Stethoscope


Stethoscope
Modern stethoscope.

The stethoscope (from Greek στηθοσκόπιο, from στήθος, stéthos - chest and σκοπή, skopé - examination) is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal body. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes" are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its internal parts. Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope.

Contents

History

Early stethoscopes.

The stethoscope was invented in France in 1816 by René Laennec at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris.[1] It consisted of a wooden tube and was monaural. His device was similar to the common ear trumpet, a historical form of hearing aid; indeed, his invention was almost indistinguishable in structure and function from the trumpet, which was commonly called a "microphone". The first flexible stethoscope of any sort may have been a binaural instrument with articulated joints not very clearly described in 1829.[2] In 1840, Golding Bird described a stethoscope he had been using with a flexible tube. Bird was the first to publish a description of such a stethoscope but he noted in his paper the prior existence of an earlier design (which he thought was of little utility) which he described as the snake ear trumpet. Bird's stethoscope had a single earpiece.[3] In 1851, Irish physician Arthur Leared invented a binaural stethoscope, and in 1852 George Cammann perfected the design of the instrument for commercial production, which has become the standard ever since. Cammann also wrote a major treatise on diagnosis by auscultation, which the refined binaural stethoscope made possible. By 1873, there were descriptions of a differential stethoscope that could connect to slightly different locations to create a slight stereo effect, though this did not become a standard tool in clinical practice.

Rappaport and Sprague designed a new stethoscope in the 1940s, which became the standard by which other stethoscopes are measured, consisting of two sides, one of which is used for the respiratory system, the other for the cardiovascular system. The Rappaport-Sprague was later made by Hewlett-Packard. HP's medical products division was spun off as part of Agilent Technologies, Inc., where it became Agilent Healthcare. Agilent Healthcare was purchased by Philips which became Philips Medical Systems, before the walnut-boxed, $300, original Rappaport-Sprague stethoscope was finally abandoned ca. 2004, along with Philips' brand (manufactured by Andromed, of Montreal, Canada) electronic stethoscope model. The Rappaport-Sprague model stethoscope was heavy and short (18–24 in (46–61 cm)) with an antiquated appearance recognizable by their two large independent latex rubber tubes connecting an exposed-leaf-spring-joined-pair of opposing "f"-shaped chrome-plated brass binaural ear tubes with a dual-head chest piece.

Early flexible tube stethoscopes. Golding Bird's instrument is on the left. The instrument on the right was current around 1855 when this image was first published.

Several other minor refinements were made to stethoscopes, until in the early 1960s Dr. David Littmann, a Harvard Medical School professor, created a new stethoscope that was lighter than previous models and had improved acoustics.[4] In the late 1970s, 3M-Littmann introduced the tunable diaphragm: a very hard (G-10) glass-epoxy resin diaphragm member with an overmolded silicone flexible acoustic surround which permitted increased excursion of the diaphragm member in a "z"-axis with respect to the plane of the sound collecting area. The left shift to a lower resonant frequency increases the volume of some low frequency sounds due to the longer waves propagated by the increased excursion of the hard diaphragm member suspended in the concentric accountic surround. Conversely, restricting excursion of the diaphragm by pressing the stethoscope diaphragm surface firmly against the anatomical area overlying the physiological sounds of interest, the acoustic surround could also be used to dampen excursion of the diaphragm in response to "z"-axis pressure against a concentric fret. This raises the frequency bias by shortening the wavelength to auscultate a higher range of physiological sounds. 3-M Littmann is also credited with a collapsible mold frame for sludge molding a single column bifurcating stethoscope tube[5][dead link] with an internal septum dividing the single column stethoscope tube into discrete left and right binaural channels (AKA "cardiology tubing"; including a covered, or internal leaf spring-binaural ear tube connector).

In 1999, Richard Deslauriers patented the first external noise reducing stethoscope, the DRG Puretone. It featured two parallel lumens containing two steel coils which dissipated infiltrating noise as inaudible heat energy. The steel coil "insulation" added .30 lb to each stethoscope. In 2005, DRG's diagnostics division was acquired by TRIMLINE Medical Products.[6]

Current practice

A German physician listens to a patient's lower lung regions with a stethoscope applied to his back.

Stethoscopes are often considered as a symbol of the doctor's profession, as doctors are often seen or depicted with stethoscopes hanging around their necks.

Types of stethoscopes

Acoustic

Acoustic stethoscope, with the bell upwards.

