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  • 61 JERUSALEM — The entry is arranged according to the following outline: history name protohistory the bronze age david and first temple period second temple period the roman period byzantine jerusalem arab period crusader period mamluk period …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 62 Government procurement in the United States — is based on many of the same principles as commercial contracting, but is subject to special laws and regulation as described below. Persons entering into commercial contracts are pretty much free to do anything that they can agree on. Each… …

    Wikipedia

  • 63 United Nations — 1. an international organization, with headquarters in New York City, formed to promote international peace, security, and cooperation under the terms of the charter signed by 51 founding countries in San Francisco in 1945. Abbr.: UN Cf. General… …

    Universalium

  • 64 Mathematics and Physical Sciences — ▪ 2003 Introduction Mathematics       Mathematics in 2002 was marked by two discoveries in number theory. The first may have practical implications; the second satisfied a 150 year old curiosity.       Computer scientist Manindra Agrawal of the… …

    Universalium

  • 65 technology, history of — Introduction       the development over time of systematic techniques for making and doing things. The term technology, a combination of the Greek technē, “art, craft,” with logos, “word, speech,” meant in Greece a discourse on the arts, both… …

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  • 66 HISTORICAL SURVEY: THE STATE AND ITS ANTECEDENTS (1880–2006) — Introduction It took the new Jewish nation about 70 years to emerge as the State of Israel. The immediate stimulus that initiated the modern return to Zion was the disappointment, in the last quarter of the 19th century, of the expectation that… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 67 POLAND — POLAND, republic in E. Central Europe; the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania united formally (Poland Lithuania) in 1569. This article is arranged according to the following outline: the early settlements jewish legal status… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 68 ancient Rome — ▪ ancient state, Europe, Africa, and Asia Introduction       the state centred on the city of Rome. This article discusses the period from the founding of the city and the regal period, which began in 753 BC, through the events leading to the… …

    Universalium

  • 69 French literature — Introduction       the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of France. The French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the …

    Universalium

  • 70 MUSIC — This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction written sources of direct and circumstantial evidence the material relics and iconography notated sources oral tradition archives and important collections of jewish music… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 71 POETRY — This article is arranged according to the following outline (for modern poetry, see hebrew literature , Modern; see also prosody ): biblical poetry introduction the search for identifiable indicators of biblical poetry the presence of poetry in… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 72 sculpture — sculptural, adj. sculpturally, adv. /skulp cheuhr/, n., v., sculptured, sculpturing. n. 1. the art of carving, modeling, welding, or otherwise producing figurative or abstract works of art in three dimensions, as in relief, intaglio, or in the… …

    Universalium

  • 73 arctic — arctically, adv. /ahrk tik/ or, esp. for 7, /ahr tik/, adj. 1. (often cap.) of, pertaining to, or located at or near the North Pole: the arctic region. 2. coming from the North Pole or the arctic region: an arctic wind. 3. characteristic of the… …

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  • 74 ethics — /eth iks/, n.pl. 1. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) a system of moral principles: the ethics of a culture. 2. the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc.: medical ethics;… …

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  • 75 Switzerland — /swit seuhr leuhnd/, n. a republic in central Europe. 7,248,984; 15,944 sq. mi. (41,294 sq. km). Cap.: Bern. French, Suisse. German, Schweiz. Italian, Svizzera. Latin, Helvetia. * * * Switzerland Introduction Switzerland Background: Switzerland s …

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  • 76 Computers and Information Systems — ▪ 2009 Introduction Smartphone: The New Computer.       The market for the smartphone in reality a handheld computer for Web browsing, e mail, music, and video that was integrated with a cellular telephone continued to grow in 2008. According to… …

    Universalium

  • 77 MEMORY — holocaust literature in european languages historiography of the holocaust holocaust studies Documentation, Education, and Resource Centers memorials and monuments museums film survivor testimonies Holocaust Literature in European Languages The… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 78 ECONOMIC AFFAIRS — THE PRE MANDATE (LATE OTTOMAN) PERIOD Geography and Borders In September 1923 a new political entity was formally recognized by the international community. Palestine, or Ereẓ Israel as Jews have continued to refer to it for 2,000 years,… …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 79 MASORAH — This article is arranged according to the following outline: 1. THE TRANSMISSION OF THE BIBLE 1.1. THE SOFERIM 1.2. WRITTEN TRANSMISSION 1.2.1. Methods of Writing 1.2.1.1. THE ORDER OF THE BOOKS 1.2.1.2. SEDARIM AND PARASHIYYOT …

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • 80 political system — Introduction       the set of formal legal institutions that constitute a “government” or a “ state.” This is the definition adopted by many studies of the legal or constitutional arrangements of advanced political orders. More broadly defined,… …

    Universalium