- Alfred Hitchcock
name = Alfred Hitchcock
birthdate = Birth date|1899|8|13
deathdate = Death date and age|1980|4|29|1899|8|13
deathplace = Bel Air, Los Angeles
birthname = Alfred Joseph Hitchcock
othername = Hitch
The Master of Suspense
yearsactive = 1921–1976
Steven Spielberg, Brian De Palma, Peter Jackson
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
1968 Lifetime Achievement
baftaawards = Academy Fellowship
goldenglobeawards = Best TV Show
Alfred Hitchcock Presents"
Cecil B. DeMille Award
1972 Lifetime Achievement
awards = NYFCC Award for Best Director
1938 "The Lady Vanishes"
NBR Award for Best Director
AFI Life Achievement Award
1979 Lifetime Achievement Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980)] was an iconic and highly influential British
filmmakerand producer, who pioneered many techniques in the suspenseand psychological thrillergenres.
After a very substantial career in his native
United Kingdomin both silent films and talkies, Hitchcock moved to Hollywoodand, in 1956, became an American citizen, also retaining his British citizenship.
Hitchcock directed more than fifty
feature films, in a career spanning six decades, from the silent era, through the invention of sound films, and far into the color era.
As a director, he was among the most consistently recognizable by the general public, and was one of the most successful of his era. He continues to be one of the best-known and most popular filmmakers of all time.
Hitchcock became famous for his expert and largely unrivalled control of pace and suspense, and his films draw heavily on both
fearand fantasy. The films are known for their droll humour and witticisms, and these cinematic works often portray innocent people caught up in circumstances beyond their control or understanding.
Hitchcock began his directing career in the
United Kingdomin 1922. From 1939 onward, he worked primarily in the United States. In September, 1940, Hitchcock had purchased a convert|200|acre|km2|sing=on mountaintop estate [cite web| title =Women of the Rancho| author =Marion Dale Pokriots| publisher =Scotts Valley Chamber of Commerce| url =http://www.svchamber.org/svhistory/history/women.htm| accessdate=2008-03-05] for the sum of $40,000.cite web| title =Local Inspiration for Movie Classics: Hitchcock had Link to Santa Cruz| publisher =Santa Cruz Putlic Libraries, Ca.|url =http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/films/hitch.shtml| accessdate =2008-03-04] Known as the 1870 Cornwall Ranch [cite web|title =Alfred Hitchcock Appreciation Society|publisher =virb.com|url =http://www.virb.com/groups/65516499|accessdate =2008-03-05] or "Heart o' the Mountain" which was located at the end of Canham Road. The Ranch was perched high above Scotts Valley, California, and the Hitchcocks resided there from 1940 to 1972. The Hitchcocks became close friends with the parents of Joan Fontaine, after she starred in his film, "Rebecca". Years later, after a break-in at his estate, Hitchcock replaced all of the accumulated paintings with studio-made copies. The family sold the estate in 1974, six years before Hitchcock's death.
Hitchcock and family also purchased a second home in late 1942 at 10957 Bellagio Road [cite web|title=10957 Bellagio Road Alfred Hitchcock's home| publisher=On this very spotDOTcom| url=http://www.onthisveryspot.com/find/spot.php?spot_web_name=10957_Bellagio_Road| accessdate=2008-03-07] in Los Angeles, just across from the Bel Air Country Club. [cite web| title =Bel Air Country Club| url =http://www.bel-aircc.org/belair/| accessdate=2008-03-06]
"Rebecca"cite web| title=Rebecca (1940)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032976/|accessdate=2008-03-05] was the only Hitchcock film to win the
Academy Award for Best Picturecite web|title =Awards for 'Rebecca' 1940| publisher=IMDb.com| url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032976/awards|accessdate=2008-03-04] (though the award did not go to Hitchcock), four other films were nominated. In 1967 he was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award[cite web| title =Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award| publisher =Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|url =http://www.oscars.org/aboutacademyawards/awards/thalberg.html| accessdate=2008-03-05] for lifetime achievement. He never won an Academy Award for directing.
Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899, in
Leytonstone, London, the second son and youngest of three children of William Hitchcock (1862-1914), a greengrocerand poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock ("née" Whelan; 1863-1942). His family was mostly Roman Catholic, being of Irish extraction. [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 7] Hitchcock was sent to the JesuitClassic school St. Ignatius College in Enfield, London. [cite web| title =Welcome to St Ignatius College| url =http://www.st-ignatius.enfield.sch.uk/| accessdate=2008-03-05] He often described his childhood as being very lonely and sheltered, which was compounded by his weight issues. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 18-19]
It is widely known that as a child, Hitchcock was once sent by his father to the local police station with a note asking the officer to lock him away for ten minutes as punishment for behaving badly. [cite web| date =2005-07-24|title =Hollywood in the Hills| publisher =Sentinel Staff Report|url =http://188.8.131.52/printstory.php?sid=28247&storySection=Style| accessdate=2008-03-05] This idea of being harshly treated or wrongfully accused is frequently reflected in Hitchcock's films. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 7-8]
Hitchcock's mother would often make him address her while standing at the foot of her bed, especially if he behaved badly, forcing him to stand there for hours. These experiences of Hitchcock would later be used for the portrayal of the character of
Norman Batesin his movie "Psycho".cite web| title=Psycho (1960)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0054215/|accessdate=2008-03-05] [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 9]
Hitchcock's father died when he was 14. In the same year, he left the Jesuit-run
St Ignatius' Collegein Stamford Hill, his school at the time, to study at the London County Council School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, London. [Patrick McGillang, pg 25. The School is now part of Tower Hamlets College.] After graduating, he became a draftsman and advertisingdesigner with a cable company. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 24-25]
During this period, Hitchcock became intrigued by
photographyand started working in film production in London, working as a title-card designer for the London branch of what would become Paramount Pictures. In 1920, he had received a full-time position at Islington Studios with its American owner, Famous Players-Laskyand their British successor, Gainsborough Pictures,cite web| title =Gainsborough Pictures (1924-51)|publisher=British Film Institute ScreenOnline| url =http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/448996/| accessdate=2008-03-06] designing the titles for silent movies. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 46-51]
Pre-war British career
Hitchcock's last work together with
Graham Cuttsled him to Germany in 1924. The film "Die Prinzessin und der Geiger" (UK title "The Blackguard", 1925), directed by Cutts and co-written by Hitchcock, was produced in the Babelsberg Studiosin Berlin. Hitchcock had the chance to closely watch F. W. Murnauwho was shooting " Der letzte Mann" (1924). He was very impressed with Murnau's work and later used many techniques for the set design in his own productions. In his book-length interview by François Truffaut, "Hitchcock/Truffaut" ( Simon and Schuster, 1967), Hitchcock also said he was influenced by Fritz Lang's film "Destiny" (1921).
Michael Balconcite web| title =Balcon, Michael (1896-1977) Executive Producer| publisher=British Film Institute ScreenOnline| url =http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/447085/index.html| accessdate=2008-03-06] of Gainsborough Pictures gave Hitchcock an opportunity to direct his first film, "The Pleasure Garden" [cite web|title=The Pleasure Garden (1925)| publisher =Internet Movie Database|url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0016230/| accessdate=2008-03-05] made at UFA Studioscite web| date =8 February 2008| title =Studio Babelsberg makes comeback| publisher =The Hollywood Reporter| url =http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/awards_festivals/berlin/features/e3i1e0e186c138b9329812cc14639122aac| accessdate=2008-03-06] in Germany. The commercial failure of this film threatened to derail his promising career. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 68-71] Hitchcock rebounded in 1926 and made his debut in the thriller genre with the film, "".cite web| title=The Lodger (1927)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0017075/| accessdate=2008-03-04] The film was a major commercial and critical success when it was released in January 1927 throughout the United Kingdom. As with many of his earlier works, this film was influenced by Expressionist techniques that Hitchcock had witnessed first-hand in Germany. This film was the first truly "Hitchcockian" [cite web| title =Hitchcockian Stuff| publisher=Alfredsplace.com|url =http://www.alfredsplace.com/hitchcockian_stuff.htm| accessdate=2008-03-06] [cite web| title =Ask the Critic-The Hitch Is Back-What, exactly, makes a film "Hitchcockian."| publisher =Entertainment Weekly (EW.COM)| url =http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1146038,00.html| accessdate=2008-03-06] film, incorporating such themes as the "wrong man". [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 85]
Following the success of "The Lodger", Hitchcock began initial efforts to promote himself in the media, and hired a publicist to help enhance his growing reputation as one of the British film industry's rising stars. On 2 December 1926, Hitchcock married his assistant director,
Alma Revilleat the Brompton Oratory. Their first child, daughter Patricia, was born in 1928. Alma was to become Hitchcock's closest collaborator. She wrote some of his screenplays and (though often uncredited) worked with him on every one of his films.
