- Coat of arms of Canada
infobox coat of arms
name = The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada
image_width = 250
year_adopted = 1921
shield = Tierced in
fess: Top two fesses quarterly the coats of arms of England, Scotland, Ireland, and royal France; bottom fess a sprig of three maple leaves proper
crest = A golden lion, royally crowned, bearing a red maple leaf and standing on a helm below a royal crown; white and red mantling (in the form of maple leaves since 1994)
supporters = A golden lion in dexter bearing a flagpole with the
Union Flagand a silver unicorn in sinister bearing a flagpole with a banner of the royal arms of France
motto = "A mari usque ad mare"
other_elements = The circlet of the
Order of Canada Tudor rose, Lily, Shamrock, and Thistle
earlier_versions = "see below"
use = On all Acts of Parliament; the cover of all
Canadian passports; various government departments
The Coat of Arms of Canada (also known as the Royal Arms of Canada or, more properly, the Arms of His/Her Majesty in Right of Canada) [ [http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/fr-rf/couronne_crown_canada/06-600crown_of_maples_e.pdf Department of Canadian Heritage: "A Crown of Maples"; 2008] ] [http://www.heraldry.ca/misc/coatArmsCanada.htm Royal Heraldry Society of Canada: The Coat of Arms] ] [ [http://www.monarchist.ca/mc/hnatysh.htm Toffoli, Gary; "Monarchy Canada": The Hnatyshyn Years; Spring, 1995] ] [ [http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/fr-rf/couronne_crown_canada/06-600crown_of_maples_e.pdf MacLeod, Kevin S.; "A Crown of Maples"; Queen's Printer for Canada; Ottawa: 2008] ] is, since 1921, the official
coat of armsof the Canadian monarch, and thus also of Canada. It is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdomndash particularly those of the Jacobean erandash though with distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British.
The maple leaves in the shield, originally green, were redrawn
gules(red) in 1957, [The blazon of the Arms describes the maple leaves as being coloured 'proper', that is to say their natural colour. Since the natural colour of maple leaves may be either green or red, the Arms may correctly be drawn with the leaves as either colour.] [cite web|url=http://www.heraldry.ca/top_en/top_coatArmsCanada.htm|title=Royal Heraldry Society of Canada - The Royal Arms of Canada|accessdate=2008-08-22] and a circlet of the Order of Canadawas added to the arms for limited use in 1987. [http://www.heraldry.ca/misc/hansard.htm The Hansard Debates] (December 5, 1995). Heraldry.ca. Accessed 2008-06-14.] The shield design forms the Royal Standard of Canada, and the shield is found on the Canadian Red Ensign. The Flag of the Governor General of Canada, which formerly used the shield over the Union Jack, now uses the crest of the arms on a blue field.
Prior to Confederation, the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom served in Canada as the symbol of royal authority, as no distinct arms had been granted to any of the colonies in
British North America, save for those given to Nova Scotiaand Newfoundland in the 17th century. Following confederation in 1867, of three of the five contiguous colonies (one then split into two provinces) into "one dominion under the name of Canada", Queen Victoria issued a Royal Warrant(May 6, 1868) granting arms to each of the four provinces and one to the entire Dominion, consisting of the arms of the provinces quartered together on one shield. As more colonies and territories joined the union, the Dominion arms were augmented with the new provincial arms, ultimately resulting in a shield with nine quarterings; though, this design was never given formal approval by the monarch. The complicated and unofficial nature of the national arms led to the search for a new design for the arms of Canada.
The new layout closely reflected the arms of the United Kingdom—except for the fleurs-de-lis in the fourth quarter and the sprig of maple leaves in the base—and was adopted in 1921, when it was proclaimed by King George V as the "Arms or Ensigns Armorial of the Dominion of Canada", on
November 21. [http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/sc-cs/arm1_e.cfm Canadian Heritage] —The arms of Canada proclamation] By 1957, the arms were redrawn by Alan Beddoeso as to have red leaves, and to change the royal crown from one of a Tudor design to one more resembling the St. Edward's Crown, as preferred by Queen Elizabeth II.
In 1994, the Queen approved a new design for general use (already in limited use from 1987) for the arms by
Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, which had added to it an annulus behind the shield with the motto of the Order of Canada. It was soon adopted as the version used by the federal government within the Federal Identity Program.
