- American Brazilian
infobox ethnic group
group = flagicon|United States American Brazilian flagicon|Brazil
caption = Notable American Brazilians:
Ellen Gracie Northfleet• Orville Derby
poptime = Indefinite
Brazil:Mainly Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil
langs = Portuguese, English
Christianity(mostly Protestantismand Roman Catholic)
White Brazilian, White American
American Brazilian (Portuguese: "Americano Brasileiro") is a Brazilian person of full, partial, or predominantly North American ancestry, or a US-born person immigrant in
The Confederados are a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. They are the descendants of people who fled from the
Confederate States of Americato Brazil with their families after the American Civil War.
At the end of the Civil War in the
1860's, a migration of Confederates to Brazil began, with the total number of immigrants estimated in the thousands. They settled primarily in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in Americana, Campinas, São Paulo, Juquiá, New Texas, Xiririca, Rio de Janeiro, and Rio Doce. But, in Santarém, in the north on the Amazon River, in Pará, and in the States of Bahiaand Pernambucoreceived a significant number of American immigrants. [ [http://www.patsabin.com/lowcountry/confederados.htm Confederate Colonies of Brazil ] ]
At the end of the American Civil War, Emperor
Dom Pedro IIof Brazil was interested in having cottoncrops due to the high prices and, through Freemasonrycontacts, recruited experienced cotton farmers for his nation. Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidies and tax breaks. General Robert E. Leeadvised Southerners not to flee to South Americabut many ignored his advice and set out to establish a new life away from the destruction of war.
Many Southerners who took the Emperor's offer had lost their land during the war, were unwilling to live under a conquering army, or simply did not expect an improvement in the South's economic position. In addition, Brazil would not outlaw
slaveryuntil 1888. Although a number of historians say that the existence of slavery was an appeal, Alcides Gussi, an independent researcher of State University of Campinas, found that only four families owned a total of 66 slaves from 1868 to 1875. The Confederateswere the first organized Protestantgroup to settle in Brazil. [ [http://mason.gmu.edu/~jhoskins/finalarticle.html Protestant Religion of immigrants] ]
Immigration to Brazilwas started within that year of 1865, in small ships and sailboats hurriedly reshaped, "motivated more by the pain and feelings of despair than by the vessels themselves." They were exhausted men, womenand children, many were very injured, others were sick and depressed, but they were determined to give a new start to their lives in faraway Brazil.
Between 1865 and 1885, almost ten thousand
White Americans coming mainly from Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Mississippi, Ohio, Virginia, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, ran ashore in the ports of Belém, Vitória, Rio de Janeiroand Santos. Once they arrived, they had to redouble their so weakened energies and confront other faraway and tough trips around the land until they could reach the region of Campinas, whose climateand lands are similar to those of the Southern United States.
It is unknown just how many immigrants went to Brazil as refugees from the war, but unpublished research in the records of the port of Rio de Janeiro by Betty Antunes de Oliveira counts some 20,000 Americans that entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Of those, an unknown number returned to the United States as conditions improved there. Many immigrants renounced their American citizenship and adopted Brazilian citizenship.
The immigrants settled in various places in
Brazilranging from the urban areas of Rio de Janeiroand São Paulo to the northern Amazon region (especially Santarém) and Paraná in the south. But most of the Confederados settled in the area around present-day Santa Bárbara d'Oesteand Americana, Brazilnear São Paulo, derived from the name "Vila dos Americanos". This was the name given by natives in the region because of its American population.The first original Confederados known to arrive was Colonel William H. Norris of Alabama— the colony at Santa Bárbara d'Oesteis sometimes called the "Norris Colony". Dom Pedro's program was judged a success for both the immigrants and the Brazilian government. The settlers brought with them modern agricultural techniques and new crops such as watermelon, and pecans that soon spread among the native Brazilian farmers. Some foods of the American South also crossed over and became part of general Brazilian culture such as chess pie, vinegar pie, and southern fried chicken.
Confederadoscontinued many elements of American cultureand established the first Baptistchurches in Brazil. They also established public schools and provided education to their female children, which was unusual in Brazil at the time. The Confederadosalso founded Colégio Internacional (International School) in Campinasand the Escola Americana (American School) in São Pauloto provide higher education to their children.
Immigration in numbers
;American immigration to Brazil by State in
January( 1867) [ [http://www.comciencia.br/reportagens/migracoes/migr16.htm Brasil: migrações internacionais e identidade ] ]
Descendants of the immigrants
The first generation of Confederados remained an insular community, but by the third generation, most of the families had intermarried with native Brazilians or immigrants of other origins. Descendants of the Confederados increasingly spoke the
Portuguese languageand identified themselves as Brazilians. As the area around Santa Bárbara d'Oesteand Americana turned increasingly to the production of sugar caneand society became more mobile, the Confederados drifted to cities. Today, only a few descendant families still live on the original land owned by their ancestors. The descendants of the original Confederados are mostly scattered throughout Brazil but maintain the headquarters of their descendant organization at the Campo Cemetery, in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste.
even though they all consider themselves completely Brazilian. Modern Confederados distance themselves from any of the racial controversies.
In Brazil, the
Confederate flaghas not previously had the racial stigma that has been attached to it in the United States. Many descendants are of mixed race and reflect the varied racial categories that make up Brazilian society in their physical appearance. Recently the Brazilian residents of Americana, now of primarily Italian-descent, have removed the Confederate flag from the city's crest citing the fact that Confederados now make up only 10% of the city's population. The Confederate flag was associated with the city in the wake of Jimmy Carter's visit to the region.
