletin the last of his four vessels to enjoy his loot.
Having accepted a pardon, Teach had apparently retired from piracy. Nevertheless, Governor
Alexander Spotswoodof Virginia became concerned that the notorious freebooter lived nearby. Spotswood decided to eliminate Blackbeard, even though he lived outside of Spotswood's jurisdiction.
Blackbeard operated in coastal waters; it was difficult for
ships of the lineto engage him in battle. Two smaller hired sloops were therefore put under the command of Lieutenant Robert Maynard, with instructions from Spotswood to hunt down and destroy Blackbeard, offering a reward of £100, and smaller sums for the lesser crew members.
Maynard sailed from James River on
November 11, 1718, in command of thirty men from HMS "Pearl", and twenty-five men and a midshipman of HMS "Lyme", and in command of the hired sloops, the "Ranger" and "Jane" (temporarily commissioned as His Majesty's Ships to avoid accusations of piracy themselves). Maynard found the pirates anchored in a North Carolina inlet on the inner side of Ocracoke Island, on the evening of November 21.
Maynard and his men decided to wait until the following morning because the tide would be more favourable. Blackbeard's "Adventure" had a crew of only nineteen, "Thirteen crackers and six Negroes", as reported to the Admiralty. A small boat was sent ahead at daybreak, was fired upon, and quickly retreated. Blackbeard's superior knowledge of the inlet was of much help, although he and his crew had been drinking in his cabin the night prior. Throughout the night Blackbeard waited for Maynard to make his move. Blackbeard cut his anchor cable and quickly attempted to move towards a narrow channel. Maynard made chase; however his sloops ran aground, and there was a shouted exchange between captains. Maynard's account says, "At our first salutation, he drank Damnation to me and my Men, whom he stil'd Cowardly Puppies, saying, He would neither give nor take Quarter", although many different versions of the dialogue exist.
Eventually, Maynard's sloops were able to float freely again, and he began to row towards Blackbeard, since the wind was not strong enough at the time for setting sail. When they came upon Blackbeard's "Adventure", they were hit with a devastating broadside attack. Midshipman Hyde, captain of the smaller "HMS Jane", was killed along with six other men. Ten men were also wounded in the surprise attack. The sloop fell astern and was little help in the following action. Maynard continued his pursuit in "HMS Ranger", managing to blast the "Adventure"'s rigging, forcing it ashore. Maynard ordered many of his crew into the holds and readied to be boarded. As his ship approached, Blackbeard saw the mostly empty decks, assumed it was safe to board, and did so with ten men. Blackbeard's assault was preceded by several grenades made by filling rum bottles with
gunpowder. Broken glass swept the deck and gunpowder smoke obscured Maynard's view of Blackbeard's boarders.
Maynard's men emerged, and the battle began. The most complete account of the following events comes from the "
Boston News-Letter": [cite book
last = Cordingly
first = David
title = Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates
pages = 198
id = ISBN 0-15-600549-2]
Despite the best efforts of the pirates (including a desperate plan to blow up the "Adventure"), Teach was killed, and the battle ended. Teach was reportedly shot five times and stabbed more than twenty times before he died and was decapitated. Legends about his death immediately sprang up, including the oft-repeated claim that Teach's headless body, after being thrown overboard, swam between 2 and 7 times around the "Adventure" before sinking. Teach's head was placed as a trophy on the
bowspritof the ship (it was also required by Maynard to claim his prize when he returned home). After the sheer terror of the battle with the pirates, and the wounds that the crew received, Maynard still only acquired his meager prize of £100 from Spotswood. Later, Teach's head hung from a pike in Bath.
History has romanticised Blackbeard. Popular contemporary
engravings show him with the smoking ends of his pigtails or with lit cannon fuses in his hair and pistols in his bandoliers, and he has been the subject of books, movies, and documentaries. There is a [http://www.blackbeardfestival.com Blackbeard Festival] in Hampton, Virginiaevery year and the crew of the modern day British warship HMS "Ranger" commemorate his defeat at the annual [http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/nav.2967 Sussex] University Royal Naval UnitBlackbeard Night mess dinner in November.
Another legend in coastal North Carolina holds that Captain Teach's skull was used as the basis for a silver drinking chalice. A North Carolina judge claimed to have drunk from it one night in the 1930s at a closed dinner with a university student. ("Blackbeard's Cup and Stories of the Outer Banks" by Charles Harry Whedbee.)
Teach was prone to burying treasure. He would allegedly take a treasure chest ashore with one sailor in a small boat, and return alone. The sailor's corpse was said to lie atop the chest in the excavation to discourage the squeamish from continuing the treasure hunt. In times as difficult as the
American Revolution, it was common for the credulous to dig along the beaches in search of hidden treasure. A wreck believed to be Blackbeard's "Queen Ann's Revenge" was discovered near Beaufort, North Carolina in 1996 and is now part of a major tourist attraction.
