Xenophobia in South Africa


Xenophobia in South Africa

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=2008 South Africa riots
partof=the history of South Africa


caption=Map of South Africa
date=12 May 2008- ongoing
place=Gauteng, Durban,
Mpumalanga
South Africa
result=62 people dead, several hundred injured, voluntary deportation of immigrants to home countries, destruction of immigrant-owned property

Prior to 1994 immigrants from elsewhere in Africa faced discrimination and even violence in South Africa, though much of that risk stemmed from the institutionalised racism of the time rather than xenophobia. Post 1994 and democratisation, and contrary to expectations, the incidence of xenophobia increased. Between 2000 and March 2008 at least 67 people died in what was identified as xenophobic attacks. In May 2008 a series of riots left 62 people dead; although 21 of those killed were South African citizens the attacks were apparently motivated by xenophobia.

Recent history of xenophobia in South Africa

European immigration

Restrictions on immigration can be traced back to the Union of South Africa, with the different states adopting different policies on foreigners. A prejudice against immigrants from eastern and southern Europe (measured against the welcome of those from western and northern Europe) has been documented. In the Cape Colony the Cape Immigration Act (No 30) of 1906 set as requirement the ability to complete an application form in an European language (including Yiddish) and proof of £20 as visible means of support. [cite web
url=http://www.iss.co.za/PUBS/ASR/6No3/Klotz.html
title=International Relations and Migration in Southern Africa
author=Audie Klotz
publisher=Institute for Security Studies: African Security Review Vol 6 no 3, 1997
accessdate=8 September
accessyear=2008
]

Mozambican and Congolese immigrants before 1994

Between 1984 and the end of hostilities in that country an estimated 250 000 to 350 000 Mozambicans fled to South Africa. While never granted refugee status they were techically allowed to settle in the bantustans or black homelands created by the apartheid government. The reality was more varied, with the homeland of Lebowa banning Mozambican settlers outright while Gazankulu welcomed the refugees with support in the form of land and equipment. Those in Gazankulu, however, found themselves confined to the homeland and liable for deportation should they enter South Africa proper, and evidence exists that their hosts denied them access to economic resource. [cite web
url=http://www.iss.co.za/dynamic/administration/file_manager/file_links/117FULL.PDF
title=ISS Monograph No 117: Mozambican and Congolese Refugees in South Africa: A mixed reception
author=Jonny Steinberg
publisher=Institute for Security Studies
accessdate=5 September
accessyear=2008
]

Unrest and civil war likewise saw large numbers of Congolese immigrate to South Africa, many illegally, in 1993 and 1997. Subsequent studies found indications of xenophobic attitudes towards these refugees, typified by them being denied access to the primary healthcare they were technically entitled to. [cite web
url=http://www.iss.co.za/dynamic/administration/file_manager/file_links/117FULL.PDF
title=ISS Monograph No 117: Mozambican and Congolese Refugees in South Africa: A mixed reception
author=Jonny Steinberg
publisher=Institute for Security Studies
accessdate=5 September
accessyear=2008
]

Xenophobia post 1994

Despite a lack of directly comprable data, xenophobia in South Africa is perceived to have significantly increased after the installation of a democratic government in 1994. According to a 2004 study published by the Southern African Migration Project (SAMP):

"The ANC government – in its attempts to overcome the divides of the past and build new forms of social cohesion... embarked on an aggressive and inclusive nation-building project. One unanticipated by-product of this project has been a growth in intolerance towards outsiders... Violence against foreign citizens and African refugees has become increasingly common and communities are divided by hostility and suspicion." [cite web
url=http://www.idasa.org.za/gbOutputFiles.asp?WriteContent=Y&RID=2108
title=South African Migration Project 30: Regionalizing Xenophobia? Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and refugee policy in Southern Africa
publisher=Institute for Democracy in South Africa
author=Jonathan Crush and Wade Pendleton
accessdate=5 September
accessyear=2008
]

The study was based on a citizen survey across member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and found South Africans expressing the harshest anti-foreigner sentitment, with 21% of South Africans in favour of a complete ban on entry by foreigners and 64% in favour of strict limitations on the numbers allowed. By contrast, the next-highest proportion of respondents in favour of a total ban on foreigners was in Namibia and Botswanna, at 10%.