Acoustic stethoscopes are familiar to most people, and operate on the transmission of sound from the chest piece, via air-filled hollow tubes, to the listener's ears. The chestpiece usually consists of two sides that can be placed against the patient for sensing sound; a diaphragm (plastic disc) or bell (hollow cup). If the diaphragm is placed on the patient, body sounds vibrate the diaphragm, creating acoustic pressure waves which travel up the tubing to the listener's ears. If the bell is placed on the patient, the vibrations of the skin directly produce acoustic pressure waves traveling up to the listener's ears. The bell transmits low frequency sounds, while the diaphragm transmits higher frequency sounds. This two-sided stethoscope was invented by Rappaport and Sprague in the early part of the 20th century. One problem with acoustic stethoscopes was that the sound level is extremely low. This problem was surmounted in 1999 with the invention of the stratified continuous (inner) lumen, and the kinetic acoustic mechanism in 2002. Acoustic stethoscopes are the most commonly used. A recent independent review evaluated twelve common acoustic stethoscopes on the basis of loudness, clarity, and ergonomics. They did acoustic laboratory testing and recorded heart sounds on volunteers. The results are listed by brand and model.[7]

Electronic

An electronic stethoscope (or stethophone) overcomes the low sound levels by electronically amplifying body sounds. However, amplification of stethoscope contact artifacts, and component cutoffs (frequency response thresholds of electronic stethoscope microphones, pre-amps, amps, and speakers) limit electronically amplified stethoscopes' overall utility by amplifying mid-range sounds, while simultaneously attenuating high- and low- frequency range sounds. Currently, a number of companies offer electronic stethoscopes. Electronic stethoscopes require conversion of acoustic sound waves to electrical signals which can then be amplified and processed for optimal listening. Unlike acoustic stethoscopes, which are all based on the same physics, transducers in electronic stethoscopes vary widely. The simplest and least effective method of sound detection is achieved by placing a microphone in the chestpiece. This method suffers from ambient noise interference and has fallen out of favor. Another method, used in Welch-Allyn's Meditron stethoscope, comprises placement of a piezoelectric crystal at the head of a metal shaft, the bottom of the shaft making contact with a diaphragm. 3M also uses a piezo-electric crystal placed within foam behind a thick rubber-like diaphragm. Thinklabs' Rhythm 32 inventor, Clive Smith uses an Electromagnetic Diaphragm with a conductive inner surface to form a capacitive sensor. This diaphragm responds to sound waves identically to a conventional acoustic stethoscope, with changes in an electric field replacing changes in air pressure. This preserves the sound of an acoustic stethoscope with the benefits of amplification.

Because the sounds are transmitted electronically, an electronic stethoscope can be a wireless device, can be a recording device, and can provide noise reduction, signal enhancement, and both visual and audio output. Around 2001, Stethographics introduced PC-based software which enabled a phonocardiograph, graphic representation of cardiologic and pulmonologic sounds to be generated, and interpreted according to related algorithms. All of these features are helpful for purposes of telemedicine (remote diagnosis) and teaching.

Electronic stethoscopes are also used with Computer-aided Auscultation programs to analyze the recorded heart sounds pathological or innocent heart murmurs.

Recording stethoscopes

Some electronic stethoscopes feature direct audio output that can be used with an external recording device, such as a laptop or MP3 recorder. The same connection can be used to listen to the previously-recorded auscultation through the stethoscope headphones, allowing for more detailed study for general research as well as evaluation and consultation regarding a particular patient's condition and telemedicine, or remote diagnosis.

Fetal stethoscope

A fetal stethoscope or fetoscope is an acoustic stethoscope shaped like a listening trumpet. It is placed against the abdomen of a pregnant woman to listen to the heart sounds of the fetus. The fetal stethoscope is also known as a Pinard's stethoscope or a pinard, after French obstetrician Adolphe Pinard (1844–1934).

Stethoscope Earpieces

Stethoscopes usually have rubber earpieces which aid comfort and create a seal with the ear improving the acoustic function of the device. Stethoscopes can be modified by replacing the standard earpieces with moulded versions which improve comfort and transmission of sound. Moulded earpieces can be cast by an audiologist or made by the stethoscope user from a kit.