Blackbeard was thought to have twelve "wives" throughout his life, living on various islands, as well as a wife and son in England. [ Norman C. Pendered:Published by: Times Printing Co., Inc., Manetoba, NC, 1975] [ [http://www.ocracoke-nc.com/blackbeard/tales/ladies-man.shtml Blackbeard ! - Ladies Man - Coastal North Carolina, South Carolina. Outer Banks ] ]
In 1723, the book "A General Historie of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates" was released by a Captain Charles Johnson, often attributed to
Daniel Defoe. This book describes the adventures of various pirates besides Edward Teach: e.g. Anne Bonnyand Mary Read. The "General Historie"'s descriptions, which have found their way into serious history-writing, are a mixture of historical evidence and fiction woven together in a way so complex that it is nearly impossible to divide them again. Even Defoe's authorship cannot be proved without doubt.
The problem appears especially in the case of Edward Teach's life and appearance. The description of the burning matches in his beard is in a literary style that uses dramatic descriptions to make a person more interesting—a style closely connected to Defoe, the author of
Robinson Crusoe. Also the earlier mentioned battle with HMS "Scarborough" lacks evidence in the warship's log. Other incidents, e.g. the blockade of Charleston, South Carolina, appear in other sources.
Books and comics
* Blackbeard appears as a character in
Stephen Vincent Benét's drama, "The Devil and Daniel Webster" (1937). He is part of the Jury of the Damned summoned by the Devil.
Robert Louis Stevenson's " Treasure Island" contains two references to Blackbeard. (1883). 1) Squire Trelawney: "Blackbeard was a child to Flint." 2) In the book, one of Long John Silver's pirates is named Israel Hands, after one of Blackbeard's officers.
* Edward Teach appears in
Neal Stephenson's series: " The Baroque Cycle", commanding a fleet of pirate vessels. A large portion of the opening book " Quicksilver" involves Blackbeard pursuing Daniel Waterhouse, the protagonist, along the coast of New England (2004)
Marvel Comics, Doctor Doomsends the Fantastic Fourback in time to find Blackbeard's treasure, but events unfold in such a way that the Thing turns out to be Blackbeard. Blackbeard appears in the 1967 episode of the Spiderman cartoon series "The Night of the Villains" as a dummy created by Parafino, wax master in the world.
DC Comics, the immortal Vandal Savagetook the alias Edward Teach and earned the nickname 'Blackbeard'. He later faked his own death.
* A character named Blackbeard ("Marshall D." Teach instead of Edward Teach) is one of the most powerful pirates in the world of
One Piece. Another pirate, Whitebeard, is known by the name "Edward Newgate", taking the remainder of the real Blackbeard's name.
* Blackbeard appeared in one of the
Time Warp Triobook series titled The Not-So-Jolly Roger.
* Edward Teach is an important secondary character in
Gregory Keyes' series The Age of Unreason.
* In Robert Louis Stevenson's "The Master of Ballantrae" there is a pirate captain with a black beard called Teach, but he is distinguished from the Teach of this article.
* According to "
Peter Pan", Captain Hookwas Blackbeard's boatswain.
* The 1986 DC Comics mini-series "
Watchmen" features a fictional pirate-themed comic book called "Tales of the Black Freighter." It features horror stories surrounding a ship from hell, crewed by the damned and captained by Edward Teach.
* In the 2002 Novel "Plum Island" by Nelson Demille, the plot revolves around the discovery of Blackbeard's treasure.
* J. Meade Falkner's novel "
Moonfleet" centres around John Trenchard's discovery of the last resting place of Blackbeard and his hidden treasure.
* Blackbeard made a slight appearance in Percy Jackson and the Sea of Monsters as a prisoner on Circe's Island, there he is a son of Ares.
* Blackbeard is the chief antagonist of the main character John Chandagnac and a
Vodousorcerer in Tim Powers' 1988 novel On Stranger Tides. His surname is here assumed to be Thatch.
Films and miniseries
* Blackbeard appears in the movie "
Anne of the Indies" (1951).
Blackbeard the Pirate" (1952)
Peter Ustinovplayed the title role in the 1968 filmcomedy " Blackbeard's Ghost". [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0062737/ Blackbeard's Ghost (1968) ] ] (1968)
Yellowbeard" (1983), the title character played by Graham Chapmanwas based on Blackbeard.
