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  • 141Switzerland — /swit seuhr leuhnd/, n. a republic in central Europe. 7,248,984; 15,944 sq. mi. (41,294 sq. km). Cap.: Bern. French, Suisse. German, Schweiz. Italian, Svizzera. Latin, Helvetia. * * * Switzerland Introduction Switzerland Background: Switzerland s …

    Universalium

  • 142medicine, history of — Introduction  the development of the prevention and treatment of disease from prehistoric and ancient times to the 20th century. Medicine and surgery before 1800 Primitive (primitive culture) medicine and folklore       Unwritten history is not… …

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  • 143Irish Literature — • It is uncertain at what period and in what manner the Irish discovered the use of letters. It may have been through direct commerce with Gaul, but it is more probable, as McNeill has shown in his study of Irish oghams, that it was from the… …

    Catholic encyclopedia

  • 144RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES — Jews UNDER OTTOMAN RULE The Jews of the pre Zionist old yishuv, both sephardim (from the Orient) and ashkenazim (of European origin), dedicated their lives to the fulfillment of religious precepts: the study of the torah and the meticulous… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 145contract — contractee, n. contractible, adj. contractibility, contractibleness, n. contractibly, adv. n., adj., and usu. for v. 16 18, 22, 23 /kon trakt/; otherwise v. /keuhn trakt /, n. 1. an agreement between two or more parties for the doing or not doing …

    Universalium

  • 146economic planning — Use of government to make economic decisions with respect to the use of resources. In communist countries with a state planning apparatus, detailed and rigid planning results in a command economy; land, capital, and the means of production are… …

    Universalium

  • 147Low Countries, history of — Introduction       history of the Low Countries from prehistoric times to 1579.       For historical purposes, the name Low Countries is generally understood to include the territory of what is today The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, as… …

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  • 148New Zealand — New Zealander. /zee leuhnd/ a country in the S Pacific, SE of Australia, consisting of North Island, South Island, and adjacent small islands: a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 3,587,275; 103,416 sq. mi. (267,845 sq. km). Cap.: Wellington …

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  • 149Southeast Asia — Southeast Asian. the countries and land area of Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. * * * Vast region of Asia lying east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It includes …

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  • 150Yemen — /yem euhn, yay meuhn/, n. 1. Republic of, a country in S Arabia, formed in 1990 by the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic and the People s Democratic Republic of Yemen. 13,972,477; 207,000 sq. mi. (536,130 sq. km). Cap.: (political) San a. Cap.:… …

    Universalium

  • 151nutrition, human — Introduction       process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life.   The study of human nutrition is interdisciplinary in… …

    Universalium

  • 152animal development — Introduction  the processes that lead eventually to the formation of a new animal starting from cells derived from one or more parent individuals. Development thus occurs following the process by which a new generation of organisms is produced by …

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  • 153Character mask — Part of a series on Marxism …

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  • 154Climate of the United Kingdom — Hardiness zones in the British Isles. The United Kingdom straddles the geographic mid latitudes between 50 60 N from the equator. It is also positioned on the western seaboard of Eurasia, the world s largest land mass. These boundary conditions… …

    Wikipedia

  • 155Ivar Kreuger — Match King redirects here. For the 1932 film about Kreuger, see The Match King. Ivar Kreuger Ivar Kreuger c. 1920 Born March 2, 1880(1880 03 02) Kalmar, Sweden …

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  • 156Nanboku-chō period — For other uses of Northern and Southern Courts period , see Northern and Southern Courts period (disambiguation). History of Japan Mount Yoshino Paleolithic 35,000–14,000 BC Jōmon period 14,000–300 BC Yayoi …

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  • 157Byzantine Empire — This article is about the medieval Roman empire. For other uses, see Byzantine (disambiguation). Roman Empire Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Ῥωμανία Basileia Rhōmaiōn, Rhōmanía Imperium Romanum, Romania …

    Wikipedia

  • 158columbiform — ▪ bird Introduction   any member of the group of birds (bird) that contains the pigeons (pigeon), doves (dove), dodoes (dodo), and solitaires (solitaire). The order Columbiformes is divided into the Raphidae, a family of extinct birds that… …

    Universalium

  • 159Iran, ancient — Introduction also known as  Persia        historic region of southwestern Asia that is only roughly coterminous with modern Iran. The term Persia was used for centuries, chiefly in the West, to designate those regions where Persian language and… …

    Universalium

  • 160Christianity — • An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization… …

    Catholic encyclopedia