radius=25.7 ± 0.3 ["Angular diameters of stars from the Mark III optical interferometer.", MOZURKEWICH D.; ARMSTRONG J.T.; HINDSLEY R.B.; QUIRRENBACH A.; HUMMEL C.A.; HUTTER D.J.; JOHNSTON K.J.; HAJIAN A.R.; ELIAS II N.M.; BUSCHER D.F.; SIMON R.S., Astron. J., 126, 2502-2520 (2003)]
luminosity = 210 ± 10 [Based upon the values for temperature and radius in combination with the
temperature=4,300 ["Oxygen abundances in halo giants. V. Giants in the fairly metal-rich globular cluster M 71.", SNEDEN C.; KRAFT R.P.; LANGER G.E.; PROSSER C.F.; SHETRONE M.D, Astron. J., 107, 1773-1785 (1994)] Starbox catalog
names=Alramech, Abramech, α Boötis, 16 Boötes, HD 124897, HR 5340, BD+19°2777, GCTP 3242.00, GJ 541, LHS 48, and HIP 69673 Starbox reference
Arcturus (α Boo / α Boötis / Alpha Boötis) (IPAEng|ɑrkˈtjʊərəs) is the brightest star in the
constellation Boötes, and the third brightest star in the night sky, with a visual magnitudeof −0.05, after Siriusand Canopus, although it is fainter than the combined light of the two main components of Alpha Centauri, which are too close together for the eye to resolve as separate sources of light, making Arcturus appear to be the fourth brightest. It is the second brightest star visible from northern latitudes and the brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere. The star is in the Local Interstellar Cloud.
An easy way to find Arcturus is to follow the arc of the handle of the
Big Dipper. By continuing in this path, one can find Spica(α Virginis) as well — hence the maxim, "Arc to Arcturus, then speed on to Spica."
Arcturus is a type K1.5 IIIpe
red giantstar — the letters "pe" stand for "peculiar emission," which indicates that the spectrum of lightgiven off by the star is unusual and full of emission lines. This is not too uncommon in red giants, but Arcturus has a particularly strong case of the phenomenon. It is at least 110 times more luminous than the Sun, but this underestimates its strength as much of the "light" it gives off is in the infrared; total power output is about 180 times that of the Sun. The lower output in visible light is due to a lower efficacy as the star has a lower surface temperature than the Sun.
Arcturus is notable for its high
proper motion, larger than any first magnitude star in the stellar neighborhood other than α Centauri. It is now almost ["Almost" on an astronomical timescale. Closest approach will happen in about 4000 years, at a distance of 99.9% the current distance.] at its closest point to the Sun, and is moving rapidly (nowrap|122 km/s) relative to the solar system. Arcturus is thought to be an old disk star, and appears to be moving with a group of 52 other such stars. Its mass is hard to exactly determine, but may be about the same as the Sun, and is no more than 1.5 solar masses. Arcturus is likely to be considerably older than the Sun, and much like what the Sun will be in its red giant phase.
According to the "
Hipparcos" satellite, Arcturus is 36.7 light years (11.3 parsecs) from Earth, relatively close in astronomical terms. "Hipparcos" also suggested that Arcturus is a binary star, with the companion about twenty times dimmer than the primary and orbiting close enough to be at the very limits of our current ability to make it out. Recent results remain inconclusive, but do support the marginal "Hipparcos" detection of a binary companion. [citation | first1=T. | last1=Verhoelst
first2=P. J. | last2= Bordé
first3=G. | last3= Perrin
first4=L. | last4= Decin
title=Is Arcturus a well-understood K giant?
journal=Astronomy & Astrophysics
year=2005 | volume=435 | pages=289 | doi=10.1051/0004-6361:20042356 , and see references therein.]
As one of the brightest stars in the sky, Arcturus has been the subject of a number of studies in the emerging field of
Belmonte et al. (1990) carried out a radial velocity (Doppler shift of spectral lines) study of the star in April and May 1988, which showed variability with a frequency of the order of a few microhertz, the highest peak corresponding to 4.3 μHz (2.7 days) with an amplitude of 60 ms-1, with a
frequency separationof ~5 μHz. They suggested that the most plausible explanation for the variability of Arcuturus is stellar oscillations.
High precision photometry from the "Hipparcos" satellite's observations showed Arcturus is now known to be slightly variable, by about 0.04 magnitudes over 8.3 days.Fact|date=February 2007 It is believed that the surface of the star oscillates slightly, a common feature of red giant stars. In the case of Arcturus, this was an interesting discovery as it is known that the redder (more towards or within the M spectral class) a giant gets, the more variable it will be. Extreme cases like
Miraundergo large swings over hundreds of days; Arcturus is not very red and is a borderline case between variability and stability with its short period and tiny range.
Etymology and cultural significance
The name of the star derives from ancient Greek Αρκτοῦρος (Arktouros) and means "Bear Guard." This is a reference to it being the brightest star in the constellation Boötes (of which it forms the left foot), which is next to the Big and Little Bears,
Ursa Majorand Ursa Minor. There is also a Greek non-governmental environmental organization named Αρκτούρος that protects wild life.
In Arabic, it is called As-Simāk ar-Rāmiḥ (السماك الرامح) which has been translated as "leg of the lance-bearer" or "the lofty lance-bearer." This name has been variously romanized in the past, leading to obsolete variants such as Aramec and Azimech. Another Arabic name is Al-Hārith as-Samā' (الحارس السماء), "the keeper of heaven." [http://www.jas.org.jo/arabic/alma.html List of the 25 brightest stars] , website of the Jordanian Astronomical Society, accessed March 28, 2007.] Richard Hinckley Allen, "Star-names and their meanings" (1936), p. 100-101.] Hans Wehr (J.M. Cowan ed.), "A dictionary of modern written Arabic" (1994).]
Chinese astronomy, Arcturus is called "Dah Jyaoo" (大角, Great Horn, Pinyin: Dàjiǎo), because it is the brightest star in the Chinese constellationcalled "Jyaoo Shiuh" (角宿, Pinyin: Jiǎo Xiǔ). And later, it become a part of "Kangh Shiuh" (亢宿, Pinyin: Kàng Xiǔ), which is also a Chinese constellation.
Ancient Japanese astronomy adopted the Chinese name "Dah Jyaoo" (大角, "Tai Roku"), but its western name, Arcturus (アルクトゥルス), is more common now.Fact|date=February 2007
Inuit astronomy, Arcturus is called the Old Man.
In Greek mythology, Arcturus is a star created by
Zeusto protect the nearby constellations, Arcas and Callisto ( Ursa majorand Ursa minor). According to the myth, Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, the king of Arcadia. As a young girl, she vowed to the goddess Artemisto be forever faithful and devoted to her. She was to remain a virgin forever in order to serve and accompany Artemis while hunting animals in the forest. However, one day, Zeus, the king of the gods, fell in love with Callisto and forced her to have sexual intercourse with him. Callisto gave birth to a son whom she named Arcas. Zeus knew that if Hera, his wife, learned of his disloyalty she would be angry with Callisto, so in order to protect her he transformed her into a brown bear. Callisto, as a bear, roamed around the forest looking for her son, Arcadian. After years of searching she found Arcas, who was now a grown man. She finally came upon him and, overjoyed, stood on her hind legs and tried to embrace him. Arcas, however, did not recognize his mother and thought he was being attacked, so he drew his sword to defend himself. Zeus, watching everything, as usual, felt sorry for them and in order to prevent this tragedy he transformed Callisto and Arcas into constellations (now known as Ursa major and Ursa minor) and placed them near to him in the sky. Hera, who had learned the truth and was furious, asked Ocean, the river that surrounds the earth, not to permit them to wash themselves in his waters; therefore these two constellations are always seen high in the night sky, and never drop into the ocean. Moreover, in order to protect them from Hera's jealousy, Zeus placed another star near to them: Arcturus (which means the guardian of Arctos, the bear). It protects and accompanies them for eternity.
Polynesian navigators knew Arcturus as Hōkūleʻa, the "Star of Joy". Arcturus is the zenithstar of the Hawaiian Islands. Using Hōkūleʻa and other stars, the Polynesians launched their double-hulled canoes from Tahitiand the Marquesas Islands. Traveling east and north they eventually crossed the equatorand reached the latitudeat which Arcturus would appear directly overhead in the summer night sky. Knowing they had arrived at the exact latitude of the island chain, they sailed due west on the trade winds to landfall. If Hōkūleʻa could be kept directly overhead, they landed on the southeastern shores of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. For a return trip to Tahiti the navigators could use Sirius, the zenith star of that island. Since 1976, the Polynesian Voyaging Society's "Hōkūle‘a" has crossed the Pacific Ocean many times under navigators who have incorporated this wayfindingtechnique in their non-instrument navigation.
1933 World's Fair
The star achieved fame when its light was used to open the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. The star was chosen as it was thought that light from Arcturus had started its journey at about the time of the previous Chicago World's Fair in
1893. Technically the star is 36.7 light years away so the light would have started its journey in 1896.
In a reading in which the 'sleeping prophet' describes philosophical concepts as they relate to religious tenets,
Edgar Caycementions Arcturus.
(Q) The sixth problem concerns interplanetary andinter-system dwelling, between earthly lives. It was giventhrough this source that the entity Edgar Cayce, after theexperience as Uhjltd, went to the system of Arcturus, andthen returned to earth. Does this indicate a usual or anunusual step in soul evolution?
(A) As indicated, or as has been indicated in other sourcesbesides this as respecting this very problem, - Arcturus isthat which may be called the center of this universe, throughwhich individuals pass and at which period there comes thechoice of the individual as to whether it is to return tocomplete there - that is, in this planetary system, our sun,the earth sun and its planetary system - or to pass on toothers. This was an unusual step, and yet a usual one. (5749-14)
King James Versionof the Bible, Arcturus is mentioned twice in the Book of Job::"Which maketh "Arcturus", Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south.":: :"Canst thou bring forth Mazzarothin his season?:or canst thou guide "Arcturus" with his sons?":: The Hebrew word thus translated is עיש "Ash" or" 'Ayish". Due to the obscurity of ancient terminology, some scholars dispute this identification, instead equating it with Aldebaran, Canopus, Ursa Major, or the Pleiades, among other celestial objects.Hirsch, Emil G. (1906). Constellations. In [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=749&letter=C "The Jewish Encyclopedia"] . New York: Funk & Wagnall's. Retrieved July 11, 2005.]
astrologyof the Middle Ages, Arcturus was one of the 15 Behenian fixed stars, associated with jasperand the plantain herb. Cornelius Agrippalists its symbol under the alternate name Alchameth.
* Arcturus in fiction
* [http://webviz.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR-S?HR%205340 HR 5340] Catalog
* [http://webviz.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR-S?GJ%20541 GJ 541] Catalog
* [http://www.alcyone.de/cgi-bin/search.pl?object=HR5340 HR 5340]
* [http://www.co-intelligence.org/newsletter/comparisons.html Illustration comparing the size of Arcturus with other stars]
* [http://www.solstation.com/stars2/arcturus.htm SolStation.com entry]
* [http://aladin.u-strasbg.fr/alapre.pl?-c=14+15+39.6720%2B19+10+56.677&button=RGB Image Arcturus]
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