- Julia Kristeva
Julia Kristeva ( _bg. Юлия Кръстева) (born
24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in Francesince the mid-1960s. Kristeva became influential in international critical analysis, cultural theoryand feminismafter publishing her first book "Semeiotikè" in 1969. Her immense body of work includes books and essays which address intertextuality, the semiotic, and abjection, in the fields of linguistics, literary theory and criticism, psychoanalysis, biography and autobiography, political and cultural analysis, art and art history. Together with Barthes, Todorov, Goldmann, Genette, Lévi-Strauss, Lacan, Greimas, Foucault, and Althusser, she stands as one of the foremost structuralists, in that time when structuralism took major place in humanities. Her works also have an important place in post-structuralistthought.
Sliven, Bulgaria, Kristeva moved to Francein December 1966, when she was 25. She continued her education at several French universities.
In France, Kristeva experienced the waning influence of
structuralism, which was in decline after challenges from Michel Foucaultand Jacques Derrida, among others. After joining the ' Tel Quelgroup' in 1965, Kristeva focused on the politics of language and became an active member of the group. She trained in psychoanalysis, which she completed in 1979. In some ways, her work can be seen as trying to adapt a psychoanalyticapproach to the poststructuralistcriticism. For example, her view of the subject, and its construction, shares similarities with Sigmund Freudand Jacques Lacan. However, Kristeva rejects any understanding of the subject in a structuralist sense, instead, she favors a subject always "in process" or "in crisis." In this way, she contributes to the poststructuralist critique of essentialized structures, whilst preserving the teachings of psychoanalysis. She travelled to China in the 1970s and wrote " About Chinese Women" (1977) about her experiences. [ [http://ms.cc.sunysb.edu/~hvolat/kristeva/krist01.htm State University of New York at Stony Brook] ] [ [http://www.tate.org.uk/onlineevents/archive/julia_kristeva/ Tate Britain Online Event: Julia Kristeva] ] [ [http://www.pileface.com/sollers/article.php3?id_article=49 Who's who in "Les samouraïs"] ] [ [http://www.lacan.com/perfume/kristeva.htm An Interview with Josefina Ayerza - Flash Art Magazine] ] [ [http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/generalfiction/story/0,,1730440,00.html Guardian article: March 14, 2006] ] [ [http://www.kristeva.fr Julia Kristeva - site officiel ] ]
One of Kristeva's most important propositions is the "semiotic". Kristeva's use of the term 'semiotic' here should not be confused with the discipline of
semioticssuggested by Ferdinand de Saussure. For Kristeva, the semiotic is closely related to the infantile pre-Oedipal referred to in the works of Freud and mainly Melanie Kleinand the British Object Relation psychoanalysis, and to the Lacanian (pre- mirror stage). It is an emotional field, tied to our instincts, which dwells in the fissures and prosodyof language rather than in the denotative meanings of words. In this sense, the semiotic opposes the "symbolic", which corresponds words with meaning in a stricter, mathematical sense. She is also noted for her work on the concepts of abjection(a notion that relates to a primary psychological force of rejection, directed toward the mother-figure), and intertextuality.
Anthropology and psychology
Kristeva argues that
anthropologyand psychology, or the connection between the social and the subject, do not represent each other, but rather follow the same logic: the survival of the group and the subject. Furthermore, in her analysis of Oedipus, she claims that the speaking subject cannot exist on his own, but that he "stands on the fragile threshold as if stranded on account of an impossible demarcation" (" Powers of Horror", p. 85).
In her comparison between the two disciplines, Kristeva claims that the way in which an individual excludes the abject mother as means of forming an identity, is the same way in which societies are constructed. On a broader scale, cultures exclude the maternal and the feminine, and by this come into being.
Kristeva was regarded as a key proponent of
French feminismtogether with Simone de Beauvoir, Hélène Cixous, and Luce Irigaray. [Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard (eds.), "Laughing with Medusa". Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN0-19-927438-X] , [ Griselda Pollock, "Inscriptions in the feminine". In: "Insdie the Visible" edited by Catherine de Zegher. MIT Press, 1996.] Kristeva had a remarkable influence on feminism and feminist literary studies ["Parallax, n. 8", [Vol. 4(3)] , 1998.] [Humm, Maggie, "Modernist Women and Visual Cultures". Rutgers University Press, 2003. ISBN 0813532663] in the US and the UK, as well as on readings into contemporary art [ Griselda Pollock, "Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum". Routledge, 2007.] , [Humm, Maggie, "Feminism and Film". Indiana University press, 1997. ISBN 0253333342] although her relations with feminist circles and movements in Francewas quite controversial. Kristeva made a famous disambiguation of three types of feminism in "Women's Time" in "New Maladies of the Soul" (1993), while rejecting the first two, including that of Simone de Beauvoir, her stands are sometimes considered as rejective of feminism in common; in fact, Kristeva tried to propose the idea of multiple sexual identities against the joined code of "unified feminine language".
In the past decade, Kristeva has written a number of novels that resemble detective stories. While the books maintain narrative suspense and develop a compellingly stylized surface, her readers also encounter ideas intrinsic to her theoretical projects. Her characters reveal themselves mainly through psychological devices, making her type of fiction mostly resemble the later work of Dostoevsky. Her fictional oeuvre, which includes "The Old Man and the Wolves", "Murder in Byzantium", and "Possessions", while often allegorical, also approaches the autobiographical in some passages, especially with one of the protagonists of "Possessions," Stephanie Delacour - a French journalist - which can be seen as Kristeva's alter ego. "Murder in Byzantium" deals with themes from orthodox Christianity and politics and has been described by Kristeva as "a kind of anti-
Da Vinci Code." [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/ideas/story/0,,1730437,00.html Interview wth John Sutherland, The Guardian, 14 March 2006] ]
Julia Kristeva is married to the French writer
Philippe Sollersand has a son.Fact|date=July 2007
For her "innovative explorations of questions on the intersection of language, culture and literature", Kristeva was awarded the
Holberg International Memorial Prizein 2004. She won the 2006 Hannah Arendt Award for Political Thought.
*"Séméiôtiké: recherches pour une sémanalyse," Paris: Edition du Seuil, 1969. (English translation: "Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art." Oxford: Blackwell, 1980.)
*"La Révolution Du Langage Poétique: L'avant-Garde À La Fin Du Xixe Siècle, Lautréamont Et Mallarmé." Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1974. (English translation: "Revolution in Poetic Language," New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.)
*"About Chinese Women." London: Boyars, 1977.
*"Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection." New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
*"The Kristeva Reader." (ed. Toril Moi) Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
*"In the Beginning Was Love: Psychoanalysis and Faith." New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
*"Black Sun: Depression and Melancholia." New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.
*"Nations without Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
*"New Maladies of the Soul." New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
*"Crisis of the European Subject." New York: Other Press, 2000.
*Reading the Bible. In: David Jobling, Tina Pippin & Ronald Schleifer (eds). "The Postmodern Bible Reader." (pp. 92-101). Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.
*"Female Genius: Life, Madness, Words: Hannah Arendt, Melanie Klein, Colette: A Trilogy." 3 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
*"Strangers to Ourselves" New York: Colombia University Press,1991
*"The Samurai: A Novel." New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
*"The Old Man and the Wolves." New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
*"Possessions: A Novel." New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
*"Murder in Byzantium." New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
list of deconstructionists
* [http://www.kristeva.fr Julia Kristeva]
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