- Subtypes of HIV
Taxobox | color=violet
name = "Human immunodeficiency virus"
image_width = 180px
image_caption = Phylogenetic Tree of the SIV and HIV viruses.
virus_group = vi
familia = "
genus = "
subdivision_ranks = Species
* "Human immunodeficiency virus 1"
* "Human immunodeficiency virus 2"DiseaseDisorder infobox
Name = International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Codes
ICD10 = B20-B24
ICD9 = ICD9|042-ICD9|044
One of the obstacles to treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is its high genetic variability.cite journal | author = Robertson DL, Hahn BH, Sharp PM | title = Recombination in AIDS viruses | journal = J. Mol. Evol. | volume = 40 | issue = 3 | pages = 249–59 | year = 1995 | month = March | pmid = 7723052 | doi = | url = ] HIV can be divided into two major subtypes, HIV 1 and HIV 2, and further subdivision can be made based on sequence data. Some of the subtypes are known to be more
virulentor are resistant to different medications.
HIV 1 includes the most common strains of the virus, and it is further subdivided into three groups called M, N, and O.
;Group MThis is the most common type of HIV, with more than 90% of HIV cases being HIV-1 group M. It is subdivided further into clades that are also given a letter. This is further complicated due to changes in the virus during the course of infection, and many cases are given a "circulating recombinant form" or CRF which is given two letters. CRF A/C, for example, is a combination of subtypes A and C.
* Subtype A is common in West Africa.cite journal | author = Bobkov AF, Kazennova EV, Selimova LM, "et al" | title = Temporal trends in the HIV-1 epidemic in Russia: predominance of subtype A | journal = J. Med. Virol. | volume = 74 | issue = 2 | pages = 191–6 | year = 2004 | month = October | pmid = 15332265 | doi = 10.1002/jmv.20177 | url = http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20177]
* Subtype B is the dominant form in Europe, the Americas, Japan, Thailand, and Australia. Goudsmit, Jaap. Viral Sex; The Nature of AIDS. Oxford University Press. New York, New York, 1997. Pg. 51-58. Retrieved May 25, 2008.]
* Subtype C is the dominant form in Southern and Eastern Africa, India, and Nepal.
* Subtype D is generally only seen in Eastern and central Africa.
* (Subtype E) has never been purified, and is always seen combined with subtype A as CRF A/E.
* Subtype F has been found in central Africa, South America and Eastern Europe. [http://www.avert.org/hivtypes.htm] Introduction to HIV types, groups and subtypes. March 3, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2008.]
* Subtype G (and the CRF A/G) have been found in Africa and central Europe.
* Subtype H is limited to central Africa.
* (Subtype I) was originally used to describe a strain that is now accounted for as a combination of other subtypes.Fact|date=May 2008
* Subtype J is limited to Central America
* Subtype K is limited to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon.
These subtypes are sometimes further split into groups such as A1 or F2.Fact|date=May 2008 This is not thought to be a complete or final list, and further types will likely be found. [ [http://www.avert.org/hivtypes.htm HIV types, subtypes, groups & strains ] ]
;Group NThis group, discovered in 1998Fact|date=May 2008, has only been seen in
Cameroonand is extremely rare.Fact|date=May 2008
;Group OThis strain is not usually seen outside of West-central Africa and is very rare. It caused some concern because it could not be detected by standard test kits, though more advanced
HIV testswill detect it and group N. [http://www.abbottmolecular.com/PDF/E0608633_RealTimeHIV_rev.pdf]
Like Group N and Group O, HIV-2 has not been widely seen outside of Africa. The first case in the
United Stateswas in 1987 [ [http://www.hivworkshop.com/hiv-2.htm HIV-2 ] ] . Many test kits for HIV-1 will also detect HIV-2 [ [http://www.fda.gov/cber/products/testkits.htm CBER - Donor Screening Assays for Infectious Agents and HIV Diagnostic Assays ] ] .
* [http://www.avert.org/hivtypes.htm HIV Types] at Avert.org
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
HIV — Classification and external resources Diagram of HIV … Wikipedia
HIV/AIDS in the People's Republic of China — The HIV/AIDS pandemic scene in East Asia is largely dominated by China. Much of the current spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has been through intravenous drug use and prostitution. In China, the number of affected by HIV… … Wikipedia
HIV vaccine — An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease.The urgency of the search for a vaccine against… … Wikipedia
HIV test — Randall L. Tobias, former U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, being publicly tested for HIV in Ethiopia in an effort to reduce the stigma of being tested. HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus … Wikipedia
HIV disease progression rates — Following infection with HIV 1, the rate of clinical disease progression varies between individuals. Factors such as host susceptibility, genetics and immune function,cite journal |last=Morgan |first=D. |authorlink= |coauthors=C. Mahe, B. Mayanja … Wikipedia
HIV/AIDS in the Republic of China — Taiwan s epidemic of HIV/AIDS began with the first case reported in December 1984. In 1990, the government promulgated the AIDS Prevention and Control Act. As of May 2006, there are 11,000 reported cases. HIV/AIDS patients in Taiwan can receive… … Wikipedia
HIV-1 — Virus de l immunodéficience humaine Virus de l immunodéficience humaine … Wikipédia en Français
Criminal transmission of HIV — In many countries, the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered to be a crime. This is often conflated, in laws and in discussion, with criminal exposure to HIV, which does not… … Wikipedia
Circumcision and HIV — This article is about male circumcision and HIV. For female circumcision and HIV, see Female genital cutting#HIV. Over forty epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between male circumcision and HIV… … Wikipedia
Misconceptions about HIV and AIDS — The spread of HIV and AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; AIDS is considered a pandemic. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with… … Wikipedia