In 1929, Hitchcock began work on his tenth film "Blackmail". [cite web| title=Blackmail (1929)| publisher =Internet Movie Database|url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0019702/|accessdate =2008-03-04] While the film was still in production, the studio decided to make it one of the UK's first sound pictures. With the climax of the film taking place on the dome of the
British Museum, "Blackmail" began the Hitchcock tradition of using famous landmarks as a backdrop for suspense sequences. In the PBSseries "The Men Who Made The Movies", [cite web|title=American Masters-Alfred Hitchcock|publisher=Public Broadcasting System|url =http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/database/hitchcock_a.html|accessdate=2008-03-05] Hitchcock had explained how he used early sound recording as a special element of the film, emphasizing the word "knife" in a conversation with the woman suspected of murder. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 120-123]
In 1933, Hitchcock was once again working for Michael Balcon at Gaumont-British Picture Corporation. [cite web|title=Gaumont-British Picture Corporation| publisher=British Film Institute| url =http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/organisation/8529| accessdate=2008-03-06] His first film for the company, "The Man Who Knew Too Much" (1934), [cite web| title =The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0025452/|accessdate=2008-03-05] was a success and his second, "The 39 Steps" (1935),cite web| title =The 39 Steps (1935)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0026029/| accessdate=2008-03-05] is often considered one of the best films from his early period. This film was also one of the first to introduce the concept of the "Macguffin", a plot device around which a whole story seems to revolve, but ultimately has nothing to do with the true meaning or ending of the story. In "The 39 Steps", the Macguffin is a stolen set of design plans. (Hitchcock told French director
François Truffaut: "There are two men sitting in a train going to Scotland and one man says to the other, 'Excuse me, sir, but what is that strange parcel you have on the luggage rack above you?' 'Oh,' says the other, 'that's a Macguffin.' 'Well,' says the first man, 'what's a Macguffin?' The other answers, 'It's an apparatus for trapping lions in the Scottish Highlands.' 'But,' says the first man, 'there are no lions in the Scottish Highlands.' 'Well,' says the other, 'then that's no Macguffin.'") [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 158]
Hitchcock's next major success was in 1938 with his film "The Lady Vanishes",cite web| title =The Lady Vanishes (1938)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0030341/|accessdate=2008-03-05] a clever and fast-paced film about the search for a kindly old Englishwoman (
Dame May Whitty),cite web| title=Dame May Whitty| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0926599/| accessdate=2008-03-06] who disappears while onboard a train in the fictional country of Vandrika (a thinly-veiled version of Nazi Germany).cite web| title =Lions of British Cinema-Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980)| publisher=AvantGardeNow.com| url =http://www.avantgardenow.com/hitchcock.html| accessdate=2008-03-06]
By 1938, Hitchcock had become known for his famous observation, "Actors are cattle"." [cite web| title=Alfred Hitchcock Quotes|publisher=Brainy Quote|url =http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alfredhitc160956.html|accessdate=2008-03-04] He once said that he first made this remark as early as the late 1920s, when he thought about stage actors who were snobbish about motion pictures. However,
Michael Redgravesaid that Hitchcock had made the statement during the filming of "The Lady Vanishes". The phrase would haunt Hitchcock for years to come and would result in a funny incident during the filming of his 1941 production of "Mr. & Mrs. Smith", when Carole Lombardbrought some heifers onto the set — with name tags of Lombard, Robert Montgomery, and Gene Raymond, the stars of the films — to surprise the director. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 210-211, 277; American Movie Classics]
At the end of the 1930s, Hitchcock was at the zenith of his artistic talents, and he was in a position to negotiate his own career options when
David O. Selznicksigned Hitchcock to a seven-year contract that began in March 1939, when the Hitchcocks moved to the United States.
The suspense and the
gallows humourthat had become Hitchcock's trademark in film continued to appear in his productions. The working arrangements with Selznick, however, were less than optimal. Selznick suffered from perennial money problems, and Hitchcock was often displeased with Selznick's creative control over his films. Consequently, Selznick ended up "loaning" Hitchcock to the larger studios more often than producing Hitchcock's films himself. In addition, Selznick, as well as fellow independent producer Samuel Goldwyn, made only a few films each year, so Selznick did not always have projects for Hitchcock to direct. Remarkably, Goldwyn had also negotiated with Hitchcock on a possible contract, only to be outbid by Selznick. Hitchcock was quickly impressed with the superior resources of the American studios compared to the financial restrictions he had frequently encountered in England. Nevertheless, Hitchcock's fondness for his homeland resulted in numerous American films set in, or filmed in, the United Kingdom, right up to his penultimate film, " Frenzy".cite web| title=Frenzy (1972)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0068611/| accessdate=2008-03-07]
With the prestigious Selznick picture "Rebecca" in 1940, Hitchcock made his first American movie, although it was set in England and based on a novel by English author
Daphne du Maurierand starred Sir Laurence Olivierand Joan Fontaine. This Gothic melodramaexplores the fears of a naïve young bride who enters a great English country home and must grapple with the problems of a distant husband, a predatory housekeeper, and the legacy of her husband's late wife, the beautiful, mysterious Rebecca. The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1940. However, the statuette went to Selznick as the film's producer, [cite web| title=Awards for Rebecca (1940)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032976/awards| accessdate=2008-03-07] and the film failed to win the Best Director award for Hitchcock.
There were additional problems between Selznick and Hitchcock. Selznick was known to impose very restrictive rules upon Hitchcock, thereby hindering his creative control. Hitchcock was then forced to shoot the film as Selznick had wanted, immediately creating friction within their relationship. At the same time, Selznick complained about Hitchcock's "goddamn jigsaw cutting"," which meant that the producer did not have nearly the leeway to create his own film as he liked, but had to follow Hitchcock's vision of the finished product. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 251-252] The film was the third longest of Hitchcock's films at 130 minutes, exceeded only by "The Paradine Case" at 132 minutes and "North by Northwest"cite web| title=North by Northwest (1959)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0053125/|accessdate=2008-03-05] at 136 minutes. [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 253]
Hitchcock's second American film, the European-set thriller "Foreign Correspondent" [cite web|title =Foreign Correspondent (1940)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0032484/|accessdate=2008-03-05] (originally titled "Personal History"), was also nominated for Best Picture during that year. The movie was filmed in the first year of
World War IIand was inspired by the rapidly-changing events in Europe, as fictionally-covered by an American newspaper reporter portrayed by a wise-cracking Joel McCrea. The film cleverly used actual footage of European scenes and scenes filmed on a Hollywood backlot. Because of Hollywood's Production Code censorship, the film avoided direct references to Germany and Germans. [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 244]
Hitchcock's films during the 1940s were diverse. The movies ranged from the romantic comedy "Mr. & Mrs. Smith" (1941) and the courtroom drama "
The Paradine Case" (1947),cite web|title =The Paradine Case (1947)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0039694/| accessdate =2008-03-07] to the dark and disturbing " Shadow of a Doubt" (1943).cite web| title =Shadow of a Doubt (1943)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036342/| accessdate=2008-03-05]
In September of 1940, the Hitchcocks purchased the 200-acre Cornwall Ranch, located near
Scotts Valleyin the Santa Cruz Mountainsin northern California. The Ranch became the primary residence of the Hitchcocks for the rest of their lives, although they kept their Bel Air home. "Suspicion" (1941)cite web| title =Suspicion (1941)|publisher =Internet Movie Database|url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0034248/| accessdate=2008-03-05] marked Hitchcock's first film as a producer as well as director. Hitchcock used the north coast of Santa Cruz, Californiafor the English coastline sequence. This film was to be actor Cary Grant's first time working with Hitchcock, and it was one of the few times that Grant would be cast in a sinister role. Joan Fontaine [cite web| title =Joan Fontaine| publisher=Hollywood.com| url =http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/Joan_Fontaine/197679| accessdate=2008-03-05] won Best Actress Oscar and the New York Film Critics Circle Award[cite web| title =New York Film Critics Circle Winners In the 40's| publisher =Geocities| url =http://www.geocities.com/ps971100/NYFCC40.htm| accessdate=2008-03-05] for her outstanding performance in "Suspicion." Grant plays an irresponsible husband whose actions raise suspicion and anxiety by his wife (Fontaine). In a classic scene, Hitchcock uses a light bulb to illuminate what might be a fatal glass of milk that Grant is bringing to his wife. In the book upon which the movie is based ("Before the Fact" by Francis Iles), Grant is a killer, but Hitchcock and the studio felt Grant's image would be tarnished by that ending. Though a homicide would have suited him better, as he stated to Francois Truffaut, Hitchcock settled for an ambiguous finale. [Thomas Leitch, "The Encyclopedia of Alfred Hitchcock", Facts on File, New York, pp.324-5, ISBN 0-8160-4386-8]
"Saboteur" (1942) [cite web|title =Saboteur (1942)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0035279/|accessdate=2008-03-05] was the first of two films that Hitchcock made for Universal, a studio where he would continue his career during his later years. Hitchcock was then forced to utilize Universal contract players
Robert Cummingsand Priscilla Lane, both known for their work in comedies and light dramas. Hitchcock made the most of the situation and had received remarkably good performances from the two lead actors. Breaking with Hollywood conventions of the time, Hitchcock did extensive location filming, especially in New York City, and memorably depicted a confrontation between a suspected saboteur (Cummings) and a real saboteur ( Norman Lloyd) atop the Statue of Liberty.