Maintenance

The flexible vinyl, rubber, and plastic parts of stethoscopes should be kept away from solvents, including alcohol and soap. Solvents can have detrimental effects, including accelerating the natural aging process by dissolving the plasticizers that keep these parts flexible and looking new. In addition, when they are manufactured stethoscopes with two-sided chestpieces are lubricated where the chestpiece rotates around the stem and need to be re-lubricated periodically, just like any other machine. If these moving parts are not lubricated, they grind together and ruin the fine tolerances required for the proper acoustic performance of the stethoscope. Cleaning the stethoscope will also remove lubricants, making periodic lubrication essential. Most lubricants must be kept away from rubber, vinyl, and plastic parts. Only products that have been tested to be safe and effective for cleaning stethoscopes and similar medical instruments should be used.

See also

References

  1. ^ Laennec, René (1819). De l'auscultation médiate ou traité du diagnostic des maladies des poumon et du coeur. Paris: Brosson & Chaudé. 
  2. ^ Wilks, p.490, cites Comins, "A flexible stethoscope", Lancet 29 August 1829.
  3. ^ Samuel Wilks, "Evolution of the stethoscope", Popular Science, vol.22, no.28, pp.488-491, Feb 1883 ISSN 0161-7370.
    Golding Bird, "Advantages presented by the employment of a stethoscope with a flexible tube", London Medical Gazette, vol.1, pp.440-412, 11 December 1840.
  4. ^ "History of Littmann Stethoscopes at a glance". 3M.com. http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/Littmann/stethoscope/products/history/. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  5. ^ Stethoscope Littmann Stethoscopes for Medical Students
  6. ^ "TRIMLINE Medical Products". http://www.trimline.us. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  7. ^ Eli Finkelstein (2008-07-01). "The Ultimate Acoustic Stethoscope Review". http://www.forusdocs.com/reviews/Acoustic_Stethoscope_Review.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • stéthoscope — [ stetɔskɔp ] n. m. • 1819; du gr. stêthos « poitrine » et scope ♦ Instrument destiné à l auscultation des bruits à travers les parois du corps. Stéthoscope biauriculaire, comportant une plaque réceptrice où convergent deux tubes flexibles qui s… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Stethoscope — Stéthoscope Un stéthoscope (du grec stêthos (στῆθος), poitrine , et scope du grec ancien skopein (σκοπεϊν), « observer ») est un instrument médical acoustique, utilisé pour l auscultation, c’est à dire l écoute des sons internes au… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Stethoscope — Steth o*scope, v. t. To auscultate, or examine, with a stethoscope. M. W. Savage. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stethoscope — 1820, from Fr. stéthoscope, coined 1819 by its inventor, Fr. physician René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781 1826) from Gk. stethos chest, breast + SCOPE (Cf. scope). Gk. stethos is perhaps related to sternon (see STERNUM (Cf. sternum)); it… …   Etymology dictionary

  • stethoscope — [steth′ə skōp΄] n. [Fr stéthoscope: see STETHO & SCOPE] Med. a hearing instrument used in auscultation, for examining the heart, lungs, etc. by listening to the sounds they make stethoscopic [steth′ōskäp′ik] adj. stethoscopical stethoscopically… …   English World dictionary

  • Stethoscope — Steth o*scope (st[e^]th [ o]*sk[=o]p), n. [Gr. sth^qos the breast + scope: cf. F. st[ e]thoscope.] (Med.) An instrument used in auscultation for examining the organs of the chest, as the heart and lungs, by conveying to the ear of the examiner… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stethoscope — ► NOUN ▪ a medical instrument for listening to the action of someone s heart or breathing, having a small disc that is placed against the chest and two tubes connected to earpieces. ORIGIN from Greek st thos breast + skopein look at …   English terms dictionary

  • Stéthoscope — Un stéthoscope (du grec stêthos (στῆθος), poitrine , et scope du grec ancien skopein (σκοπεϊν), « observer ») est un instrument médical acoustique, utilisé pour l auscultation, c’est à dire l écoute des sons internes au corps humain.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • stethoscope — An instrument originally devised by Laennec for aid in hearing the respiratory and cardiac sounds in the chest, but now modified in various ways and used in auscultation of any of vascular or other sounds anywhere in the body. [stetho + G. skopeo …   Medical dictionary

  • stethoscope — UK [ˈsteθəˌskəʊp] / US [ˈsteθəˌskoʊp] noun [countable] Word forms stethoscope : singular stethoscope plural stethoscopes a piece of equipment used by doctors for listening to someone s heart or breathing …   English dictionary


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