# conclude

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**Minimum wage**— A minimum wage is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers. Equivalently, it is the lowest wage at which workers may sell their labour. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in a great many… …122

**Numerical analysis**— Babylonian clay tablet BC 7289 (c. 1800–1600 BC) with annotations. The approximation of the square root of 2 is four sexagesimal figures, which is about six decimal figures. 1 + 24/60 + 51/602 + 10/603 = 1.41421296...[1] Numerical analysis is the …123

**Reductio ad absurdum**— (Latin for reduction to the absurd ), also known as an apagogical argument, reductio ad impossibile, or proof by contradiction, is a type of logical argument where one assumes a claim for the sake of argument and derives an absurd or ridiculous… …124

**Race (classification of human beings)**— The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing humans into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of characteristics. [http://www.physanth.org/positions/race.html AAPA Statement on Biological Aspects of… …125

**Statistical hypothesis testing**— This article is about frequentist hypothesis testing which is taught in introductory statistics. For Bayesian hypothesis testing, see Bayesian inference. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making decisions using data, whether from a… …126

**Nikita Khrushchev**— Khrushchev redirects here. For other people with this surname, see Khrushchev (surname). Nikita Khrushchev Никита Хрущёв …127

**Russell's paradox**— Part of the foundations of mathematics, Russell s paradox (also known as Russell s antinomy), discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that the naive set theory of Frege leads to a contradiction.It might be assumed that, for any formal… …128

**Bell's theorem**— is a theorem that shows that the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) are not intuitive, and touches upon fundamental philosophical issues that relate to modern physics. It is the most famous legacy of the late physicist John S. Bell. Bell s… …129

**Solipsism**— (Latin: solus , alone + ipse , self) is the philosophical idea that My mind is the only thing that I know exists. Solipsism is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. The external… …130

**Third Anglo-Dutch War**— Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Third Anglo Dutch War partof=Franco Dutch War caption= The Battle of Texel, 11 ndash;21 August 1673 by Willem van de Velde, the younger, painted 1683, depicts a battle of the Third Anglo Dutch War date=1672 1674 …131

**Arrow's impossibility theorem**— In social choice theory, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, the General Possibility Theorem, or Arrow’s paradox, states that, when voters have three or more distinct alternatives (options), no voting system can convert the ranked preferences of… …132

**Galois connection**— In mathematics, especially in order theory, a Galois connection is a particular correspondence between two partially ordered sets (posets). Galois connections generalize the correspondence between subgroups and subfields investigated in Galois… …133

**Bicycle wheel**— For the Marcel Duchamp installation, see Bicycle Wheel. The front wheel from a racing bicycle made using a Mavic rim …134

**Medical analysis of circumcision**— Numerous medical studies have examined the effects of male circumcision with mixed opinions regarding the benefits and risks of the procedure. Opponents of circumcision say it is medically unnecessary, is unethical when performed on newborns, is… …135

**National Industrial Recovery Act**— Front page of the National Industrial Recovery Act, as signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 16, 1933. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), officially known as the Act of June 16, 1933 (Ch. 90, 48 Stat. 195, formerly codified… …136

**Sequent calculus**— In proof theory and mathematical logic, sequent calculus is a family of formal systems sharing a certain style of inference and certain formal properties. The first sequent calculi, systems LK and LJ, were introduced by Gerhard Gentzen in 1934 as …137

**President of Germany (Weimar Republic)**— The Reichspräsident was the German head of state during the period of the 1919 1934 Weimar Republic and the title was later briefly revived in 1945. The German title Reichspräsident literally means Realm President ( reich is a German word that… …138

**Mass–energy equivalence**— E=MC2 redirects here. For other uses, see E=MC2 (disambiguation). 4 meter tall sculpture of Einstein s 1905 E = mc2 formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Berlin, Germany In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the …139

**Occupation of the Baltic states**— Part of a series of articles on the Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states …140

**Religious belief**— refers to a mental state in which trust (faith) is placed in a creed related to the supernatural, sacred, or divine. Such a state may relate to: 1) the existence, characteristics and worship of a deity or deities, 2) divine intervention in the… …