Shadow of a Doubt" (1943), Hitchcock's personal favourite of all his films and the second of the early Universal films, was about young Charlotte "Charlie" Newton ( Teresa Wright), who suspects her beloved uncle Charlie Oakley ( Joseph Cotten) of being a serial murderer. In its use of overlapping characters, dialogue, and closeups it has provided a generation of film theorists with psychoanalytic potential, including Jacques Lacanand Slavoj Žižek. The film also harkens back to one of Cotten's best known films, " Citizen Kane". [cite web|title =Citizen Kane (1941)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0033467/|accessdate=2008-03-05] Hitchcock again filmed extensively on location, this time in the Northern California city of Santa Rosa, California, during the summer of 1942. The director showcased his own personal fascination with crime and criminals when he had two of his characters discuss various ways of killing people, to the obvious annoyance of Charlotte.
20th Century Fox, Hitchcock had adapted a script of John Steinbeck's that had chronicled the experiences of the survivors of a German U-boat attack in the film "Lifeboat" (1944).cite web|title =Lifeboat (1944)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0037017/|accessdate=2008-03-05] Since the action sequences were confined to the small boat, the film was clearly the most confined of Hitchcock's films. The locale also posed problems for Hitchcock's traditional cameo appearance. That was solved by having Hitchcock's image appear in a newspaper that William Bendixis reading in the boat, showing the director in a before-and-after advertisement for "Reduco-Obesity Slayer". [Leitch, p. 181] While at Fox, Hitchcock seriously considered directing the film version of A.J. Cronin's novel about a Catholic priest in China, "The Keys of the Kingdom", [cite web|title =The Keys of the Kingdom (1944)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036983/|accessdate=2008-03-05] but the plans for this fell through. John M. Stahlended up directing the 1944 film, which was produced by Joseph L. Mankiewiczand starred Gregory Peck, among other luminaries. [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 343]
Returning to England for an extended visit in late 1943 and early 1944, Hitchcock filmed two short films for the Ministry of Information, "Bon Voyage" [cite web| title =Bon Voyage (1944)| publisher =Internet Movie Database|url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036659/| accessdate=2008-03-05] and "
Aventure Malgache". [cite web| title =Aventure malgache (1944)| publisher =Internet Movie Database|url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0036621/| accessdate=2008-03-05] The films were made for the Free French, were the only ones Hitchcock made in French, and feature typical Hitchcockian touches. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 346-348] In the 1990s, the two films were shown by Turner Classic Moviesand released on home video.
In 1945, Hitchcock served as "treatment advisor" (in effect, a film-editor) for a Holocaust documentary produced by the British Army. The film, which recorded the liberation of
Concentration Camps, remained unreleased until 1985, when it was completed by PBS Frontlineand distributed under the title "Memory of the Camps". [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 372-374] [cite web|title =FRONTLINE: "Memory of the Camps"|publisher =Public Broadcasting System (PBS)| url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/camp/|accessdate=2008-03-07]
Hitchcock again worked for Selznick when he had directed "Spellbound",cite web| title =Spellbound (1945)| publisher =Internet Movie Database |url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0038109/| accessdate=2008-03-05] which explored the then-fashionable subject of
psychoanalysisand featured a dream sequence designed by Salvador Dalí. Gregory Peckis amnesiac Dr. Anthony Edwardes under the treatment of analyst Dr. Peterson ( Ingrid Bergman), who falls in love with him while trying to unlock his repressed past. [Leitch, p. 310] The dream sequence as it actually appears in the film is considerably shorter than was originally envisioned, which was to be several minutes long, because it proved to be too disturbing for the audience. Some of the memorable and original musical score by Miklos Rozsa(which employs the theremin) was later adapted by the composer into a concert piano concerto.
"Notorious" (1946)cite web| title =Notorious (1946)| publisher =Internet Movie Database |url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0038787/| accessdate=2008-03-05] followed "Spellbound". According to Hitchcock in his book-length interview with Francois Truffaut, Selznick sold the director, the two stars (Grant and Bergman) and the screenplay (by Ben Hecht) to RKO Radio Pictures as a "package" for $500,000 due to cost overruns on Selznick's "
Duel in the Sun" (1946). From this point on, Hitchcock would produce his own films, giving him a far greater degree of freedom to pursue the projects that interested him. "Notorious" starred Hitchcock regulars Ingrid Bergmanand Cary Grantand features a plot about Nazis, uranium, and South America. It was a huge box office success and has remained one of Hitchcock's most acclaimed films. His use of uraniumas a plot device briefly led to Hitchcock's being under surveillance by the FBI. McGilligan wrote that Hitchcock consulted Dr. Robert Millikanof Caltechabout the development of an atomic bomb. Selznick complained that the notion was "science fiction" only to be confronted by the news stories of the detonation of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanin August 1945. These bombings led to the end of World War II. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 366-381]
After completing his final film for Selznick, "
The Paradine Case" (a promising courtroom drama that critics found lost momentum because it apparently ran too long and exhausted its resource of ideas), Hitchcock filmed his first color film, "Rope",cite web| title =Rope (1948)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0040746/| accessdate=2008-03-07] which appeared in 1948. Here Hitchcock experimented with marshalling suspense in a confined environment, as he had done earlier with "Lifeboat" (1943). He also experimented with exceptionally long takes — up to ten minutes long (see Themes and devices). Featuring James Stewart in the leading role, "Rope" was the first of four films Stewart would make for Hitchcock. It was based on the Leopold and Loebcase of the 1920s. Somehow Hitchcock's cameraman managed to move the bulky, heavy Technicolorcamera quickly around the set as it followed the continuous action of the long takes.
Under Capricorn" (1949),cite web| title =Under Capricorn (1949)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042004/| accessdate=2008-03-07] set in nineteenth-century Australia, also used the short-lived technique of long takes, but to a more limited extent. He again used Technicolorin this production, then returned to black and white films for several years. For "Rope" and "Under Capricorn", Hitchcock formed a production company with Sidney Bernstein, called Transatlantic Pictures, which became inactive after these two unsuccessful pictures. Hitchcock continued to produce his films for the rest of his life.