Foreigners and the South African Police Service

A 2004 study by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) or attitudes among police officers in the Johannesburg area found that 87% of respondents believed that most undocumented immigrants in Johannesburg are involved in crime, despite there being no statistical evidence to substantiate the perception. Such views combined with the vulnerability of illegal aliens led to abuse, including violence and extortion, some analysts argued. [cite web
url=http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/CrimeQ/No.15/Masuku.html
title=Targeting Foreigners: Xenophobia among Johannesburg’s police
author=Themba Masuku
publisher=Institute for Security Studies (Crime Quarterly No 15, 2006)
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

In a March 2007 meeting with home affairs minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula a representative of Burundian refugees in Durban claimed immigrants could not rely on police for protection but instead found police mistreating them, stealing from them and making unfounded allegations that they sell drugs. [cite web
url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=139&art_id=vn20070302115934479C320675
title=Police prey on refugees: claims
publisher=Independent Online
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
] Two years earlier, at a similar meeting in Johannesburg, Mapisa-Nqakula had admitted that refugees and asylum seekers were mistreated by police with xenophobic attitudes. [cite web
url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=13&art_id=vn20051006070819415C991259
title=Minister slams treatment of refugees by cops
publisher=Independent Online
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

Violence before May 2008

According to a 1998 Human Rights Watch report immigrants from Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique living in the Alexandra township were "physically assaulted over a period of several weeks in January 1995, as armed gangs identified suspected undocumented migrants and marched them to the police station in an attempt to 'clean' the township of foreigners."cite web
url=http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Urgent_Action/apic_6398.html
title=Thousands flee S Africa attacks
publisher=BBC
accessdate=2008-06-25
] The campaign, known as "Buyelekhaya" (go back home), blamed foreigners for crime, unemployment and sexual attacks. [cite web
url=http://www.csvr.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=904&Itemid=21
title=South Africa: Burning the welcome mat
publisher=Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliationsher=
accessdate=8 September
accessyear=2008
]

In September 1998 a Mozambican and two Senegalese were thrown out of a train. The assault was carried out by a group returning from a rally that blamed foreigners for unemployment, crime and spreading AIDS. [cite web
url=http://www.csvr.org.za/docs/foreigners/riseofviolent.pdf
title=Creating the Nation: The Rise of Violent Xenophobia in the New South Africa
author=Nahla Valji
publisher=Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
accessdate=8 September
accessyear=2008
]

In 2000 seven foreigners were killed on the Cape Flats over a five week period in what police described as xenophobic murders possibly motivated by the fear that outsiders would claim property belonging to locals. [cite web
url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=13&set_id=1&art_id=ct20000802102508479X510381
title=Xenophobic attacks: seven die in one month
publisher=Independent Online
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

In October 2001 residents of the Zandspruit informal settlement gave Zimbabweans 10 days to leave the area. When the foreigners failed to leave voluntarily they were forcefully evicted and their shacks were burned down and looted. Community members said they were angry that Zimbabweans were employed while locals remained jobless and blamed the foreigners for a number of crimes. No injuries were reported among the Zimbweans. [cite web
url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=13&art_id=ct200110212058176Z5321926
title=Raging mob evicts Zimbabweans, burns homes
publisher=Independent Online
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

In the last week of 2005 and first week of 2006 at least four people, including two Zimbaweans, died in the Olievenhoutbosch settlement after foreigners were blamed for the death of a local man. Shacks belonging to foreigners were set alight and locals demanded that police remove all immigrants from the area. [cite web
url=http://www.capeargus.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=49&fArticleId=3054634
title=36 arrested after 2 more die in Tshwane ‘foreigner’ riots
publisher=Cape Argus
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