* "Blackbeard" (2006), starring
Angus MacFadyen(from " Braveheart") as the pirate. Originally filmed as a four-hour mini-series, the full version has been released abroad and on DVD. Shot entirely on location in Thailand, the film was directed by Kevin Connor and written by Bryce Zabel. Although many of the names and places are accurate, this Blackbeard is essentially a fictional story about the pirate's obsession to find the missing treasure of Captain Kidd. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0472242 imdb.com]
* In 2007,
Keith Richardsmakes a cameo role in the movie "" as the father of Captain Jack Sparrow. The name of his character was Captain Teague, which is a tribute to Blackbeardwhose last name was Teach. Captain Teague is the Keeper of the Code for the Brethren Court.Fact|date=May 2008
In 1956, in the tv series, The Buccaneers, Blackbeard appears in several episodes.
Malachi Throneportrayed Captain Teach in an episode of " Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (TV series)". In the 4th season episode "Blackbeard Returns" the crew of the Seaviewdiscover the resting place of Queen Anne's Revengeand subsequently have to battle the presence of Blackbeard's ghost as the legendary scalawag tries to turn the crewmen into pirates.
* On the
Simpsons- Treehouse of Horror IV: The Devil and Homer Simpson, the Devilsummons a "Jury of the Damned" to determine whether Homer should go to hellfor exchanging his soul for a doughnut (this was inspired by " The Devil and Daniel Webster"). One of those chosen to be on the jury is Blackbeard. After Marge informs him that the only chair left to sit on is a baby's high chair, Blackbeard responds in a tautology, "Arr! This chair be high, says I!" Later, when trying to read Homer's note, he says "Looks to be some kind of treasure map!" Benedict Arnoldsnatches it from him, chiding him for not being able to read. Blackbeard blames that as the cause of his debauchery.
* Blackbeard is featured in "
Time Squad" as a pirate who wants to save the mammals (or animals). There was an error in his second appearance ("Repeat Offender" (The sequel to "Blackbeard, Warm Heart")) that he is said to be a pirate operating along the Caribbean. ( July 6, 2001)
* Blackbeard can be seen sitting next to a customer in the Krusty Krab in the "
SpongeBob SquarePants" episode, Sailor Mouth. ( September 21, 2001)
* Blackbeard was among other infamous historical figures brought into the present time in an episode of "
* Blackbeard is a traitor and deserter of The
Whitebeard Piratesin the animeand mangaseries " One Piece". His full name is Marshall D. Teach.
* In "
Adventures in Odyssey" episode 297: "Blackbeard's Treasure," two main characters discover Blackbeard's treasure while holidaying in Bath.
* Snopes, a website that normally investigates and verifies the truth of
urban legends, created a false rumour [http://www.snopes.com/lost/sixpence.htm] that the rhyme " Sing a Song of Sixpence" was used as a recruitment tool by Blackbeard. TLC (The Learning Channel) was taken in by this farce, and broadcast it as fact during one of their shows [ [http://www.snopes.com/humor/mediagoofs/sixpence.asp snopes.com: Mostly True Stories Sixpence Error ] ] . The board game"urban myth" also fell for the spoof [ [http://www.snopes.com/humor/mediagoofs/sixpence2.asp snopes.com: Urban Myths Board Game Error ] ] . Snopes claims they created the spoof to test readers' ability to use their common sense to judge for themselves the likelihood of urban legends [http://www.snopes.com/lost/false.htm] . (1999)
* In the Time Warp Trio episode, "The Not so Jolly Roger", Fred, Sam, and Joe, are forced to join Blackbeard's crew.
* National Geographic Channel "Blackbeard: Terror at Sea" 88 min. It is presented as a docu-drama. DVD release feature, "Fact vs. Folklore"
* One of the artifacts on "Legends of the Hidden Temple" was "Blackbeard's Treasure Map".
* Part of the History Channel's "True Caribbean Pirates" deals with Blackbeard.
Most Hauntedhave recently been in Bristolto try and find the ghost of Blackbeard
*Blackbeard and his family(Nobeard and Greybeard) appears in
Johnny Testwhere he faces his brother Nobeard, Johnny, and Dukey. Blackbeard's father is revealed to be Greybeard.
* In the series "Jack of All Trades", starring Bruce Campbell, Blackbeard appears in an episode where he is hired by the French to kidnap Benjamin Franklin.
* In 2006 the BBC in the UK showed a two part docu-drama starring James Purefoy as Blackbeard.
