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  • 181South America — South American. a continent in the S part of the Western Hemisphere. 271,000,000; ab. 6,900,000 sq. mi. (17,871,000 sq. km). * * * Continent, Western Hemisphere. The world s fourth largest continent, it is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the… …

    Universalium

  • 182theatre — /thee euh teuhr, theeeu /, n. theater. * * * I Building or space in which performances are given before an audience. It contains an auditorium and stage. In ancient Greece, where Western theatre began (5th century BC), theatres were constructed… …

    Universalium

  • 183Ukraine — /yooh krayn , kruyn , yooh krayn/, n. a republic in SE Europe: rich agricultural and industrial region. 50,684,635; 223,090 sq. mi. (603,700 sq. km). Cap.: Kiev. Russian, Ukraina. Formerly, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. * * * Ukraine… …

    Universalium

  • 184Southeast Asian arts — Literary, performing, and visual arts of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. The classical literatures of Southeast Asia can be divided into three major regions: the Sanskrit region of… …

    Universalium

  • 185Anthropology and Archaeology — ▪ 2009 Introduction Anthropology       Among the key developments in 2008 in the field of physical anthropology was the discovery by a large interdisciplinary team of Spanish and American scientists in northern Spain of a partial mandible (lower… …

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  • 186Earth Sciences — ▪ 2009 Introduction Geology and Geochemistry       The theme of the 33rd International Geological Congress, which was held in Norway in August 2008, was “Earth System Science: Foundation for Sustainable Development.” It was attended by nearly… …

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  • 187Nobel Prizes — ▪ 2009 Introduction Prize for Peace       The 2008 Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded to Martti Ahtisaari, former president (1994–2000) of Finland, for his work over more than 30 years in settling international disputes, many involving ethnic,… …

    Universalium

  • 188ancient Greek civilization — ▪ historical region, Eurasia Introduction       the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended in about 1200 BC, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It was a period of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific… …

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  • 189ancient Rome — ▪ ancient state, Europe, Africa, and Asia Introduction       the state centred on the city of Rome. This article discusses the period from the founding of the city and the regal period, which began in 753 BC, through the events leading to the… …

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  • 190Egypt, ancient — Introduction  civilization in northeastern Africa dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Its many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets. This article… …

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  • 191endocrine system, human — ▪ anatomy Introduction  group of ductless glands (gland) that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones (hormone). Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs… …

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  • 192human disease — Introduction       an impairment of the normal state of a human being that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. health versus disease       Before human disease can be discussed, the meanings of the terms health, physical fitness, illness …

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  • 193Latin America, history of — Introduction       history of the region from the pre Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th century wars of independence, and developments to the end of World War II.… …

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  • 194pre-Columbian civilizations — Introduction       the aboriginal American Indian (Mesoamerican Indian) cultures that evolved in Meso America (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th …

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  • 195publishing, history of — Introduction       an account of the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter from its origins in ancient times to the present. The activity has grown from small beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the… …

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  • 196theatre, Western — ▪ art Introduction       history of the Western theatre from its origins in pre Classical antiquity to the present.       For a discussion of drama as a literary form, see dramatic literature and the articles on individual national literatures.… …

    Universalium

  • 197Western sculpture — ▪ art Introduction       three dimensional artistic forms produced in what is now Europe and later in non European areas dominated by European culture (such as North America) from the Metal Ages (Europe, history of) to the present.       Like… …

    Universalium

  • 198BIBLE — THE CANON, TEXT, AND EDITIONS canon general titles the canon the significance of the canon the process of canonization contents and titles of the books the tripartite canon …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 199ECONOMIC HISTORY — This article is arranged according to the following outline: first temple period exile and restoration second temple period talmudic era muslim middle ages medieval christendom economic doctrines early modern period sephardim and ashkenazim… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 200MEMORY — holocaust literature in european languages historiography of the holocaust holocaust studies Documentation, Education, and Resource Centers memorials and monuments museums film survivor testimonies Holocaust Literature in European Languages The… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism