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  • 181Islam — Islamic /is lam ik, lah mik, iz /, Islamitic /is leuh mit ik, iz /, adj. /is lahm , iz , is leuhm, iz /, n. 1. the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the… …

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  • 182Stalinism — /stah leuh niz euhm/, n. the principles of communism associated with Joseph Stalin, characterized esp. by the extreme suppression of dissident political or ideological views, the concentration of power in one person, and an aggressive… …

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  • 183śabda — ▪ Indian philosophy       (Sanskrit: “sound”), in Indian philosophy, verbal testimony as a means of obtaining knowledge. In the orthodox philosophical systems (darśana), śabda is equated with the authority of the Vedas (most ancient sacred… …

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  • 184Sharīʿah — ▪ Islamic law Introduction also spelled  Sharia   the fundamental religious concept of Islām, namely its law, systematized during the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (8th–9th centuries AD).       Total and unqualified submission to the… …

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  • 185Protestant Heritage — Introduction       Protestantism originated in the 16th century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the… …

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  • 186Acts of Roman Congregations — • A term used to designate the documents issued by the Roman Congregations Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Acts of Roman Congregations     Acts of Roman Congregations …

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  • 187Calvinism — • Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli s disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Calvinism     Calvinism …

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  • 188Encyclical — • According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either… …

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  • 189Ethics — • Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Ethics …

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  • 190Extreme Unction — • A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight …

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  • 191Fundamental Articles — • This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the Christian faith from those non essential doctrines, which, as they believed, individual churches might accept or reject without forfeiting their claim to …

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  • 192Greek Church — • Details the history and various divisions of the church Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Greek Church     Greek Church     † …

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  • 193Modernism — • Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Modernism     Modernism      …

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  • 194Newman, John Henry — • Lengthy and admiring biography of Newman as a thinker, author, leader, and illustrious convert to Catholicism Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Newman, John Henry      …

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  • 195Protestantism — • Discussion of Protestant beliefs and doctrines Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Protestantism     Protestantism     † …

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  • 196Sacraments — • Presents the necessity, the nature, the origin and cause, the number, the effects, the minister, and the recipient of the Sacraments Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Sacraments     Sacraments …

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  • 197Scripture — • Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Scripture     Scripture    …

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  • 198Semipelagianism — • A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Semipelagianism     Semipelagianism      …

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  • 199Usury — • Defines the church s view on money lending Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Usury     Usury     † …

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  • 200History of Medicine —     History of Medicine     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► History of Medicine     The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, should logically begin in Mesopotamia, where tradition and philological… …

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