In June 2008 MP
Pat Martinintroduced a motion into the House Of Commons calling on the government to amend the coat of arms to incorporate symbols representing Canada's First Nations, Inuitand Métispeoples. [cite news
title = Coat of arms ignores aboriginal people, MP says
publisher = CBC News
accessdate = 2008-06-20 ]
The arms are used as a mark of authority by various government agencies, including
the Crown, the Cabinet, individual ministers, [ [http://pm.gc.ca/ Prime Minister of Canada] ] [ [http://www.robnicholson.ca/ Rob Nicholson] ] [ [http://www.loyolahearn.nf.net/ Loyola Hearn] ] and Parliament. It is also present on all denominations of Canadian paper currency, and on the cover of Canadian passports. Since 1962, [ [http://fraser.cc/FlagsCan/Nation/StateHead.html Fraser, Alistair B.; "The Flags of Canada"; Chapter II; January 30, 1998; © Alistair B. Fraser] ] the shield of the arms has formed the Royal Standard of Canada, for use by the sovereign in her capacity as monarch of Canada. The full achievement of the coat of arms is used on occasion on a plain red flag, such as in 1967 for the country's centennial celebrations. [Cite web| url= http://flagspot.net/flags/ca_coa.html | title = Canadian Coat of Arms flag| author= Flags of the World| month= February |year= 2004| accessdate= 2007-04-14] In the Canadian Forcesthe ranks of Chief Warrant Officerand Chief Petty Officer 1st Classwear the coat of arms as their symbol of rank.Fact|date=June 2008
The shield is divided into five sections:
The first division at the viewer's top left contains the three golden lions that have been a symbol of
Englandsince at least the reign of King Richard I. The second quarter bears the red lion rampant of Scotlandin a double tressure border with fleurs-de-lis, used as a symbol of Scotland since at least the reign of William I. The third quarter shows the Irish harp of Tara. Legend states that this golden harp with silver strings was used in royal banquets at Tara, a capital of ancient Ireland, and was later given to Henry VIII by the pope during his attempt to succeed to the Irish throne. The gold fleurs-de-lis of royal France, the first post-medieval European emblem raised in Canada by Jacques Cartier, during his landing at Gaspé,cite web|url=http://www.heraldry.ca/top_en/top_historyHer.htm|title=Royal Heraldry Society of Canada|date=28 April 2004|accessdate=2008-08-21] fill the fourth quarter.The tinctures of the quarters are Gules(red), Or (gold), Azure(blue), Azure and Argent(silver) respectively.
The fifth charge, a sprig of red
mapleleaves at the bottom is a distinctly Canadian symbol that became gradually identified with the country throughout the 19th century. They were first proposed as a symbol in 1834, were established in 1868 on the arms of Quebecand Ontarioand officially became the national emblem in 1965, with the proclamation of the Flag of Canada. [http://www.pch.gc.ca/PROGS/CPSC-CCSP/sc-cs/df7_e.cfm Canadian Heritage] —Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols] Initially, the leaves were depicted as coloured green on the coat of arms because it was thought to represent youth, as opposed to the red colour of dying leaves in autumn (however, they are blazoned as "proper," so could be shown as either red or green, and it is the blazon, rather than any depiction, which is regarded as authoritative). The leaves were later redrawn in official depictions in 1957 with the current colour to be in line with the official colours of Canada. The shield forms the basis of the royal standard of Canada.
The ribbon is marked "desiderantes meliorem patriam", meaning "desiring a better country." It is the motto of the
Order of Canada. This component was added, by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister, to the arms used to represent the Queen in 1987, after a new Canadian "law of arms" was created, which included the rule that the motto of the Order of Canada would be included around the personal coat of arms of any Canadian who received an appointment to the Order, while the arms used by government ministers and departments remained without the ribbon. Since 1994 the arms used by government ministers and institutions now reflect the personal arms of the Queen.
The arms show a royal helmet, which is a barred helm of gold looking outward, and draped in a mantle of white and red which are the official colours of Canada. The golden helmet facing the viewer symbolizes Canada's sovereignty.-
Crest and crown
The crest is based on the Royal Crest of England but differenced by the addition of a maple leaf, and appears on the Governor General's blue flag denoting that the Governor General is a representative of the Sovereign.
It consists of a crowned gold lion standing on a twisted wreath of red and white silk and holding a maple leaf in its right paw. Above the crest is
St Edward's Crown, the style preferred by the Queen. (See the article on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for a discussion of different styles of crown historically used in the Commonwealth.)
The 1921 design was a Tudor crown, and the style was modernized to its current form in 1957 by the Canadian government, although the Queen had indicated her preference in May 1952, shortly after ascending the throne in February 1952.
mottoof Canada is in Latin "a mari usque ad mare" (From sea to sea), a part of Psalm 72:8. [ [http://sources.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible%2C_English%2C_King_James%2C_Psalms#Chapter_72 Wikisource—Psalm 72:8] ] This phrase was first suggested by Samuel Leonard Tilley, a Father of Confederation. The motto appears at the base of the arms. The motto was originally used in 1906 on the head of the mace of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. It was included in the Arms of Canada in 1921. [ [http://canadaonline.about.com/b/a/251053.htm Canadaonline] —Time for a New Motto for Canada?]