1950s: Peak years
In 1950, Hitchcock filmed "Stage Fright" on location in the UK. For the first time, Hitchcock matched one of Warner Brothers' [cite web|title=Warner Brothers Studios| url=http://www2.warnerbros.com/main/homepage/homepage.html| accessdate=2008-03-06] biggest stars,
Jane Wyman, with the sultry German actress Marlene Dietrich. Dietrich's daughter later wrote that Dietrich detested Wyman, although Wyman had just won the Best Actress Oscar for " Johnny Belinda". Hitchcock may have exploited the offscreen animosity between Wyman and Dietrich in this offbeat, behind-the-scenes glimpse of London theatrical personalities, one of whom commits a murder. Hitchcock utilized a number of prominent British actors, including Michael Wilding, Richard Todd, and Alastair Sim. This was Hitchcock's first production for Warner Brothers, which had distributed "Rope" and "Under Capricorn", because Transatlantic Pictures was experiencing financial difficulties. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 429, 774-775]
With the film, "Strangers on a Train" (1951),cite web| title =Strangers on a Train (1951)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0044079/| accessdate =2008-03-05] based on the novel by
Patricia Highsmith, Hitchcock combined many of the best elements from his preceding British and American films. Hitchcock approached Dashiell Hammettto write the dialogue but Raymond Chandlertook over, then left over disagreements with the director. [Leitch, p. 320] Two men casually meet and speculate on removing people who are causing them difficulty. One of the men, though, takes this banter entirely seriously. With Farley Grangerreprising some elements of his role from "Rope", "Strangers" continued the director's interest in the narrative possibilities of blackmail and murder. Robert Walker, previously known for "boy-next-door" roles, is a highly effective Hitchcock villain playing the quietly menacing Bruno who hounds Granger to carry out his part of the one-sided agreement. [Leitch, p. 322]
Lew Wasserman, whose client list included James Stewart, Janet Leighand other actors who would appear in Hitchcock's films, had a significant impact in packaging and marketing Hitchcock's films beginning in the 1950s. With Wasserman's help, Hitchcock received tremendous creative freedom from the studios, as well as substantive financial rewards as a result of Paramount's profit-sharing contract.
Three very popular films starring
Grace Kellyfollowed. " Dial M for Murder" (1954) was adapted from the popular stage play by Frederick Knott. Ray Millandplays the suave and scheming villain, an ex-tennis pro, who tries to murder his innocent wife Grace Kellyfor her money. When the murder goes awry and the assassin is killed by her in self-defense, he manipulates the evidence to pin the murder of the assassin on his wife. Her lover Mark Halliday ( Robert Cummings) and police inspector Hubbard ( John Williams) work urgently to save her from execution. [Leitch, pp. 78-80] This was originally another experimental film, with Hitchcock using the technique of 3D cinematography, although the film was not released in this format at first; it did receive screenings in the early 1980s in 3D form. The film also marked a return to Technicolorproductions for Hitchcock.
Hitchcock moved to
Paramount Picturesand filmed " Rear Window", [cite web| title =Rear Window (1954)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0047396/| accessdate=2008-03-06] starring James Stewart and Kelly again, as well as Thelma Ritterand Raymond Burr. Here, the wheelchair-bound Stewart, a photographer based on Robert Capa, observes the movements of his neighbours across the courtyard and becomes convinced one of them ( Raymond Burr) has murdered his wife. Stewart tries to sway both his glamorous model-girlfriend (Kelly) and his policeman buddy ( Wendell Corey) to his theory, and finally succeeds in getting her involved to the point of danger.Leitch, p. 269] Like "Lifeboat" and "Rope", the movie was photographed almost entirely within the confines of a small space: Stewart's tiny studio apartment overlooking the massive courtyard set. Hitchcock effectively uses closeups of Stewart's face to show his character's reactions to all he sees, from the comic voyeurism directed at his neighbors to his helpless terror watching Kelly and Burr in the villain's apartment.
The third Kelly film "To Catch a Thief", set in the French Riviera, stars Kelly with
Cary Grantagain. Grant plays retired thief John Robie who woos both Kelly and her jewels, and who becomes the prime suspect when a rash of robberies strike the Riviera. Despite the obvious age disparity between Grant and Kelly and a lightweight plot, the witty script (loaded with double-entendres) and the good-natured acting proved a commercial success. [Leitch, p. 366] It was Hitchcock's last film with Kelly because she married Prince Rainierof Monacoin 1956 and the residents of her new homeland refused to allow her to make any more films.
The remake of Hitchcock's own 1934 film, "The Man Who Knew Too Much", [cite web|title=The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956)|publisher=Internet Movie Database|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0049470/|accessdate=2008-03-04] in 1956 followed, this time starring Stewart and
Doris Day, who sang the theme song, " Whatever Will Be, Will Be (Que Sera, Sera)" (which won the Oscar for "Best Music", [cite web|title=Awards for "The Man Who Knew Too Much" (1956)|publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0049470/awards|accessdate=2008-03-04] and became a big hit for Day). Stewart and Day, distraught over the kidnapping of their son, struggle with both their emotions and their urgent quest to find their child and stop an assassination, until the song helps re-unite the family.
The Wrong Man" (1957), [cite web| title =The Wrong Man (1956)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0051207/|accessdate=2008-03-05] Hitchcock's final film for Warner Brothers, was a low-key black and white production based on a real-life case of mistaken identity reported in Life Magazine in 1953. This was the only film of Hitchcock's to star Henry Fonda. Fonda plays a Stork Club musician mistaken for a liquor store thief who is arrested and tried for robbery while his wife (newcomer Vera Miles) emotionally collapses under the strain. Hitchcock told Truffaut that his lifelong fear of the police attracted him to the subject and was embedded in many scenes. [Leitch, p. 377]
"Vertigo" (1958)cite web| title=Vertigo (1958)|publisher=Internet Movie Database|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0052357/|accessdate=2008-03-05] again starred Stewart, this time with
Kim Novakand Barbara Bel Geddes. Stewart plays "Scottie", a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman he is shadowing ( Kim Novak). Scottie's obsession leads to tragedy, and this time Hitchcock does not opt for a happy ending. Though the film is widely considered a classic today, "Vertigo" met with negative reviews and poor box office receipts upon its release, and marked the last collaboration between Stewart and Hitchcock. [Leitch, pp. 376-7] The film is now placed highly in the "Sight & Sound" decade polls. It was premiered in the San Sebastián International Film Festival, [cite web| title =Donostia Zinemaldia Festival de San Sebastian International Film Festival| url =http://www.sansebastianfestival.com/2007/es3/portada.php|accessdate=2008-03-06] [cite web| title=San Sebastián Film Festival (1958)| publisher=Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/San_Sebasti%E1n_International_Film_Festival/1958| accessdate=2008-03-06] where Hitchcock won a Silver Seashell.
Late 1950s, 1960s and 1970s
By this time, Hitchcock had filmed in many areas of the United States. [cite web| title =Hitchcock's America Lifelong Learning Institute-Fall 2001| subtitle=Hitchcock Filming Sites andPoints of Interest in the US| publisher=Sonoma State University|url=http://yorty.sonoma.edu/filmfrog/archive/hitchmap.html| accessdate=2008-03-05] He followed "Vertigo" with three more successful films. All are also recognized as among his very best films: "
North by Northwest" (1959), "Psycho" (1960) and "The Birds" (1963).cite web| title =The Birds (1963)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056869/| accessdate=2008-03-05]
In "North by Northwest", Cary Grant is Roger Thornhill, a Madison Avenue ad executive who is mistaken for a non-existing government agent. [Leitch, p. 234] He is hotly pursued by enemy agents across the country who try to kill him, one of whom is foreign agent Eve Kendall (
Eva Marie Saint) who seduces Thornhill, sets him up, but then falls in love with him and aids his escape.
"Psycho" is Hitchcock's most famous film. [Leitch, p. 260] Produced on a highly constrained budget of $800,000, Hitchcock shot in black-and-white on a spare set. [Leitch, p. 3261] The unprecedented violence of the shower scene, the early demise of the heroine, the innocent lives extinguished by a disturbed murderer were all hallmarks of Hitchcock copied in many horror films that followed. [Leitch, p. 262]
"The Birds", inspired by a
Daphne Du Mauriershort story and by an actual news story about a mysterious infestation of birds in California, was Hitchcock's 49th film. [Leitch, p. 32] He signed up Tippi Hedrenas his latest blond heroine opposite Rod Taylor. The scenes of the birds attacking included hundreds of shots mixing actual and animated sequences. The cause of the birds attack is left unanswered, perhaps highlighting the mystery of forces unknown. [Leitch, p. 33]
The latter two films were particularly notable for their unconventional soundtracks, both orchestrated by
Bernard Herrmann: the screeching strings played in the murder scene in "Psycho" exceeded the limits of the time, and "The Birds" dispensed completely with conventional instruments, instead using an electronically-produced soundtrack and an unaccompanied song by school children (just prior to the infamous attack at the historic Bodega Bay School). Also notable was that Santa Cruz was mentioned again as the place where the bird-phenomenon was said to have first occurred. These films are considered his last great films, after which his career started to lose pace (although some critics such as Robin Wood and Donald Spotocontend that "Marnie",cite web| title=Marnie (1964)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0058329/| accessdate=2008-03-05] from 1964, is first-class Hitchcock, and some have argued that " Frenzy" is unfairly overlooked).
