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  • 141Turkey — /terr kee/, n. a republic in W Asia and SE Europe. 63,528,225; 296,184 sq. mi. (767,120 sq. km). (286,928 sq. mi. (743,145 sq. km) in Asia; 9257 sq. mi. (23,975 sq. km) in Europe). Cap.: Ankara. Cf. Ottoman Empire. * * * Turkey Introduction… …

    Universalium

  • 142endocrine system, human — ▪ anatomy Introduction  group of ductless glands (gland) that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones (hormone). Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs… …

    Universalium

  • 143Islāmic world — Introduction  prehistory and history of the Islamic community.       Adherence to Islām is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern… …

    Universalium

  • 144Latin America, history of — Introduction       history of the region from the pre Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th century wars of independence, and developments to the end of World War II.… …

    Universalium

  • 145music, Western — Introduction       history of Western music from ancient times to the present.       All ancient civilizations entered historical times with a flourishing musical culture. That the earliest writers explained it in terms of legend and myth is… …

    Universalium

  • 146ANTISEMITISM — ANTISEMITISM, a term coined in 1879, from the Greek ἁντί = anti, and Σημ = Semite by the German agitator wilhelm marr to designate the then current anti Jewish campaigns in Europe. Antisemitism soon came into general use as a term denoting all… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 147Intelligent design — This article is about intelligent design as promulgated by the Discovery Institute. For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). For the philosophical argument from design , see Teleological argument …

    Wikipedia

  • 148Glossary of contract bridge terms — These terms are used in Contract bridge[1][2] , or the earlier game Auction bridge, using duplicate or rubber scoring. Some of them are also used in Whist, Bid whist, and other trick taking games. This glossary supplements the Glossary of card… …

    Wikipedia

  • 149List of snowboard tricks — Snowboard tricks are aerials or maneuvers performed on snowboards for fun, or in competitions. Most often, these maneuvers are performed on obstacles such as jumps, halfpipes, quarterpipes, hips, handrails, funboxes, or ledges, or on the surface… …

    Wikipedia

  • 150Colombia — Colombian, adj., n. /keuh lum bee euh/; Sp. /kaw lawm byah/, n. a republic in NW South America. 37,418,290; 439,828 sq. mi. (1,139,155 sq. km). Cap.: Bogotá. * * * Colombia Introduction Colombia Background: Colombia was one of the three countries …

    Universalium

  • 151Iran — /i ran , i rahn , uy ran /, n. a republic in SW Asia. 67,540,002; ab. 635,000 sq. mi. (1,644,650 sq. km). Cap.: Teheran. Formerly (until 1935), Persia. * * * Iran Introduction Iran Background: Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic… …

    Universalium

  • 152Roman Catholicism — the faith, practice, and system of government of the Roman Catholic Church. [1815 25] * * * Largest single Christian denomination in the world, with some one billion members, or about 18% of the world s population. The Roman Catholic church has… …

    Universalium

  • 153Venezuela — Venezuelan, adj., n. /ven euh zway leuh, zwee /; Sp. /be ne swe lah/, n. a republic in N South America. 22,396,407; 352,143 sq. mi. (912,050 sq. km). Cap.: Caracas. * * * Venezuela Introduction Venezuela Background: Venezuela was one of the three …

    Universalium

  • 154Life Sciences — ▪ 2009 Introduction Zoology       In 2008 several zoological studies provided new insights into how species life history traits (such as the timing of reproduction or the length of life of adult individuals) are derived in part as responses to… …

    Universalium

  • 155human disease — Introduction       an impairment of the normal state of a human being that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. health versus disease       Before human disease can be discussed, the meanings of the terms health, physical fitness, illness …

    Universalium

  • 156publishing, history of — Introduction       an account of the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter from its origins in ancient times to the present. The activity has grown from small beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the… …

    Universalium

  • 157Late-2000s financial crisis — The TED spread (in red) increased significantly during the financial crisis, reflecting an increase in perceived credit risk …

    Wikipedia

  • 158Memory errors — Memory gaps and errors refer to the incorrect recall, or complete loss, of information in the memory system for a specific detail and/or event. Memory errors may include remembering events that never occurred, or remembering them differently from …

    Wikipedia

  • 159ECONOMIC HISTORY — This article is arranged according to the following outline: first temple period exile and restoration second temple period talmudic era muslim middle ages medieval christendom economic doctrines early modern period sephardim and ashkenazim… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 160MUSIC — This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction written sources of direct and circumstantial evidence the material relics and iconography notated sources oral tradition archives and important collections of jewish music… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism