secular+affairs

  • 181ARAB WORLD, 1945–2006 — The Arab world is divided into four subregions: the Maghreb (morocco , tunisia , algeria , libya , Mauritania), the Nile Valley (egypt and Sudan), the Fertile Crescent (syria , lebanon , iraq , jordan , and the palestinian authority ), and the… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 182OTTOMAN EMPIRE — OTTOMAN EMPIRE, Balkan and Middle Eastern empire started by a Turkish tribe, led by ʿUthmān (1288–1326), at the beginning of the 14th century. This entry is arranged according to the following outline: sources …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 183literature — /lit euhr euh cheuhr, choor , li treuh /, n. 1. writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays. 2.… …

    Universalium

  • 184The Reformation —     The Reformation     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Reformation     The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the …

    Catholic encyclopedia

  • 185NEW YORK CITY — NEW YORK CITY, foremost city of the Western Hemisphere and largest urban Jewish community in history; pop. 7,771,730 (1970), est. Jewish pop. 1,836,000 (1968); metropolitan area 11,448,480 (1970), metropolitan area Jewish (1968), 2,381,000… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 186Status of religious freedom by country — The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country.CountriesAfghanistanThe current government of Afghanistan has only been in place since 2002, following a U.S. led invasion which displaced the former Taliban… …

    Wikipedia

  • 187Egypt — /ee jipt/, n. 1. Arab Republic of. a republic in NE Africa. 64,791,891; 386,198 sq. mi. (1,000,252 sq. km). Cap.: Cairo. Arabic, Misr. Formerly (1958 71), United Arab Republic. 2. an ancient kingdom in NE Africa: divided into the Nile Delta… …

    Universalium

  • 188Austro-Hungarian Monarchy —     The Austro Hungarian Monarchy     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Austro Hungarian Monarchy     By this name is designated the European monarchy whose dominions have for their main life distributing artery the River Danube, in its course from… …

    Catholic encyclopedia

  • 189Hamas — حركة المقاومة الاسلامية …

    Wikipedia

  • 190Mustafa Kemal Atatürk — Atatürk redirects here. For other uses, see Atatürk (disambiguation). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk …

    Wikipedia

  • 191Spain — /spayn/, n. a kingdom in SW Europe. Including the Balearic and Canary islands, 39,244,195; 194,988 sq. mi. (505,019 sq. km). Cap.: Madrid. Spanish, España. * * * Spain Introduction Spain Background: Spain s powerful world empire of the 16th and… …

    Universalium

  • 192South Asian arts — Literary, performing, and visual arts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Myths of the popular gods, Vishnu and Shiva, in the Puranas (ancient tales) and the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics, supply material for representational and… …

    Universalium

  • 193Secularism in the Middle East — refers to the ideology of promoting the secular as opposed to the religion. It is often used to describe the separation of civil/government matters from religious theocracy. The quest for Secularism has inspired many Muslim scholars; however, it… …

    Wikipedia

  • 194Tibet during the Ming Dynasty — The exact nature of Sino Tibetan relations during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) of China is unclear. Some modern scholars living and working in the People s Republic of China assert that the Ming Dynasty had unquestioned sovereignty over Tibet,… …

    Wikipedia

  • 195HEBREW LANGUAGE — This entry is arranged according to the following scheme: pre biblical biblical the dead sea scrolls mishnaic medieval modern period A detailed table of contents precedes each section. PRE BIBLICAL nature of the evidence the sources phonology… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 196Islamism — This article is about the political Islamic movement. For the religion of Islam, see Islam. For scholarship on Islam, see Islamic studies. Part of the Politics series on …

    Wikipedia

  • 197United States — a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48 conterminous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska in North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. 267,954,767; conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi. (7,827,982 sq. km); with… …

    Universalium

  • 198English literature — Introduction       the body of written works produced in the English language by inhabitants of the British Isles (including Ireland) from the 7th century to the present day. The major literatures written in English outside the British Isles are… …

    Universalium

  • 199List of Muslim-majority countries — Muslim majority countries. This is a list of countries in which Islam is the majority religion of the people. In a geopolitical sense these countries are often considered to form the Muslim world. The list contains only countries where more than… …

    Wikipedia

  • 200Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… …

    Universalium