Failing health took its toll on Hitchcock, reducing his new film production during the last two decades of his life. Hitchcock had filmed two spy thrillers, "
Torn Curtain"cite web| title=Torn Curtain (1966)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0061107/| accessdate=2008-03-07] with Paul Newmanand Julie Andrewsand "Topaz"cite web| title=Topaz (1969)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0065112/| accessdate=2008-03-07] (based on a Leon Urisnovel), which both received mixed reviews.
In 1972, Hitchcock returned to
Londonto film " Frenzy", his last major success. The plot recycles his early film " The Lodger". Richard Blarney ( Jon Finch), volatile barkeeper with a history of explosive anger, becomes the likely perpetrator of the "Necktie Murders", which are actually committed by his friend ( Barry Foster), a fruit seller.Leitch, p. 114] This time Hitchcock makes the victim and villain twins, rather than opposites, as in "Strangers on a Train". Only one of them, however, has crossed the line to murder. For the first time, Hitchcock allowed nudity and profane language, which had before been taboo, in one of his films. He also shows rare sympathy for the Chief Inspector and his comic domestic life. [Leitch, p. 115] Biographers have noted that Hitchcock had always pushed the limits of film censorship, often managing to fool Joseph Breen, the longtime head of Hollywood's Production Code. Many times Hitchcock slipped in subtle hints of improprieties forbidden by censorship until the mid-1960s. Yet Patrick McGilligan wrote that Breen and others often realized that Hitchcock was inserting such things and were actually amused as well as alarmed by Hitchcock's "inescapable inferences". [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 249] Beginning with "Torn Curtain", Hitchcock was finally able to blatantly include plot elements previously forbidden in American films and this continued for the remainder of his film career.
Family Plot" (1976)cite web| title =Family Plot (1976)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0074512/| accessdate=2008-03-07] was Hitchcock's last film. It related the escapades of "Madam" Blanche Tyler played by Barbara Harris, a fraudulent spiritualist, and her taxi driver lover Bruce Dernmaking a living from her phony powers. William Devane, Karen Blackand Cathleen Nesbittco-starred. It was the only Hitchcock film scored by John Williams.
When Hitchcock saw the
Mel Brooks1977 comedy-spoof of his work, " High Anxiety", he enjoyed it, but Brooks initially feared that Hitchcock was not pleased because he walked out of the movie when it was over.cite web| title =Trivia for High Anxiety (1977)| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0076141/trivia|accessdate=2008-03-04] Days later, Brooks' fear proved untrue as Hitchcock had sent Brooks a bottle of champagne.
Last film work
Near the end of his life, Hitchcock had worked on the script for a projected spy thriller, "
The Short Night", collaborating with screenwriters James Costiganand Ernest Lehman. Despite some preliminary work, the story was never filmed. This was due, primarily, to Hitchcock's own failing health and his concerns over the health of his wife, Alma, who had suffered a stroke. The script was eventually published posthumously, in a book on Hitchcock's last years. [Patrick McGilligan, pgs. 731-734] [cite book|last=Freeman|first=David|title=The Last Days of Alfred Hitchcock|year=1999|publisher=Overlook|id=ISBN 087951728X]
Hitchcock was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980
New Year's Honours. Although he had adopted American citizenship in 1956, he was entitled to use the title "Sir" because he had remained a British subject.Hitchcock died just four months later, on 29 April, before he could be formally invested by her.
Hitchcock died from
renal failurein his Bel-Air, Los Angeles, Californiahome at the age of 80. His wife Alma Reville, and their daughter, Patricia Hitchcock O'Connell, both survived him.
A funeral service was held at Good Shepherd Catholic Church [cite web|title =Good Shepherd Catholic Church Beverly Hills, CA 90210| url =http://shepherd.catholicweb.com/|accessdate=2008-03-04] in Beverly Hills. Hitchcock's body was cremated and his ashes were scattered over the Pacific.cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Alfred Hitchcock Dies; A Master of Suspense; Alfred Hitchcock, Master of Suspense and Celebrated Film Director, Dies at 80 Increasingly Pessimistic Sought Exotic Settings Technical Challenges Became a Draftsman Lured to Hollywood|publisher=The New York Times|date=30 April 1980, Wednesday |accessdate=2007-08-21 ] cite web| date=Wednesday, 30 April 1980|title =Alfred Hitchcock Dies; A Master of Suspense; Alfred Hitchcock, Master of Suspense and Celebrated Film Director, Dies at 80 Increasingly Pessimistic Sought Exotic Settings Technical Challenges Became a Draftsman Lured to Hollywood|publisher=The New York Times|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0B16FF395410728DDDA90B94DC405B8084F1D3&scp=1&sq=Alfred+Hitchcock+Dies&st=p| accessdate=2008-03-07]
Themes, plot devices and motifs
ignature appearances in his films
Many of Hitchcock's films contain cameo appearances by Hitchcock himself: the director would be seen for a brief moment boarding a bus, crossing in front of a building, standing in an open roof bus, or appearing in a photograph. This playful gesture became one of Hitchcock's signatures. As a recurring theme he would carry a musical instrument—especially memorable was the large double bass case that he wrestles onto the train at the beginning of "
Strangers on a Train".
In Hitchcock's earliest appearances, he would fill in as an obscure extra, standing in a crowd or walking through a scene in a long camera shot (e.g. in his 1927 film ""). He became more prominent in his later appearances, as when he turns to see
Jane Wyman's disguise when she passes him on the street in "Stage Fright", and in stark silhouette in his final film " Family Plot" (1976).
Hitchcock seemed to delight in the technical challenges of filmmaking. In the film "Lifeboat", Hitchcock stages the entire action of the movie in a small boat, yet manages to keep the cinematography from monotonous repetition (his trademark cameo appearance was a dilemma, given the limitations of the setting; so Hitchcock appears in a fictitious magazine for a weight loss product). Similarly, the entire action in "
Rear Window" either takes place or is seen from a single apartment. In "Spellbound", two unprecedented point-of-view shots were achieved by constructing a large wooden hand (which would appear to belong to the character whose point of view the camera took) and outsized props for it to hold: a bucket-sized glass of milk and a large wooden gun. For added novelty and impact, the climactic gunshot was hand-coloured red on some copies of the black-and-white print of the film.
"Rope" (1948) was another technical challenge: a film that appears to have been shot entirely in a single take. The film was actually shot in 10 takes of ranging from four and a half to 10 minutes each; 10 minutes being the maximum amount of film that would fit in a single camera reel. Some transitions between reels were hidden by having a dark object fill the entire screen for a moment. Hitchcock used those points to hide the cut, and began the next take with the camera in the same place.
Hitchcock's 1958 film "Vertigo" contains a camera technique that has been imitated and re-used many times by filmmakers. It has become known as the
One of the more inventive aspects of Hitchcock's devices is incorporating the number 13 into scenes for its superstitious nature. For example, in Psycho, Norman Bates first chooses cabin 3, then turns to cabin 1, for Marion Crane. She is spotted driving in a car where the license plate numbers add up to 13.
Character and its effects on his films
Hitchcock's films sometimes feature characters struggling in their relationships with their mothers. In "
North by Northwest" (1959), Roger Thornhill ( Cary Grant's character) is an innocent man ridiculed by his mother for insisting that shadowy, murderous men are after him (in this case, they are). In "The Birds" (1963), the Rod Taylor character, an innocent man, finds his world under attack by vicious birds, and struggles to free himself of a clinging mother ( Jessica Tandy). The killer in " Frenzy" (1972) has a loathing of women but idolizes his mother. The villain Bruno in "Strangers on a Train" hates his father, but has an incredibly close relationship with his mother (played by Marion Lorne). Sebastian ( Claude Rains) in "Notorious" has a clearly conflictual relationship with his mother, who is (correctly) suspicious of his new bride Alicia Huberman ( Ingrid Bergman). And, of course, Norman Bates' troubles with his mother in "Psycho" are infamous.
Hitchcock heroines tend to be lovely, cool blondes who seem proper at first but, when aroused by passion or danger, respond in a more sensual, animal, or even criminal way. As noted, the famous victims in "The Lodger" are all blondes. In "The 39 Steps", Hitchcock's glamorous blonde star,
Madeleine Carroll, is put in handcuffs. In "Marnie" (1964), the title character (played by Tippi Hedren) is a kleptomaniac. In "To Catch a Thief" (1955), Francie ( Grace Kelly) offers to help a man she believes is a burglar. In " Rear Window", Lisa (Grace Kelly again) risks her life by breaking into Lars Thorwald's apartment. And, most notoriously, in " Psycho", Janet Leigh's unfortunate character steals $40,000 and is murdered by a reclusive lunatic. Hitchcock's last blonde heroine was - years after Dany Robinand her "daughter" Claude Jadein "Topaz" - Barbara Harris as a phony psychic turned amateur sleuth in his final film, 1976's " Family Plot". In the same film, the diamond smuggler played by Karen Blackcould also fit that role, as she wears a long blonde wig in various scenes and becomes increasingly uncomfortable about her line of work.