In March 2006, the premiers of Canada's three territories called for the amendment of the motto to better reflect the vast geographic nature of Canada's territory—Canada has three coastlines on the Arctic, Atlantic, and
Pacific Oceans. Two suggestions for a new motto are "A mari ad mare ad mare" (from sea to sea to sea) and "A mari usque ad maria" (from the sea to the other seas). [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20060309.wmotto0309/BNStory/National/home From sea to sea to sea] , " The Globe and Mail", 9 March 2006.] [ [http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/03/10/northern-motto060310.html 'To sea' or not 'to sea': that is the question] —CBC article, 10 March 2006] The motto remains unchanged.
Supporting the shield on either side are the English lion and Scottish
unicorn, which are also the supporters of the UK coat of arms. The lion stands on the viewer's left and holds a gold-pointed silver lance flying the Union Flag. The unicorn has a gold horn, a gold mane, gold hooves, and around its neck a gold, chained coronet of crosses and fleurs-de-lis; it holds a lance flying the three gold fleurs-de-lis of royal Franceon a blue background. Unlike the British version, the lion is not crowned, nor is it facing the viewer. Supporters holding lances displaying flags are elements adopted from the Royal coat of arms of Scotland.
blazonof Canada's coat of arms, proclaimed in 1921 was:
Tierced in fesse the first and second divisions containing the quarterly coat following, namely, 1st
Gulesthree lions passant guardant in pale or, 2nd, Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory gules, 3rd, Azurea harp or stringed argent, 4th, Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, and the third division Argent three maple leaves conjoined on one stem proper. And upon a Royal helmet mantled argent doubled gules the Crest, that is to say, On a wreath of the colours argent and gules a lion passant guardant or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf gules. And for Supporters On the dexter a lion rampant or holding a lance argent, point or, flying therefrom to the dexter the Union Flag, and on the sinister A unicorn argent armed crined and unguled or, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses-patée and fleurs-de-lis a chain affixed thereto reflexed of the last, and holding a like lance flying therefrom to the sinister a banner azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis or; the whole ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper and below the shield upon a wreath composed of roses, thistles, shamrocks and lillies a scroll azure inscribed with the motto A mari usque ad mare.
The circlet of the
Order of Canadawas added around the shield for limited use in 1987, and for general use in 1994.
The Coat of Arms is protected under the "Trade-marks Act", which states that "No person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade-mark or otherwise, any mark consisting of, or so nearly resembling as to be likely to be mistaken for,... the arms, crest or flag adopted and used at any time by Canada..." ["Trade-marks Act" (R.S., 1985, c. T-13), s.9, ss.1(e) [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/T-13/bo-ga:s_1::bo-ga:s_2?page=2 Trade-marks Act] )]
The coat of arms is also found on the 50 cent coin, a coin that is rarely used, but in circulation.
Flag of Canada
List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols
Great Seal of Canada
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom
English claims to the French throne
British North America
* [http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/cpsc-ccsp/sc-cs/arm1_e.cfm The arms of Canada (Canadian Heritage)]
* [http://www.heraldry.ca/misc/coatArmsCanada.htm Royal Heraldry Society of Canada: Coat of Arms of Canada]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Arms of Canada — Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of England — Infobox Coat of arms name = Coat of arms of England image width = 150 armiger = year adopted = (Present form) 1189 crest = torse = shield = Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure supporters = compartment = other… … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Ireland — Infobox Coat of arms name = Coat of arms of Ireland image width = 200 middle = middle width = middle caption = lesser = lesser width = lesser caption = armiger = year adopted = crest = torse = shield = azure a harp or, stringed argent supporters … Wikipedia
Coat of arms — redirects here. For the album by Sabaton, see Coat of Arms (album). Shield Field Supporter Supporter … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Ottawa — Details Armiger Ottawa Adopted 1954 (College of Arms), reissued … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Quebec — Details Armiger Elizabeth II in Right of Quebec Adopted 1939 … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Mexico — Details Armiger Mexico Adopted Sep … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Burnaby — Details Adopted 1991, re confirmed 2005 The coat of arms of Burnaby was granted originally to the Corporation of … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Abbotsford, British Columbia — Coat of Arms of Abbotsford Details Armiger Abbotsford Adopted 1995 Crest Issuant from a mural coronet Gules masoned Argent be … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of Barrie — Details Armiger The Corporation of the City of Barrie Adopted 1977, registered with Canadian Heraldic Authority 2005 Crest Issuant from a mural crown Gules, a mount Vert thereon a mercat cross Or … Wikipedia