1972, then Governor (and future President) Jimmy Carter of Georgia visited the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste and visited the grave of his wife Rosalyn's great-uncle who was one of the original Confederados.
Many Confederados have traveled to the United States at the invitation of the
Sons of Confederate Veterans, an American descendants' organization, to visit Civil War battlefields, attend reenactments, or see where their ancestors lived in the US.
Confederado phrases in Brazil
"...My father took part in the 1st Battalion that left Gonzalez. He was hurt in a battle in
Virginiaand sent back home, but he soon afterwards recovered and went back to the war. He was confined to prisonand released. He returned home and once again returned to the battle field. "...In those days of shocking terror, both rebuilding and staying there turned impossible. Daily crimes surrounded us and there was nothing we could do..." [ [http://frankherles.wordpress.com/2007/11/27/american-immigration-to-brazil/ Confederado phrases in Brazil] ] "Our farmwas beautiful, had several acres, good houses, horses and cattle. We had a corn mill, cotton-benefiting machineries (...) The Brazilian governmentreceived us very well, hosted us on the Immigrant Hotel, thus giving us shelter and food. It was my duty to explain that we were not immigrants. We were refugees. War refugees." [ [http://frankherles.wordpress.com/2007/11/27/american-immigration-to-brazil/ Confederado phrases in Brazil] ]
sugar cane, cotton, pumpkins, squash, five kinds of sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, cornfield peas, snap beans, butter beans, ochre, tomatoes and fine chance at tobacco. I have a great variety of fruits on my place. I have made enough to live well on and am better pleased than other." [ [http://www.damninteresting.com/?p=552 Confederado phrases in Brazil] ]
"I remember when I was 4 years old, I was lost in a
textile factoryand I couldn't tell the peopleanything because I only spoke English, recalled an engineerand third-generation descendant. I didn't learn Portuguese until I started school." [ [http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950504&slug=2119240 Confederates histories in Brazil] ]
"They came here because they felt that their '
country' had been invaded and their landconfiscated," said great-granddaughter of the original McKnightfamily that moved to Brazil from Texas, in the Southern United States. "To them, there was nothing left there. So, they came here to try to re-create what they had before the war." [ [http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950504&slug=2119240 Confederates histories in Brazil] ] "I grew up listening to the stories. They were angry and bitter. When they talked about it, moving here, the war, leaving their homes, it was always a very sore subject for them." [ [http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950504&slug=2119240 Confederates histories in Brazil] ]
Brazilis home of many American schools. [ [http://www.sk.com.br/sk-intsch.html American Schools in Brazil] ]
*São Paulo: The American Elementary and High School, Chapel International School, Pan American Christian Academy, St. Paul's School, The American Elementary and High School, St. Francis College, American School of Campinas, St. Nicholas School;
*Rio de Janeiro: American School of Rio de Janeiro, ICS - International Christian School - Rio, Our Lady of Mercy School;
*Federal District: American School of Brasilia, Brasilia International School;
Minas Gerais: American School of Belo Horizonte;
Rio Grande do Sul: Pan American School of Porto Alegre;
*Paraná: International School of Curitiba;
Bahia: Pan American School of Bahia;
Pernambuco: American School of Recife;
Pará: Amazon Valley Academy;
*Amazonas: International School of Amazonas.
The center of Confederado culture is the Campo Cemetery in
Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, where most of the original Confederados from the region were buried. Because of their Protestantreligion, they established their own cemetery. The Confederado community has also established a Museum of Immigration at Santa Bárbara d'Oeste to present the history of Brazilian immigration and highlight its benefits to the nation.
The descendants still foster a connection with their history through the "Fraternity of American Descendants", a descendant organization dedicated to preserving the unique mixed culture. The Confederados also have an annual festival, called the "Festa Confederada" which is dedicated to fund the Campo Cemetery. The festival is marked by Confederate flags, traditional dress of Confederate uniforms and
hoop skirts, food of the American south with a Brazilian flair, and dances and musicpopular in the American south during the antebellum period.
To increase profits, some
farmers change what they grow. But some farmers in the American Midwestare changing where they grow. The Midwest is the traditional center of American agriculture. In Brazil, undeveloped land can cost two hundred forty dollars a hectare, or less. That is a little more than one-tenth the cost of landin the Midwest. [ [http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/world/2008/06/25/american-farmers-try-their-luck-in-brazil.html American Farmers Try Their Luck in Brazil] ] Some of the farmers see low-cost land in Brazil as a way to expand their operations. And it may serve other purposes. It may help keep farming in the family, by letting other family members have their own farm. Crops like soybeans and cottongrow well in Brazil's climate. The South American country has grown into a major agricultural exporter. It is the second largest exporter of soybeans after the United States. In the last five years, millions of hectares have been newly planted in Brazil. [ [http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2006-01/2006-01-17-voa1.cfm Americans in Brazilian Agriculture] ] Growth has been especially high in Central States with grassland known as " cerrado". It usually gets rainin summerand is dryin winter.
Notable American Brazilians
Charles Frederick Hartt
Ellen Gracie Northfleet
Julio Cézar Ribeiro Vaughan
Orville Adalbert Derby
Lewis Joel Greene
Llewellyn Ivor Price
William Hutchinson Norris
Immigration to Brazil
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