Hitchcock saw that reliance on actors and actresses was a holdover from the theater tradition. He was a pioneer in using camera movement, camera set ups and montage to explore the outer reaches of cinematic art.
Most critics and Hitchcock scholars, including Donald Spoto and Roger Ebert, agree that "Vertigo" represents the director's most personal and revealing film, dealing with the obsessions of a man who crafts a woman into the woman he desires. "Vertigo" explores more frankly and at greater length his interest in the relation between sex and death than any other film in his filmography.
tyle of working
Hitchcock once commented, "The writer and I plan out the entire script down to the smallest detail, and when we're finished all that's left to do is to shoot the film. Actually, it's only when one enters the studio that one enters the area of compromise. Really, the novelist has the best casting since he doesn't have to cope with the actors and all the rest." In an interview with Roger Ebert in 1969, Hitchcock further elaborates,
::"Once the screenplay is finished, I'd just as soon not make the film at all...I have a strongly visual mind. I visualize a picture right down to the final cuts. I write all this out in the greatest detail in the script, and then I don't look at the script while I'm shooting. I know it off by heart, just as an orchestra conductor needs not look at the score...When you finish the script, the film is perfect. But in shooting it you lose perhaps 40 per cent of your original conception." [ [http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19691214/PEOPLE/912140301/1023 Hitchcock: "Never mess about with a dead body -- you may be one..."] ]
toryboards and production
Hitchcock's films were strongly believed to have been extensively storyboarded to the finest detail by the majority of commentators over the years. He was reported to have never even bothered looking through the viewfinder, since he didn't need to do so, though in publicity photos he was shown doing so. He also used this as an excuse to never have to change his films from his initial vision. If a studio asked him to change a film, he would claim that it was already shot in a single way, and that there were no alternate takes to consider.
However, this view of Hitchcock as a director who relied more on pre-production than on the actual production itself, has been challenged by the book, "Hitchcock At Work", written by Bill Krohn, the American correspondent of "Cahiers du Cinema". Krohn after investigating several script revisions, notes to other production personnel written by or to Hitchcock alongside inspection of storyboards and other production material has observed that Hitchcock's work often deviated from how the screenplay was written or how the film was originally envisioned. He noted that the myth of storyboards in relation to Hitchcock, often regurgitated by generations of commentators on his movies was to a great degree perpetuated by Hitchcock himself or the publicity arm of the studios. A great example would be the famous cropduster sequence of "North by Northwest" which wasn't storyboarded at all. After the scene was filmed, the publicity department asked Hitchcock to make storyboards to promote the film and Hitchcock in turn hired an artist to match the scenes in detail.
Even on the occasions when storyboards were made, the scene which was shot did differ from it significantly. Krohn's extensive analysis of the production of Hitchcock classics like "Notorious" reveals that Hitchcock was flexible enough to change a film's conception during its making. Another example is the American remake of "The Man Who Knew Too Much" which Krohn notes went into production without a complete script which moreover went over schedule, something which as Krohn notes was not an uncommon occurrence on many of Hitchcock's films including "
Strangers on a Train" and " Topaz". While Hitchcock did do a great deal of preparation for all his movies, he was fully cognizant that the actual film-making process often deviated from the best laid plans and was flexible to adapt to the changes and needs of production as his films weren't free from the normal hassles and routines that face many other film productions.
Krohn's work also sheds light on Hitchcock's practice of generally shooting in chronological order. A practice which he notes often sent many of his films overbudget and overschedule and more importantly differed from the standard operating procedure of Hollywood in the Studio System Era. Equally important is Hitchcock's tendency of shooting alternate takes of scenes. This differed from coverage in that the films weren't necessarily shot from varying angles so as to give the editor options to shape the film how he/she chooses (often under the producer's aegis). Rather they represented Hitchcock's tendency of giving himself options in the editing room where he would provide advice to his editors after viewing a rough cut of the work so as to give him space for other possibilities in the editing room. According to Krohn, this and numerous other information revealed through his research of Hitchcock's personal papers, script revisions and the like refute the notion of Hitchcock as a director who was always in control of his films, whose vision of his films did not change during production, which Krohn notes has remained the central long-standing myth of Alfred Hitchcock.
Approach to actors
Similarly, much of Hitchcock's hatred of actors has been exaggerated. Hitchcock simply did not tolerate the method approach as he believed that actors should only concentrate on their performances and leave work on script and character to the directors and screenwriters. In a "
Sight and Sound" interview, he stated that, ' the method actor is OK in the theatre because he has a free space to move about. But when it comes to cutting the face and what he sees and so forth, there must be some discipline'. [cite web|title =Alfred Hitchcock| publisher=BFI (Because Films Inspire)| url =http://www.bfi.org.uk/features/interviews/hitchcock.html#actors|accessdate=2008-03-04] During the making of "Lifeboat", Walter Slezak, who played the German character, stated that Hitchcock knew the mechanics of acting better than anyone he knew. Several critics have observed that despite his reputation as a man who disliked actors, several actors who worked with him gave fine, often brilliant performances and these performances contribute to the film's success.
Regarding Hitchcock's sometimes less than pleasant relationship with actors, there was a persistent rumor that he had said that actors were cattle. Hitchcock later denied this, typically
tongue-in-cheek, clarifying that he had only said that actors should be treated like cattle. Carole Lombard, tweaking Hitchcock and drumming up a little publicity, brought some cows along with her when she reported to the set of "Mr. and Mrs. Smith".producers, and actors. His influence helped start a trend for film directors to control artistic aspects of their movies without answering to the movie's producer.
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencesawarded Hitchcock the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, in 1967. His other Oscar nominations were:
* Best Director in 1960 for "Psycho".
* Best Director for "Rebecca" (1940), "Lifeboat" (1944), "Spellbound" (1945), and "
Rear Window" (1954).
* Producer for Best Picture: "
"Rebecca", which Hitchcock directed, won the 1940 Best Picture Oscar for its producer
David O. Selznick. In addition to "Rebecca" and "Suspicion", two other films Hitchcock directed, "Foreign Correspondent" and "Spellbound", were nominated for Best Picture.
Hitchcock is considered the Best Film Director of all time by The Screen Directory. [cite web|url=http://www.thescreendirectory.com/cat4/top_tens.php?c=40 |title=The Screen Directory |publisher=Thescreendirectory.com |date= |accessdate=2008-10-06] Hitchcock was knighted in 1980.
Sixteen films directed by Hitchcock earned Oscar nominations, though only six of those films earned Hitchcock himself a nomination. The total number of Oscar nominations (including winners) earned by films he directed is fifty. Four of those films earned Best Picture nominations.
Five of Hitchcock's films are in the
National Film Registry: "Vertigo", " Rear Window", " North by Northwest", " Shadow of a Doubt" and "Psycho"; all but "Shadow of a Doubt" were also in 1998's AFI's 100 best American films and the AFI's 2007 update. In 2008, four of Hitchcock's films were named among the ten best mystery films of all time in the AFI's 10 Top 10. Those films are "Vertigo" (at No. 1); "Rear Window" (No. 3); "North by Northwest" (No. 7); and " Dial M for Murder" (No. 9). [cite news | author = American Film Institute| title = AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres | work = ComingSoon.net | date = 2008-06-17 | url = http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=46072 | accessdate=2008-06-18]
Television and books
Walt Disney, Hitchcock was one of the first prominent motion picture producers to fully envision just how popular the medium of television would become. From 1955 to 1965, Hitchcock was the host and producer of a long-running televisionseries entitled " Alfred Hitchcock Presents". [cite web| title =Alfred Hitchcock Presents| publisher=TV.COM| url =http://www.tv.com/alfred-hitchcock-presents/show/238/summary.html| accessdate=2008-03-05] While his films had made Hitchcock's name strongly associated with suspense, the TV series made Hitchcock a celebrity himself. His irony-tinged voice, image, and mannerisms became instantly recognizable and were often the subject of parody.