Computer and video games
* Blackbeard was the name of a 1988
Sinclair Spectrumcomputer game released by Topo Soft in Spain, and which was re-released by Kixxin the United Kingdom. [cite web|url=http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=0000555|title=Blackbeard|publisher= World of Spectrum|accessdate=2008-02-25]
* In the game "Sid Meier's Pirates!", Blackbeard plays a minor role as a rival pirate (at the start of the game, Blackbeard is the 2nd most notorious pirate in the Caribbean). (1987 and 2004)
* In "", a card catalogue entry in the Phatt Island library mentions Blackbeard: "BIOGRAPHY: 'ME AND BLACKBEARD'" (1991)
* In the
computer role-playing game, "", Edward Teach is the name of a famous pirate who transports the character to certain locations in the game world.
* 'Baltor the Blackbearded' appears in the
Sega Dreamcastgame Skies of Arcadia. His ship is called 'The Blackbeard', and Baltor himself resembles Blackbeard.
* In the
MMORPG" City of Villains", Blackbeard massacred the soldiers of a fort at the fictional location of Port Oakes, causing their ghosts to haunt the area. (2005)
* In the
adventure game"Red Jack: The Revenge of the Brethren", Blackbeard is portrayed as one of the brethren under Red Jack's command.
* In 7 Studios' video game a character named Black Smoke James, voiced by
Steven Jay Blum, bears some resemblance to Blackbeard.
* In the computer game Port Royale I&II (by Ascaron Entertainment), he appears as a marauding pirate that loots merchant fleets and Spanish treasure fleets.
* In the video game
Golden Sun, there is an extra boss named Deadbeard, on Crossbone Island.
* In the MMORPG "
Earth & Beyond", there is a star system only accessible by Pirates called 'Blackbeard's Wake'. The space station in the system is the 'Queen Anne's Revenge'.
Megaman Battle Network 6, he is only a WWW member who cause an incident in the Seaside Town in Cyber City. He is also an operator of his net navi Diveman.EXE
* In the MMORPG game Voyage Century Online, Blackbeard is one of the Pirate bosses which you can fight.
* In the MMORPG Final Fantasy XI, Blackbeard is a skeleton type "Notorious Monster" that can appear when pirates attack the passenger ferry from Mhaura to Selbina.
* In Ascaron Entertainment's 2007 PC game Tortuga: 2 Treasures, the main character is betrayed by Blackbeard who then embarks upon an adventure of revenge.
* Blackbeard was the featured centerpiece of the famous Disney Park attraction Pirates of the Caribbean from 1967 to mid-2006, when he was replaced by
Captain Hector Barbossafrom the "Pirates" movie franchise.
* A painting of Blackbeard hangs in Van Der Veer House (ce. 1790), in Bath.
* Blackbeard's flag was also one of several taken from real-life accounts and used in .
* Blackbeard's Flag is also currently being worn by WWE Wrestler Brian Kendrick as a design on his wrestling shorts.
* Blackbeard was one of the many famous pirates reviewed in the History Channel program "True Caribbean Pirates", along with
Henry Morgan, Mary Read, Anne Bonny, and Black Bart Roberts.
* A 2-hour special on
National Geographiccalled "Blackbeard: Terror at Sea", in which a narrative is given about Teach's adventures.
* A shipwreck that experts claim belonged to Blackbeard is currently being excavated off the North Carolina coast [http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/03/03/blackbeard.ap/index.html] .
* Blackbeard is the subject of a new pre-broadway musical written by Rob Gardner entitled "Blackbeard".
Shomette, Donald G. "Pirates on the Chesapeake: Being a True History of Pirates, Picaroons, and Raiders on Chesapeake Bay, 1610-1807". Centreville, Maryland: Tidewater Publishers, 1985.
Spotswood, Alexander."The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of Virginia, 1710-1722". Edited by R. A. Brock. New York: AMS Press Inc., 1973.
* [http://www.unmuseum.org/pirate.htm#morgan Blackbeard on the Unmuseum]
* [http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/maritime/Blackbeard/default.htm North Carolina Office of Archives and History: Special Section on BlackBeard]
* [http://qarfound.com Mike Daniel the one who found Queen Anne's Revenge]
* [http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/qar/default.htm Queen Anne's Revenge Archaeological Site]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/nolavconsole/ukfs_news/hi/bb_wm_fs.stm?news=1&bbram=1&bbwm=1&nbram=1&nbwm=1&nol_storyid=5139780 BBC Video about the potential finding of BlackBeards's ship]
* [http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0607/feature6/index.html National Geographic Magazine Article on Blackbeard]
* [http://visitbristol.co.uk/site/guide-book/pirates-and-privateers Article on pirates and privateering in Bristol, and downloadable mp3 audio tour.]
* [http://www.claytonemery.com/Vanished.html "Vanished As She Sang", a fictional account of Blackbeard's visit to New Hampshire's Isles of Shoals.]
* [http://www.outerbankspirate.com/pirates/pirates.html Information on Blackbeard, includes other information on Mary Read and Stede Bonnet]
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