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  • 161cantankerous — cantankerously, adv. cantankerousness, n. /kan tang keuhr euhs/, adj. disagreeable to deal with; contentious; peevish: a cantankerous, argumentative man. [1765 75; perh. var. of earlier *contenkerous, reflecting CONTENTIOUS, RANCOROUS] * * * …

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  • 162European Union — 1. an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration. Formerly known as the European Economic Community, the European Union s member states are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,… …

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  • 163France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… …

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  • 164Hera — /hear euh, her euh/, n. the ancient Greek queen of heaven, a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and the wife and sister of Zeus. Also, Here. Cf. Juno. * * * Greek queen of the gods and sister wife of Zeus. Her Roman counterpart was Juno. She was… …

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  • 165Missouri Compromise — U.S. Hist. an act of Congress (1820) by which Missouri was admitted as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36°30 N, except for Missouri. Cf. Kansas Nebraska Act. * * *… …

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  • 166spiteful — spitefully, adv. spitefulness, n. /spuyt feuhl/, adj. full of spite or malice; showing spite; malicious; malevolent; venomous: a spiteful child. [1400 50; late ME; see SPITE, FUL] Syn. vengeful, mean, cruel, rancorous. SPITEFUL, REVENGEFUL,… …

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  • 167venomous — venomously, adv. venomousness, venomness, n. /ven euh meuhs/, adj. 1. (of an animal) having a gland or glands for secreting venom; able to inflict a poisoned bite, sting, or wound: a venomous snake. 2. full of or containing venom; poisonous: a… …

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  • 168Bank of the United States — Bank chartered in 1791 by the U.S. Congress. It was conceived by Alexander Hamilton to pay off the country s debts from the American Revolution and to provide a stable currency. Its establishment, opposed by Thomas Jefferson, was marked by… …

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  • 169Böhme, Jakob — born 1575, Altseidenberg, Saxony died Nov. 21, 1624, Görlitz German philosophical mystic. Originally a cobbler, Böhme had a religious experience in 1600 that he felt gave him insight into how the tensions of his age could be resolved. He… …

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  • 170Clinton, Bill — in full William Jefferson Clinton orig. William Jefferson Blythe IV born Aug. 19, 1946, Hope, Ark., U.S. 42nd president of the U.S. (1993–2001). Born shortly after his father s death in a car crash, he later took the last name of his mother s… …

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  • 171Greenberg, Joseph H(arold) — born May 28, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S. died May 7, 2001, Stanford, Calif. U.S. anthropologist and linguist. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He eschewed more orthodox methods of historical linguistics for the approach he… …

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  • 172Hogarth, William — born Nov. 10, 1697, London, Eng. died Oct. 26, 1764, London British painter and engraver. Apprenticed at 15 to a silversmith, he opened his own engraving and printing shop at 22. He took private drawing lessons while earning a living as an… …

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  • 173Wilkes, John — born Oct. 17, 1725, London, Eng. died Dec. 26, 1797, London English politician. The son of a successful malt distiller, he was educated at an academy at Hertford and afterward privately tutored. His marriage to Mary Meade (1747), heiress of the… …

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  • 174Bolton, John R. — ▪ 2006       On Aug. 1, 2005, Pres. George W. Bush named John R. Bolton as U.S. ambassador to the UN in a recess appointment, made while Congress was not in session. Bush had nominated Bolton for the UN post on March 7, but hearings in the Senate …

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  • 175Fayed, Mohamed al- — ▪ 1998       Although frustrated in his efforts to be accepted as a British citizen, Egyptian born billionaire Mohamed al Fayed continued to play an influential and highly controversial role in Great Britain in 1997. Fayed s public feuds with the …

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  • 176Life Sciences — ▪ 2009 Introduction Zoology       In 2008 several zoological studies provided new insights into how species life history traits (such as the timing of reproduction or the length of life of adult individuals) are derived in part as responses to… …

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  • 177Constitution of the United States of America — Introduction  the fundamental law of the U.S. federal (federalism) system of government and a landmark document of the Western world. The oldest written national constitution in use, the Constitution defines the principal organs of government and …

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  • 178English literature — Introduction       the body of written works produced in the English language by inhabitants of the British Isles (including Ireland) from the 7th century to the present day. The major literatures written in English outside the British Isles are… …

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  • 179Fairchild, Mary Salome Cutler — ▪ American librarian and educator née  Mary Salome Cutler  born June 21, 1855, Dalton, Mass., U.S. died Dec. 20, 1921, Takoma Park, Md.       American librarian, a central figure in the establishment and teaching of the field of library science… …

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  • 180León, Luis de — ▪ Spanish poet born 1527, Belmonte, Cuenca Province, Spain died Aug. 23, 1591, Madrigal de las Altas  mystic and poet who contributed greatly to Spanish Renaissance literature.       León was a monk educated chiefly at Salamanca, where he… …

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