The title-theme of the show pictured a minimalist caricature of Hitchcock's profile (he drew it himself; it is composed of only nine strokes) which his real silhouette then filled. His introductions before the stories in his program always included some sort of wry humor, such as the description of a recent multi-person execution hampered by having only one electric chair, while two are now shown with a sign "Two chairs--no waiting!" He directed a few episodes of the TV series himself, and he upset a number of movie production companies when he insisted on using his TV production crew to produce his motion picture "Psycho". In the late 1980s, a new version of "Alfred Hitchcock Presents" was produced for television, making use of Hitchcock's original introductions in a colorised form.
"Hitch" used a curious little tune [cite web| title =Alfred Hitchcock (suspense anthology)| publisher =Media Management Group|url =http://www.classicthemes.com/50sTVThemes/themePages/alfredHitchcock.html| accessdate=2008-03-04] by the French composer
Charles Gounod(1818-1893), [cite web| title =Filmography by year for Charles Gounod| publisher =Internet Movie Database| url =http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006111/filmoyear| accessdate =2008-03-04] the composer of the 1859 opera " Faust", as the theme "song" for his television programs, after it was suggested to him by composer Bernard Herrmann. Arthur Fiedlerand the Boston Pops Orchestraincluded the piece, "Funeral March of a Marionette", in one of their extended play 45 rpm discs for RCA Victorduring the 1950s.
Hitchcock appears as a character in the popular juvenile detective book series, "Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators". The long-running detective series was created by Robert Arthur, who wrote the first several books, although other authors took over after he left the series. The Three Investigators -- Jupiter Jones, Bob Andrews and Peter Crenshaw -- were amateur detectives, slightly younger than the
Hardy Boys. In the introduction to each book, "Alfred Hitchcock" introduces the mystery, and he sometimes refers a case to the boys to solve. At the end of each book, the boys report to Hitchcock, and sometimes give him a memento of their case.
When the real Hitchcock died, the fictional Hitchcock in the Three Investigators books was replaced by a retired detective named Hector Sebastian. At this time, the series title was changed from "Alfred Hitchcock and the Three Investigators" to "The Three Investigators".
At the height of Hitchcock's success, he was also asked to introduce a set of books with his name attached. The series was a collection of short stories by popular short-story writers, primarily focused on suspense and thrillers. These titles included "
Alfred Hitchcock's Anthology", "Alfred Hitchcock Presents: Stories to be Read with the Door Locked", "Alfred Hitchcock's Monster Museum", "Alfred Hitchcock's Supernatural Tales of Terror and Suspense", "Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbinders in Suspense", "Alfred Hitchcock's Witch's Brew", "Alfred Hitchcock's Ghostly Gallery", "Alfred Hitchcock's A Hangman's Dozen" and "Alfred Hitchcock's Haunted Houseful." Hitchcock himself was not actually involved in the reading, reviewing, editing or selection of the short stories; in fact, even his introductions were ghost-written. The entire extent of his involvement with the project was to lend his name and collect a check.
Some notable writers whose works were used in the collection, include
Shirley Jackson("Strangers in Town", " The Lottery"), T.H. White(" The Once and Future King"), Robert Bloch, H. G. Wells("The War of the Worlds"), Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twainand the creator of " The Three Investigators", Robert Arthur.
Hitchcock also wrote a mystery story for "Look" magazine in 1943, "The Murder of
Monty Woolley." This was a sequence of captioned photographs inviting the reader to inspect the pictures for clues to the murderer's identity; Hitchcock cast the performers as themselves: Woolley, Doris Merrick, and make-up manGuy Pearce, whom Hitchcock identified, in the last photo, as the murderer. The article was reprinted in "Games" Magazine in November/December 1980.
Hitchcock had a dislike of egg yolk. He once said::"I’m frightened of eggs, worse than frightened, they revolt me. That white round thing without any holes … have you ever seen anything more revolting than an egg yolk breaking and spilling its yellow liquid? Blood is jolly, red. But egg yolk is yellow, revolting. I’ve never tasted it"." [ [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alfred_Hitchcock#Sourced] ] Biographer Patrick McGilligan confirmed Hitchcock's avoidance of eggs, [Patrick McGilligan, "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light" (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), page 18] while noting that the director had actually tried them as a young man, then discovered he didn't like them. He was especially annoyed by
poached eggs. His daughter Patricia, however, stated that "He loved soufflés." [ [http://www.hitchcockwiki.com/hitchcock/wiki/Documentary:_Alfred_Hitchcock_and_To_Catch_a_Thief_-_An_Appreciation "Alfred Hitchcock and To Catch a Thief - An Appreciation"] (DVD)] Hitchcock references his distaste for eggs in the film "Sabotage", in which a character expresses a similar opinion.
Hitchcock also had a serious fear of the
police, which was the reason he said he never learned to drive. His reasoning was that if one never drove, then one would never have an opportunity to be pulled over by the police and issued a ticket. However, Patrick McGilligan wrote that "though Hitchcock pooh-poohed driving, insisting to interviewers that he didn't even know how, he often chauffeured his daughter to school at Marymount [a private academy for girls] , [cite web| title =Marymount of Santa Barbara| publisher =Marymount of Santa Barbara| url=http://www.marymountsb.org/|accessdate=2008-03-06] and for a long time drove her to Sunday Mass." [Patrick McGilligan, pg. 243] His fear of the police can be attributed to a circumstance encountered by Hitchcock in his youth, which he told a number of interviewers and mentioned in the PBS documentary "The Men Who Made the Movies". In an attempt to punish Hitchcock for an instance of misbehavior, Alfred's father detailed in writing that the young Hitchcock had engaged in some form of childish mischief. Hitchcock's father then handed the description to Alfred, sending him to the local police station to demonstrate his wrongdoing. In response to the written notice, the on-duty police officer immediately brought Hitchcock to an empty cell and locked him there for a full 10 minutes, citing the justification for this action as a means to reprimand the young boy. Undoubtedly, history has recorded this incident as scarring. This perhaps influenced his signature theme in his movies where an innocent person would become entangled in the web of another guilty person's behaviour. This can be noted in many of his films, and a possible reason would be due to his hatred for authorityfact|date=June 2008, and his siding with the innocent. He also manages to convey this message to his audience in order to allow them to take his (the innocent) side. [cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000033/bio |title=Alfred Hitchcock (I) - Biography |publisher=Imdb.com |date= |accessdate=2008-10-06]
Tributes and parodies
Mel Brooks's "
High Anxiety" is one of the most famous parodies of Hitchcock's work.
The film "
Throw Momma from the Train" was inspired by " Strangers on a Train".
A 2000 episode of "
That '70s Show" portrays the characters watching Hitchcock's movies on Halloween, and then a series of events in their lives resemble scenes from his movies.
The Simpsons" episode " Bart of Darkness" features a wheelchair bound Bart who suspects that Ned Flanders is a killer, in a parody of " Rear Window".
Joe Dante's movie " Matinee", a gas station attendant recognizes John Goodman's B-movie producer character as "... the guy who makes them scary movies." After receiving an autograph, he says "Thanks, Mr. Hitchcock."
The Canadian comedy "
The Wrong Guy" is loosely based on " The Wrong Man" and contains scenes drawing upon several other Hitchcock movies, including " Psycho" and "Vertigo" [ [http://www.impossiblefunky.com/archives/issue_10/10_wrongguy.asp?IshNum=10&Headline=The%20Wrong%20Guy] Review of the "The WrongGuy" at ImpossiblyFunky.com] .
