- History of quantum field theory
The

**history of quantum field theory**starts with its creation by Dirac when he attempted to quantize theelectromagnetic field in the late1920s .**Foundations**The early development of the field involved Fock, Pauli, Heisenberg,

Bethe , Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson. This phase of development culminated with the construction of the theory ofquantum electrodynamics in the1950s .**Gauge theory**Gauge theory was formulated and quantized, leading to the**unification of forces**embodied in thestandard model ofparticle physics . This effort started in the1950s with the work of Yang and Mills, was carried on byMartinus Veltman and a host of others during the1960s and completed by the1970s through the word ofGerard 't Hooft ,Frank Wilczek ,David Gross andDavid Politzer .**Grand synthesis**Parallel developments in the understanding of

phase transitions incondensed matter physics led to the study of therenormalization group . This in turn led to the**grand synthesis**of theoretical physics which unified theories of particle and condensed matter physics through quantum field theory. This involved the work ofMichael Fisher andLeo Kadanoff in the1970s which led to the seminal reformulation of quantum field theory byKenneth Wilson .**Modern developments**The study of quantum field theory is alive and flourishing, as are applications of this method to many physical problems. It remains one of the most vital areas of

theoretical physics today, providing a common language to many branches ofphysics .**Suggested reading*** Pais, Abraham ; "Inward Bound - Of Matter & Forces in the Physical World", Oxford University Press (1986) [ISBN 0-19-851997-4] Written by a former Einstein assistant at Princeton, this is a beautiful detailed history of modern fundamental physics, from 1895 (discovery of X-rays) to 1983 (discovery of vectors bosons at C.E.R.N.).

* Weinberg, Steven ; "The Quantum Theory of Fields - Foundations (vol. I)", Cambridge University Press (1995) [ISBN 0-521-55001-7] The first chapter (pp. 1-40) of Weinberg's monumental treatise gives a brief history of Q.F.T.

* Schweber, Silvian S. ; "Q.E.D. and the men who made it: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga", Princeton University Press (1994) [ISBN 0-691-03327-7]

*Yndurain, Francisco Jose ; "Quantum Chromodynamics: An Introduction to the Theory of Quarks and Gluons", Springer Verlag, New York, 1983. [ISBN 0-387-11752-0]

* Miller, Arthur I. ; "Early Quantum Electrodynamics : A Sourcebook", Cambridge University Press (1995) [ISBN 0-521-56891-9]

* Schwinger, Julian ; "Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics", Dover Publications, Inc. (1958) [ISBN 0-486-60444-6]

* O'Raifeartaigh, Lochlainn ; "The Dawning of Gauge Theory", Princeton University Press (May 5, 1997) [ISBN 0-691-02977-6]

* Cao, Tian Yu ; "Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories", Cambridge University Press (1997) [ISBN 0-521-63420-2]

* Darrigol, Olivier ; "La genèse du concept de champ quantique", Annales de Physique (France) 9 (1984) pp. 433-501. Text in French, adapted from the author's Ph.D. thesis.

**See also***

History of physics

*Quantum field theory

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