In August 2006 Somali refugees appealed for protection after 21 Somali traders were killed in July of that year and 26 more in August. The immigrants believed the murders to be motivated by xenophobia, although police rejected the assertion of a concerted campaign to drive Somali traders out of townships in the Western Cape. [cite web
url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=vn20060825131506666C924904
title=Somali's turn to HRC as murder toll soars
publisher=Independent Online
accessdate=6 September
accessyear=2008
]

Attacks on foreign nationals increased markedly in late 2007 and it is believed that there have been at least a dozen attacks since the start of 2008. The most severe incidents occurred on January 8, 2008 when two Somali shop owners were murdered in the Eastern Cape towns of Jeffreys Bay and East London and in March 2008 when seven people were killed including Zimbabweans, Pakistanis and a Somali after their shops and shacks were set alight in Atteridgeville near Pretoria.cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/PrintEdition/News/Article.aspx?id=768363|title=Recent attacks tip of xenophobic iceberg|publisher=TheTimes.co.za|accessdate=May 19|accessyear=2008]

May 2008 riots

On May 12, 2008 a series of riots started in the township of Alexandra (in the north-eastern part of Johannesburg) when locals attacked migrants from Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe, killing two people and injuring 40 others.cite web
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7396868.stm
title=South African mob kills migrants
publisher=BBC
accessdate=2008-05-19
]

The violence spread to other townships later in the week across the Gauteng Province of South Africa with riots reported in several settlements including Diepsloot, Johannesburg central, Jeppestown, Hillbrow and others. A man was burnt to death near Reiger Park on the East Randcite web|url=http://multimedia.thetimes.co.za/photos/2008/05/flames-of-hate/|title="Flames of Hate"|accessdate=May 18|accessyear=2008] . Police had arrested more than 200 people on charges including murder, attempted murder, rape, public violence and robbery.cite web
url=http://allafrica.com/stories/200805190001.html
title=South Africa: Xenophobic Rage Leaves Trail of Havoc in Gauteng
publisher=AllAfrica.com
accessdate=2008-05-19
] Armed police used tear gas and rubber bullets to quell rioting in central Johannesburg, attacks on foreigners and looting of foreign owned shops. The violence then spread to the coastal city of Durban [cite web
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7412128.stm
title=South Africa attacks reach Durban
publisher=BBC
accessdate=2008-05-21
]

Flashpoints

Johannesburg

In Johannesburg, mobs launched attacks on foreigners from neighbouring countries such as Zimbabwe and Mozambique. A total of 22 people were killed since mid-May 2008. More than 6,000 people have fled. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7407914.stm BBC NEWS | Africa | Thousands flee S Africa attacks ] ]

The violence against foreigners, who are accused by many South Africans of depriving locals of jobs and committing crime, spread across townships. [http://www.france24.com/en/20080519-death-toll-safrican-xenophobic-violence-reaches-13 France 24 | Death toll in SAfrican xenophobic violence reaches 13 | France 24 ] ]

On May 18, an immigrant named Ernesto Alfabeto Nhamuave died after being covered with his own blankets and set alight. Nhamuave, a 35-year old father of three from Mozambique, had come to South Africa seeking work to pay for schooling his children. The image of the human fireball was captured on the front-page of several South African papers on May 19.

Durban

On May 20, a Nigerian-owned tavern, called the Crippled Cock, on Umbilo Road in Durban was attacked and burned down by residents of the Dalton Men's hostel [cite web|url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=nw20080521175539360C601471|title= 'Criminals use xenophobia'|publisher=IOL|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] ; the patrons were driven out by some 20 or 30 armed men. On the following Wednesday morning, a mob confronted the members of the Khayalitsha Lodge hostel, a privately-run hostel that housed several foreign nationals, who were driven out of the hostel with their belongings despite a police presence in the area.