Leo G. Carroll
Hume Cronyn(also as Writer)
Fred Ahern- Production Manager
Michael Balcon- Producer
Jack Barron- Makeup
Saul Bass- Main titles design
Robert F. Boyle- Art Director/Production Designer
Henry Bumstead- Art Director
Robert Burks- Cinematographer
Herbert Coleman- Assistant Director/Producer
Jack E. Cox- Cinematographer
Lowell J. Farrell- Assistant Director
Charles Frend- Film Editor
Hilton A. Green- Assistant Director
Bobby Greene- First Assistant Camera
Edith Head- Costume Designer
Bernard Herrmann- Music Composer
J. McMillan Johnson- Art Director/Production Designer
Barbara Keon- Production Assistant
Emile Kuri- Set Decoration
Bryan Langley- Cinematographer/Assistant Camera
Louis Levy- Musical Director/Music Composer
Norman Lloyd- Producer/Director
*John Maxwell - Producer
Daniel McCauley- Assistant Director
*Frank Mills - Assistant Director
George Milo- Set Decoration
Ivor Montagu- Editor/Producer
Hal Pereira- Art Director
*Michael Powell - Still Photographer/Assistant Camera
Alma Reville- Assistant Director/Writer
Rita Riggs- Costume Designer
Peggy Robertson- Assistant
Emile de Ruelle- Film Editor
William Russell- Sound Recordist
David O. Selznick- Producer
Harry Stradling- Cinematographer/Director of Photography
Lois Thurman- Script Supervisor
Dimitri Tiomkin- Music Composer
George Tomasini- Film Editor
Joseph A. Valentine- Cinematographer
Gaetano di Ventimiglia- Cinematographer
Waldon O. Watson- Sound Recordist
Franz Waxman- Music Composer
Albert Whitlock- Matte Painter
William H. Ziegler- Film Editor
John Michael Hayes
Alfred Hitchcock filmography
Alfred Hitchcock Masterpiece Collection
Bernard Herrmann, scored many of Hitchcock's Hollywood films.
List of unproduced Hitchcock projects
List of film collaborations
Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine
High Anxiety" – a comedy spoof that parodies many Hitchcock devices
Hitchcock & Herrmann" – a stage play about the relationship between Hitchcock and composer Bernard Herrmann
*Why – Milton Bradley Company board game presented by Alfred Hitchcock.
* Auiler, Dan: "Hitchcock's notebooks: an authorized and illustrated look inside the creative mind of Alfred Hitchcock". New York, Avon Books, 1999. Much useful background to the films.
* Barr, Charles: "English Hitchcock". Cameron & Hollis, 1999. On the early films of the director.
* Conrad, Peter: "The Hitchcock Murders". Faber and Faber, 2000. A highly personal and idiosyncratic discussion of Hitchcock's oeuvre.
* DeRosa, Steven: "Writing with Hitchcock". Faber and Faber, 2001. An examination of the collaboration between Hitchcock and screenwriter John Michael Hayes, his most frequent writing collaborator in Hollywood. Their films include "Rear Window" and "The Man Who Knew Too Much".
* Deutelbaum, Marshall; Poague, Leland (ed.): "A Hitchcock Reader". Iowa State University Press, 1986. A wide-ranging collection of scholarly essays on Hitchcock.
*Durgnat, Raymond: "The strange case of Alfred Hitchcock" Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974 [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1233570 OCLC 1233570]
*Durgnat, Raymond; James, Nick; Gross, Larry: "Hitchcock" British Film Institute, 1999 [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42209162 OCLC 42209162]
*Durgnat, Raymond: "A long hard look at Psycho" London: British Film Institute Pub., 2002 [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48883020 OCLC 48883020]
* Giblin, Gary: "Alfred Hitchcock's London". Midnight Marquee Press, 2006, (Paperback: ISBN 188766467X)
* Gottlieb, Sidney: "Hitchcock on Hitchcock". Faber and Faber, 1995. Articles, lectures, etc. by Hitchcock himself. Basic reading on the director and his films.
* Gottlieb, Sidney: "Alfred Hitchcock: Interviews". University Press of Mississippi, 2003. A collection of Hitchcock interviews.
* Haeffner, Nicholas: "Alfred Hitchcock". Longman, 2005. An undergraduate-level text.
* Krohn, Bill: "Hitchcock at Work". Phaidon, 2000. Translated from the award-winning French edition. The nitty-gritty of Hitchcock's filmmaking from scripting to post-production.
* Leff, Leonard J.: "Hitchcock and Selznick". Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987. An in-depth examination of the rich collaboration between Hitchcock and David O Selznick.
* Leitch, Thomas: "The Encyclopedia of Alfred Hitchcock" (ISBN 0816043876). Checkmark Books, 2002. A single-volume encyclopedia of all things Hitchcock.
* Martin, Jr. Grams: "The Alfred Hitchcock Presents Companion". OTR Pub, 2001, (Paperback: ISBN 0970331010)
* McGilligan, Patrick: "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light". Regan Books, 2003. A comprehensive biography of the director.
* Modleski, Tania: "The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock And Feminist Theory". Routledge, 2005 (2nd edition). A collection of critical essays on Hitchcock and his films; argues that Hitchcock's portrayal of women was ambivalent, rather than simply misogynist or sympathetic (as widely thought).
* Mogg, Ken. "The Alfred Hitchcock Story". Titan, 1999. This original UK edition has significantly more text than the abridged US edition. New material on all the films.
* Rebello, Stephen: "Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho". St. Martin's, 1990. Intimately researched and detailed history of the making of "Psycho,".
* Rohmer, Eric; Chabrol, Claude. "Hitchcock, the first forty-four films" (ISBN 0804427437). F. Ungar, 1979. First book-long study of Hitchock art and probably still the best one.
* Rothman, William. "The Murderous Gaze". Harvard Press, 1980. Auteur study that looks at several Hitchcock films intimately.
* Spoto, Donald: "The Art of Alfred Hitchcock". Anchor Books, 1992. The first detailed critical survey of Hitchcock's work by an American.
* Spoto, Donald: "The Dark Side of Genius". Ballantine Books, 1983. A biography of Hitchcock, featuring a controversial exploration of Hitchcock's psychology.
* Taylor, Alan: "Jacobean Visions: Webster, Hitchcock and the Google Culture", Peter Lang, 2007.
* Truffaut, François: "Hitchcock". Simon and Schuster, 1985. A series of interviews of Hitchcock by the influential French director.
* Vest, James: "Hitchcock and France: The Forging of an Auteur". Praeger Publishers, 2003. A study of Hitchcock's interest in French culture and the manner by which French critics, such as Truffaut, came to regard him in such high esteem.
* Wood, Robin: "Hitchcock's Films Revisited". Columbia University Press, 2002 (2nd edition). A much-cited collection of critical essays, now supplemented and annotated in this second edition with additional insights and changes that time and personal experience have brought to the author (including his own coming-out as a gay man).
*cite book|last=Youngkin|first=Stephen D.|title= [http://www.peterlorrebook.com/ The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre] |year=2005|publisher=University Press of Kentucky|id=ISBN 0-813-12360-7 -- Contains interviews with Alfred Hitchcock and a discussion of the making of "The Man Who Knew Too Much" (1934) and "Secret Agent" (1936), which co-starred classic film actor Peter Lorre.
* [http://www.hitchcockwiki.com/ Alfred Hitchcock Wiki]
* [http://www.hitchcockonline.org/ HitchcockOnline] - Contains a lengthy online essay and related links.
* [http://www.writingwithhitchcock.com/ Writing With Hitchcock] - includes original interviews, essays, script excerpts, and extensive material on Hitchcock's unproduced works.
Film and TV sites
* [http://www.screenonline.org.uk/tours/hitch/tour1.html "Hitchcock's Style"] -- online exhibit from
screenonline, a website of the British Film Institute
* [http://www.eyegate.com/Hitchcock Hitchcock EyeGate Collection]
* [http://kinovorschau.org/index.php?type=Director&search=Alfred+Hitchcock&submit=Suchen&task=search&option=com_trailers&lang=en Alfred Hitchcock Movie Trailers]
Profiles and interviews
* [http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/05/hitchcock.html Senses of Cinema's "Great Directors" Alfred Hitchcock profile]
* [http://zakka.dk/euroscreenwriters/interviews/alfred_hitchcock.htm EuroScreenwriters features interviews with Hitchcock, both text and video]
* [http://www.filmreference.com/Directors-Ha-Ji/Hitchcock-Alfred.html Film Reference - Brief Profile on Hitchcock by Robin Wood]
* [http://www.cinemademerde.com/Essay-Lodger_Hitchcocks_First_Film.shtml Essay: The Lodger: The First 'Hitchcock' Film]
* [http://www.labyrinth.net.au/~muffin/ The Alfred Hitchcock Scholars/"MacGuffin" website] - the online extension of the Alfred Hitchcock journal "The MacGuffin".
* [http://www.borgus.com/think/hitch.htm Basic Hitchcock Film Techniques] .
Hitchcock's Holocaust film
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6076323184217355958 Hitchcock's Holocaust Film]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/camp "Memory of the Camps" at PBS Frontline]
NAME=Hitchcock, Alfred Joseph
film directorand film producer
DATE OF BIRTH=birth date|1899|8|13|df=y
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=death date|1980|4|29|df=y
PLACE OF DEATH=
Los Angeles, U.S.A.
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