- Utilities in Istanbul
Utilities in Istanbul covers the topic of
public utilityservices in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.
The first water supply systems which were built in Istanbul date back to the foundation of the city. Two of the greatest
aqueducts built in the Roman period are the Mazulkemer Aqueduct and the Valens Aqueduct. These aqueducts were built in order to channel water from the Halkalı area in the western edge of the city to the Beyazıt district in the city center, which was known as the "Forum Tauri" in the Roman period.cite web| url=http://www.iski.gov.tr/en-US/arasayfalar.php?sayfa=0-1&dosya=tarihce_1.phtm| title=İSKİ İstanbul Su ve Kanalizasyon İdaresi: Tarihce | publisher=Istanbul water and sewerage administration (history)| accessdate=2006-03-11] After reaching the city center, the water was later collected in the city's numerous cisterns, such as the famous Philoxenos (Binbirdirek) Cistern and the Basilica (Yerebatan) Cistern.
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned
Sinan, his engineer and architect-in-chief, to improve the water needs of the city. Sinan constructed the Kırkçeşme Water Supply System in 1555. In later years, with the aim of responding to the ever-increasing public demand, water from various springs was channeled to the public fountains by means of small supply lines; see German Fountain.
Today, Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered water supply and a sewage disposal system managed by the government agency İSKİ. [cite web| url=http://www.iski.gov.tr/en-US/arasayfalar.php?sayfa=0-1&dosya=tarihce_2.phtm| title=İSKİ Administration | publisher=Istanbul water and sewerage administration| accessdate=2006-03-11] There are also several private sector organizations distributing clean water.
Electricity distribution services are covered by the state-owned TEK. The first electricity production plant in the city, "Silahtarağa Termik Santrali", was established in 1914 and continued to supply electricity until 1983. [ [http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=82717 Silahtarağa Santral becomes Santralistanbul Museum] ]
Post and Telecom
The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in the city on October 23, 1840. [http://www.ptt.gov.tr/tr/kurumsal/tarihce.html PTT Chronology] ] The first post office was the "Postahane-i Amire" near the courtyard of
Yeni Mosque. In 1876 the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the vast Ottoman Empire-- which, in that year, stretched from the borders with Austria-Hungaryand Russiaat north to the Ottoman provinces of Yemenand Sudanat south and Tunisiaat west -- was established. In 1901 the first money transfers were made through the post offices and the first cargo services became operational.
Samuel Morsereceived his first ever patent for the telegraphin 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palacewas built in 1861-1865 on the same location) in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecidwho personally tested the new invention. [ [http://www.istanbulcityguide.com/history/body_mansions_palaces.htm Istanbul City Guide: Beylerbeyi Palace] ] Following this successful test, installation works of the first telegraph line between Istanbul and Edirnebegan on August 9, 1847. [http://www.turktelekom.com.tr/webtech/eng_default.asp?sayfa_id=30 Türk Telekom: History] ] In 1855 the Telegraph Administration was established.
In July 1881 the first
telephonecircuit in Istanbul was established between the Ministry of Post and Telegraph in Soğukçeşme and the Postahane-i Amire in Yenicami. On May 23, 1909, the first manual telephone exchange with a 50 line capacity was established in the "Büyük Postane" (Grand Post Office) of Sirkeci.
The first automatic
telexexchange was established in November 1973. Electronic Mailwas put into service between Istanbul, Ankara, İzmirand Adanaon June 28, 1984. In November 1985 the first radio link system was put into service between Istanbul and Ankara. On October 23, 1986, mobile telephoneand pagingsystems were put into service in Istanbul, Ankara and İzmir. On March 4, 1987, the first ever video conferencein Europe was realized in Istanbul. On February 23, 1994, GSMtechnology was established in the city. A nationwide Internetnetwork and connection with the World Wide Webwas established in 1996.
References and notes
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