In the Warwick Triangle, taxi drivers from the Clermont taxi rank ganged up on two men from the Democratic Republic of the Congo [cite web|url=http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=13&art_id=vn20080521055914930C180730|title= Go back to your country, say taxi drivers|publisher=BBC|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] . In the following days foreigners were chased out of informal settlements in Cato Crest, Cato Manor and Chatsworth.

The shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolo took a clear position against the attacks and was able to ensure that there were no attacks in any of the settlements governed by the movement and to stop an in-progress attack at the (non-Abahlali) Kenville settlement. The movement was also able to shelter some people displaced in the attacks. [See the collection of published articles online at http://abahlali.org/node/3700]

Cape Town

On May 22, Somali shop owners were evacuated to the suburb of Killarney from the informal settlement at Du Noon near Milnerton after attacks by groups of youths.Other incidents have been reported in parts of the Southern Cape, [cite web|url=http://www.sabcnews.com/south_africa/general/0,2172,170109,00.html|title=Cape mounts relief effort as xenophobia spreads|publisher=SABC|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] and in the Helderberg areas of Strand and Nomzamo. [http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Xenophobia/0,,2-7-2382_2328081,00.html]

Other provinces

Riots spread into the townships of Leslie and Embalenhle in Secunda, Mpumalanga on May 21 [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/News/Article.aspx?id=770646|title=Violence spills into Mpumalanga|publisher=The Times|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] . Violence was reported to have spread also into North West and Free State [cite web|url=http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gzax3SXQ8v0UUA6ydLpCsuHeCinA|title=South Africa army mobilises to quell mob violence|publisher=Agence France-Presse|accessdate=May 22|accessyear=2008] .

Refugee camps and reintegration question

After being housed in temporary places of safety (including police stations and community halls) for three weeks, those who fled the violence were moved into specially established temporary camps. [cite web|url=http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5ibeZeGJbRIF2sQiMsqquz3WRICMw|title=Foreigners displaced by violence in South Africa move into temporary camps|publisher=The Canadian Press|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] Conditions in some camps were condemned on the grounds of location and infrastructure [cite web|url=http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Xenophobia/0,,2-7-2382_2346122,00.html|title=Camp conditions alarm SACC|publisher=News24|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] , highlighting their temporary nature.

The South African government initially adopted a policy of quickly reintegrating refugees into the communities they originally fled [cite web|url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=13&art_id=nw20080604125107561C769068|title=Reintegration the priority - government|publisher=Independent Online|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] and subsequently set a deadline in July 2008, by which time refugees would be expected to return to their communities or countries of origin. [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/SpecialReports/Xenophobia/Article.aspx?id=780888|title=Go home or go back: Home Affairs|publisher=The Times (SA)|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] After an apparent policy shift the government vowed that there would be no forced reintegration of refugees [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/SpecialReports/Xenophobia/Article.aspx?id=781999|title=No ‘forced reintegration’ for immigrants|publisher=The Times (SA)|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] and that the victims would not be deported, even if they were found to be illegal immigrants. [cite web|url=http://www.mg.co.za/article/2008-06-20-govt-victims-of-xenophobia-wont-be-deported|title=Govt: Victims of xenophobia won't be deported|publisher=Mail & Guardian|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008]

Domestic reaction

outh African government

In response to the violence President Thabo Mbeki announced he would set up a panel of experts to investigate the riots. African National Congress leader Jacob Zuma, condemned the attacks, saying "We cannot allow South Africa to be famous for xenophobia" in a speech in Pretoria while announcing his new 'Time Machine' project. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7407055.stm|title=Violence spreads in Johannesburg|publisher=BBC|accessdate=May 19|accessyear=2008]

On May 21, Mbeki approved a request from the SAPS for deployment of armed forces against the attacks in Gauteng [cite web|url=http://www.thepresidency.gov.za/show.asp?type=pr&include=president/pr/2008/pr05211746.htm|title=President Mbeki approves request for SANDF involvement to stop attacks on foreign nationals|publisher=The Presidency - Republic of South Africa|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] . It is the first time that the South African government has ordered troops out to the streets in order to quell unrest since the end of apartheid in 1994 [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7412128.stm|title=SA leader orders army to deploy|publisher=BBC|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] .

