- Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich ( _de. Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Fürst [German title|Fürst] von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein) (
May 15, 1773– June 11, 1859) was a German- Austrian politicianand statesman and was one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure in the negotiations before and during the Congress of Viennaand is considered both a paradigm of foreign-policy management and a major figure in the development of diplomatic praxis. He was the archetypal practitioner of 19th-century diplomatic realism, being deeply rooted in the postulates of the balance of power. For generations, Metternich was castigated as a blind reactionary. After World War I, some historians suggested that one of the main reasons for his opposition to giving power to the people was his apprehension that it would eventually lead to the political dominance of German nationalism. Fact|date=April 2008
Metternich was born in
Koblenz. His father, Count Franz George Karl von Metternich-Winneburge zu Beilstein, was a diplomat who had passed from the service of the Archbishopric of Trierto that of the court of Vienna. His mother was Countess Maria Beatrice Aloisia von Kageneck. At the time of Metternich's birth, and for some time after that, his father was Austrian ambassador to the courts of the three Rhenish electors, and the boy was at first brought up under the influence of the tone and ideas that flourished in the small German courts in the French sphere of influence during the Ancien Regime.
In 1788, Metternich began studying at the
University of Strasbourg, but the outbreak of the French Revolutionimpelled him to leave after two years. In 1790, he was deputed by the Catholic bench of the Westphalian Circle to act as their Master of the Ceremonies at the coronation of the new Emperor Leopold II in Frankfurt, a function he repeated at the coronation of Francis II in 1792. He then found employment in the Chancery of the Austrian minister to the Government of the Austrian Netherlands.
After a long stay in England, Metternich moved to Vienna. On
September 27, 1795he married the Countess Eleonore von Kaunitz, a granddaughter of a former Austrian chancellor. This alliance introduced him to the most exalted circles of Viennese society. In December 1797, the Westphalian Counts chose him to be their representative in the Congress of Rastatt, where he remained until 1799. In January 1801, he was appointed Austrian envoy to the Elector of Saxony, where he established contact with many important Russian and Polish families. In November 1803, he was appointed Ambassadorto Berlinbecause the Emperor believed that Metternich knew how to combine "great powers of observation with a moderate and agreeable manner". [CathEncy|wstitle=Prince Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von Metternich]
In Berlin, Metternich made himself so agreeable to the French envoy that Napoleon requested he be sent to Paris, where he took up residence as Ambassador in August 1806. His influence in European politics grew rapidly, and he ingratiated himself widely at the French Court and in society. However, in 1809 war broke out between France and Austria. Metternich was arrested in reprisal for the internment in Hungary of two members of the French embassy. After Napoleon's capture of Vienna, he was conducted to the Austrian capital under military guard and handed over in exchange for the French diplomats.
July 8, Metternich succeeded Johann Philipp Stadionas Minister of State. He was absent at the peace conference at Altenburgwhen the Emperor signed the Treaty of Schönbrunnon October 14, 1809, although he had been appointed Foreign Ministeron October 8.
Minister of State
Metternich was fully conscious that the position of Austria, which had been reduced to a second-rate power by the
Treaty of Schönbrunn, was one of great difficulty and danger. His first mission was to play for time and to distance Napoleon from the Russian Tsar. The power that seemed to attract him was France, Austria's former enemy, although he was determined not to sacrifice his freedom of action by making significant concessions.
Napoleon's request for the hand of Archduchess Marie Louise suited Metternich's plans admirably, and he accompanied the princess to Paris on
March 13, 1810. The concessions that he gained for Austria were quite small, but Metternich had managed to restore Austria's freedom of action. Metternich hurried back to Vienna on October 10, just in time to stop the pro-Russian party at the Austrian court from compromising this liberty by concluding an alliance with Russia, as well as winning over the Emperor for his policy of armed abstention.
With the palpable approach of what was to become the
Franco-Russian War, the integrity of this policy became increasingly difficult to maintain. Although Metternich concluded an alliance with Napoleon on March 14, 1813, promising military assistance in return for the concessions that France was now obliged to offer, he at once informed Russia that Austria's troops would act purely defensively, and held out the prospect of a renewal of the old alliance of the conservative powers.
When Napoleon suffered his catastrophic reverse in Russia, Metternich extracted Austria from this alliance, reverted to neutrality, and soon maneuvered his country into the position of arbiter of Europe. When he visited Napoleon at
Dresdenon June 26, his role was still that of a seemingly impartial mediator who was attempting to end the war and re-establish good relations between the three countries.Fact|date=September 2008 However, Napoleon was now interested only in taking complete control of Austria and Russia, stating, "We shall meet in Vienna."
After this meeting Metternich realised the necessity of protecting Austria.Fact|date=September 2008 In the subsequent war, he was chiefly anxious to ensure that the balance of power did not swing too far in any direction, and that it would strengthen neither Russia nor Prussia. Events forced him to agree to the restoration of the Bourbons, but he succeeded in ensuring the creation of a Federation of German states. Metternich also strove to mitigate the fear of a Russian dictatorship by promoting the principle of concerted action by the
Great Powers(Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) that would accord with their international interests. After the fall of Napoleon, this was the principle that underpinned the European political system.
Peace of Paris
The reputation of the young, vain and self-assured Metternich was at its height. In October 1813, the titles of Prince of the Austrian Empire and Count of
Daruvarhad been bestowed on him. On May 30, 1814, Metternich attached his signature to the Treaty of Paris as the Austrian Foreign Minister. In mid-July 1814 he returned to Vienna, where the Congress of Vienna(October 1814 - November 1815) was to meet in order to redraw the map of Europe.