The Home Affairs department's spokesperson, Mansele Tau, denied that his ministry was deporting any guest or immigrant residents from the country and that there was any significant rise of applicants for voluntary deportation, but stated that the ministry would help with any paperwork for individual applicants whenever the occasion merited such a response [cite web|url=http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=nw20080521143041781C660613|title= Home affairs denies mass exodus|publisher=IOL|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] .

African National Congress

The ANC's leadership, including ANC president Jacob Zuma, condemned both the attacks and the Mbeki government's response to the attacks; Zuma also lamented the usage of his trademark song "Umshini wami" by the rioterscite web|url=http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=6&art_id=vn20080519055011398C263403|title= Umshini isn't a song to kill, says Zuma|publisher=IOL|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] . Secretary-General Gwede Mantashe called for the creation of local committees to combat violence against foreigners [cite web|url=http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/anctoday/2008/at20.htm#preslet|title="Xenophobia is a crime", Volume 8, No. 20 • 23 —29 May 2008|publisher=ANC Today|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7417590.stm|title=ANC call to 'retake the streets'|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] .

The Gauteng provincial branch of the ANC has alleged that the violence is politically motivated by a "third hand" that is primarily targeting the ANC for the 2009 general electionscite web|url=http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=339879&area=/insight/insight__national/|title='Third force' allegations abound|publisher=Mail & Guardian|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] .

Democratic Alliance

In a weekly newsletter published to the website of the Democratic Alliance (DA) party, Cape Town mayor and DA leader Helen Zille pointed to instances of crowds of rioters singing "Umshini wami", a popular ANC rally song associated with the 2007 party leadership campaign of current ANC president Jacob Zuma, and noted that the rioters also hailed from the rank and file of the ANC Youth League, which also backed Zuma in his leadership campaign; she alleged that Zuma had promised years before to his supporters to take measures against the immigration of foreign nationals to South Africa, and that Zuma's most recent condemnation of the riots and distancing from the anti-immigration platform was not enough of a serious initiative against the participation of fellow party members in the violence [cite web|url=http://www.da.org.za/da/Site/Eng/satoday/satoday.asp|title=SA TODAY|publisher=Democratic Alliance|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] . Both Zille and the parliamentary leader of the DA, Sandra Botha, slammed the ANC for shifting the blame concerning the violence to a "third hand", which is often taken in South African post-apartheid political discourse as a reference to pro-apartheid or allegedly pro-apartheid organizations.

However, Zille was also criticized by Finance Minister Trevor Manuel for the Cape Argus's quote of her saying that foreigners were responsible for a bulk of the drug trade in South Africa [cite web|url=http://www.24.com/news/?p=tsa&i=922076|title=Manuel slams 'reckless' Zille|publisher=24.com|accessdate=May 23|accessyear=2008] .

KwaZulu-Natal provincial government

Bheki Cele, community safety minister of KwaZulu-Natal, blamed the Inkatha Freedom Party, a nationalist Zulu political party, for stoking and capitalizing on the violence in Durban [cite web|url=http://www.sabcnews.com/south_africa/general/0,2172,169968,00.html|title=Fingerpointing after KZN hostel attack|publisher=SABC|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] . Both Cele and premier S'bu Ndebele claimed that IFP members, particularly residents of the Dalton hostel, had attacked a tavern that catered to Nigerian immigrants en route to a party meeting. The IFP, which is based primarily in the predominately ethnically-Zulu KwaZulu-Natal province, rejected the statements, and had, on May 20, engaged in an anti-xenophobia meeting with the ANC [cite web|url=http://www.sabcnews.com/politics/the_parties/0,2172,169940,00.html|title=ANC, IFP join forces to help fight xenophobia|publisher=SABC|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] .

Intelligence community

Both the Minister of Intelligence, Ronnie Kasrils, and the director general of the National Intelligence Agency, Manala Manzini, backed the Gauteng ANC's allegations that the anti-immigrant violence is politically motivated and targeted at the ANC. Referring to the attacks by hostel dwellers on tavern patrons in Durban which set off the violence in Durban's townships and publicized allegations of one rioter that he was being paid to commit violent acts against immigrants, Manzini stated that the violence was being stoked primarily within hostel facilities by a third party with financial incentives.

Also, Manzini rejected that the violence was strictly xenophobic, stating that Shangaan and Venda people, both of whom are pre-colonial citizen residents in both the territory of South Africa and surrounding states, were also victimized by the violence.

However, the NIA was criticized by the ruling ANC's National Executive Committee for not warning about simmering tensions and focusing more on the ANC's internal struggles [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/SpecialReports/Xenophobia/Article.aspx?id=772541|title=It’s a state of emergency|publisher=Sunday Times|accessdate=May 24|accessyear=2008] .

International reaction

Zimbabwean politicians and diaspora

MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai, in temporary exile in South Africa, expressed concern about the attacks on his countrymen and appealed to South Africans to treat the immigrants with sympathy rather than vilification.cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/05/18/2248181.htm?section=world|title=Immigrants targeted in South African violence|publisher=ABC.net.au|accessdate=May 19|accessyear=2008] South African labour union federation COSATU also criticised the government's response and policies. Officials appealed to locals in an attempt to quell the violence.

The Zimbabwe Exiles Group criticised the South African government's response, in particular Thabo Mbeki, and accused him of being "more concerned with appeasing Mr. Mugabe than recognising the scale of the problem caused by the flood of Zimbabweans into South Africa." [cite web|url=http://allafrica.com/stories/200805191523.html|title=South Africa: Mbeki Blamed After 20 More Die in Xenophobic Attacks|publisher=Allafrica.com|accessdate=May 19|accessyear=2008]

Mozambique and other countries

A FRELIMO parliamentary deputy, Lidia Geremias, demanded for a South African government response to the riots that would be similar to the response of the German government against neo-Nazi attacks against Mozambican immigrants and guest workers in Germany [cite web|url=http://allafrica.com/stories/200805210825.html|title=Mozambique: Frelimo Deputy Speaks Against South African Xenophobia|publisher=Allafrica.com|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] .

The Mozambican government sponsored a repatriation of Mozambican immigrants from South Africa to their home country by bus; according to Leonardo Boby, Deputy National Director of Immigration, over 3,275 repatriates were registered by the Mozambican Foreign Affairs ministry since the exodus began on or around May 19. At least 4 bodies of Mozambican residents killed by rioters were repatriated for burial [cite web|url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=nw20080521193649317C914062|title= Thousands of Mozambicans return home|publisher=IOL|accessdate=May 21|accessyear=2008] . This program has not kept up with the actual exodus of Mozambican immigrants and guest workers, which totals over 9,000.

Malawi has also began repatriations of Malawian nationals in South Africa. No such effort has been forthcoming or anticipated from Zimbabwe, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo or Nigeria, from whence millions of immigrant residents hail.

African Union

The African Union chairman, Tanzanian president Jakaya Kikwete, condemned the violence in a mini-summit convened in Arusha, Tanzania, where Thabo Mbeki was in attendance [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/SpecialReports/Xenophobia/Article.aspx?id=772373|title=African leaders shocked by violence|publisher=Sunday Times|accessdate=May 24|accessyear=2008] .