The Congress of Vienna
Napoleonic Warswound down, the victors gathered in Austria to make peace at the Congress of Vienna. The Holy Alliancehad two major tasks before it: to make peace with France, and to restore order and stability to the continent.
As its host, the charm and communication skills that Prince Metternich possessed gave him much personal influence. The ease and versatility with which he handled intricate diplomatic issues elicited admiration. The Holy Alliance had intended to make its major decisions behind closed doors, but he counseled compromise and mutual concessions, and included France in the negotiations.
A Napoleonic creation, the
Duchy of Warsawwas brought into being in order to resolve the Congress's top-priority issue, namely the division of Poland. The Austrian Netherlands(what is now Belgium) was surrendered by Austria to the newly independent Kingdom of the Netherlands. Three eastern cantons -— Eupen, Malmedy and St. Vith -— were ceded to Prussia. Austria received the Italian provinces of Lombardyand Venetiaas its settlement.
Metternich was the architect of what he hoped would be an enduring European peace. For the next 30 years he would dominate foreign policy in Europe. In the view of some historians, the self-styled "coachman of Europe" had brought modern world history into being.
Whatever the underlying wisdom of his decisions, he reached settlements regarding Germany, Poland, Italy and the Austrian Netherlands that accorded precisely with his wishes, and he emerged from the Congress with the political equilibrium he had desired.
Metternich was destined to spend much of the remainder of his life attempting to stabilize and consolidate the situation that he had been instrumental in creating. Henceforward, the keynote of his policy was his attempt to use the European settlement as an instrument that would discourage revolutionary movements and ensure stability. The revolutions of the 1830s seemed to threaten Metternich's system, but gave it at least a temporary new lease on life. The
Berlin Convention of 1833was both a fresh triumph for Metternich's diplomacy and his last conspicuous intervention in the general affairs of Europe.
In domestic affairs, Metternich was not the thoroughgoing reactionary he is often taken to be. He was too intelligent not to perceive the abuses inherent in the Austrian governmental system and would gladly have remedied some of them; he had previously worked for equal rights and opportunities for the various peoples of the Austrian Empire. He even proposed the formation of a
parliamentin which all the empire's ethnic groups could be represented proportionally.
The real architect of the highly reactionary and aggressive regime in Austria in the first half of the 19th century was Emperor Francis I. More than once Metternich had declared himself, and possibly believed himself to be, a liberal; but in any case, he lacked the ability to institute the reforms he felt were necessary. Despite being the chancellor of Austria for many years, internal policy was not his principal focus.
The Liberal Revolutions of 1848 marked the end of Metternich's career. The Vienna mob stood thundering at the door of his cabinet and demanding his resignation, which they achieved; the emperor accepted the relinquishment of his post on
March 18, 1848, after which Metternich and his family left for England. There he lived in retirement in Brighton and London until October 1849, when he moved to Brussels. In May 1851, he traveled to his estate of Johannesberg; in September of that year he returned to Vienna, where he eventually died on June 11, 1859.
Probably no statesman was so much praised and also so much reviled in his own day as Metternich. In one perspective, he was revered as the infallible oracle of diplomatic inspiration; in another, he was loathed and despised as an incarnation of the spirit of obscurantism and oppression. The victories of
democracyhave made the latter view fashionable, and to the liberal historians of the latter part of the 19th century the very name "Metternich" was synonymous with a system in which nothing but senseless opposition to progress could be discerned. Reaction against this view found its fullest expression in the work of Heinrich Ritter von Srbik.
Metternich was a master of the techniques of diplomacy: for instance, his dispatches were models of diplomatic style. Although they could be sententious, over-elaborate and verbose, their phrasing was often the result of astute calculation.
Metternich has earned the admiration of succeeding generations for his brilliant management of foreign policy.
Henry Kissingeridolized Metternich and studied him closely. He wrote his Harvard UniversityPh.D. dissertation, later published in 1957 under the title "A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of the Peace 1812-1822", on the European negotiations towards the achievement of a balance of power after Waterloo, and praised Metternich's role in holding together the crumbling Austrian Empire. It should be noted that Kissinger's work has generated controversy in academic circles among such historians as Paul W. Schroeder, "inter alia" attracting criticism for the absence of footnotes.
* Metternich's significant legacy in the evolution of modern European history is acknowledged by the selection of his image as the main motif on the 20-euro Biedermeier Period commemorative coin minted on
June 11 2003. The reverse of the coin shows his portrait with the map of Europe that was redrawn at the Congress of Vienna after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Age of Metternich
Princess Pauline de Metternich
sparkling wineis named after him, "Fürst von Metternich" Riesling Sekt.
*Palmer, A., "Metternich: Councillor of Europe". London: Orion, 1997 ed.
Kissinger, H., "A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of the Peace 1812-1822". London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999.
* Zamoyski, A. (2007) Rites of Peace. The fall of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna.
* Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 15, Metternich, 1989
# [http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/censor.htm Metternich on censorship]
# [http://www.fuerst-von-metternich.de/ Fürst von Metternich] sparkling wine
# [http://www.kynzvart.cz/ Castle Kynžvart (Königswart) in Western Bohemia] - Metternich's residence with collections, now open to the public
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