UNHCR

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees expressed concerns about the violence and urged the South African government to cease deportation of Zimbabwean nationals and also to allow the refugees and asylum seekers to regularize their stay in the country [cite web|url=http://voanews.com/english/2008-05-23-voa40.cfm|title=UNHCR Concerned About Violence Against Immigrants in South Africa|publisher=Voice of America|accessdate=May 24|accessyear=2008] .

Possible post-violence ramifications

Economic and social

The large outflow of immigrant labour in the immediate aftermath of the attacks raised concerns about the impact on industries such as mining, agriculture and service industries that make widespread use of foreign labour. As of June, however, immigration statistics showed a net inflow of immigrants, especially from neighbouring Zimbabwe. [cite web|url=http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=6&art_id=vn20080603054734100C182560|title=Despite attacks, they still come |publisher=Independent Online|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008]

Tourism

A number of countries, including Germany, the United States and Sweden issued travel advisories warning in May [cite web|url=http://www.mg.co.za/article/2008-05-29-xenophobia-business-in-africa-set-to-take-a-dive|title=Xenophobia: Business in Africa set to take a dive|publisher=Mail & Guardian|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] , although tour operators continued bus tours of the affected townships, declaring the situation safe. [cite web|url=http://www.ttnworldwide.com/articles.aspx?ID=1074&artID=7930|title=It’s business as usual in Johannesburg|publisher=Travel & Tourism News Middle East|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008]

2010 World Cup

The May 2008 riots renewed fears that the 2010 FIFA World Cup slated to take place in South Africa may be relocated, although FIFA reiterated that the contingency plan for a re-location of the event will only be activated in the case of a natural catastrophe. The organizing committee for World Cup 2010 has condemned the violence [cite web|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldFootballNews/idUKPEK14299620080523|title=World Cup chief condemns South Africa violence|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=May 23|accessdate=2008] . The welcome the world cup tourists would receive was questioned [cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/international/world_cup/article4133483.ece|title=Delays and crime threaten South Africa's World Cup 2010 party|publisher=The Times|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008] , as was the support from other African countries for what has been billed as a pan-African event. [cite web|url=http://www.thetimes.co.za/PrintEdition/Sport/Article.aspx?id=792497|title=Xenophobia could turn Africa against World Cup|publisher=The Times (SA)|accessdate=June 30|accessyear=2008]

Political

The violence could slightly damage relations between South Africa and the governments which are represented by immigrant communities in the country, as South Africa may or may not attempt to win back the expatriates which fled the country in droves during the violence. It is not certain if any involvement by supranational organizations such as the SADC or the African Union will take place.

References

External Links

* [http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=3069 IOL - Xenophobia Special Report]
* [http://www.mg.co.za/specialreport/xenophobia M&G - Xenophobia Special Report]
* [http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Xenophobia/Home/0,,2-7-2382,00.html NEWS24 - Xenophobia Special Report]
* [http://www.thetimes.co.za/specialreports/Xenophobia/Default.aspx?id=380077 The Times - Xenophobia Special Report]
* [http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/06/xenophobia_in_south_africa.html Boston Globe Photo Essay]
* [http://sanhati.com/articles/843/ Article on the Pogroms in Indian Journal]
* [http://www.abahlali.org/node/3582 Statement on the attacks by Radical South African shack dwellers' movement]
* [http://codesria.org/Links/Publications/monographs/neocosmos.pdf Michael Neocosmos's 'From Foreign Natives to Native Foreigners: explaining xenophobia in contemporary South Africa', Dakar: Codesria, 2006]
* [http://www.thetimes.co.za/SpecialReports/Xenophobia/Article.aspx?id=780770 Journalists who documented the death of Ernesto Alfabeto Nhamuave help repatriate his body]
* [http://www.migration.org.za Reports on Xenophobia from the Forced Migration Studies Programme at Wits University in Johannesburg]


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