Gallic Wars


Gallic Wars
Gallic War
Siege-alesia-vercingetorix-jules-cesar.jpg
"Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar", 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer
Date 58 – 51 BC
Location Gaul, Germania and Britannia
Result Decisive Roman victory
Territorial
changes
Roman Republic annexes Gaul
Belligerents
Roman Republic Several Gallic, Belgic, British and Aquitanian tribes as well as portions of Germans and Spanish tribesmen
Commanders and leaders
Julius Caesar,
Titus Labienus,
Mark Antony,
Quintus Cicero,
Publius Crassus
Vercingetorix,
Ambiorix,
Commius,
Ariovistus,
Cassivellaunus
Strength
120,000 men:
60,000 legionaries,
60,000 auxiliaries
probably 300,000+ fighting men

(mainly irregulars)

Casualties and losses
30,000+ killed,
10,000+ wounded
about 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians butchered.

Modern estimates at least hundreds of thousands.

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. They lasted from 58 BC to 51 BC. The Romans also raided Britannia and Germania, but these expeditions never developed into full-scale invasions. The Gallic Wars culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the sole ruler of the Roman Republic.

Although Caesar portrayed this invasion as being a defensive preemptive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, as they had been attacked several times by native tribes both indigenous to Gaul and further to the north. Conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine.

This military campaign is described by Julius Caesar himself in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the most important historical source of the conflict. This book is also a masterwork of political propaganda, as Caesar was keenly interested in manipulating his readers in Rome to support him.

Contents

Political background

In 58 BC, Gaius Julius Caesar ended his consulship in Rome. Due to the costs of consulship, he was heavily indebted. However, as a member of the First Triumvirate—the political alliance composed of himself, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey—Caesar had secured the governorship of two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum. When the governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, this province was also awarded to Caesar. Caesar's governorships were extended to an outstanding five-year period.

Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his direct command: Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana, and Legio X. As he had been governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar knew personally most (perhaps even all) of these legions. Caesar also had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.

His ambition was clearly to conquer and to plunder some territories but it is likely that Gaul was not his initial target. It is very likely that he was planning a campaign against the kingdom of Dacia[1] located in the Balkans.

The countries of Gaul were quite civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by Republics such as the Aedui, Helvetii and others had enjoyed stable political alliances with Rome in the past.

The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes. In 109 BC, only fifty years before, Italy had been invaded, and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. When a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nation east of the Rhine to attack the Aedui, Rome turned a blind eye. They didn’t appear to be concerned about a conflict between vassal and allied states. However by the end of the campaign the truly foreign Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, Rome, now keenly invested in the defense of Gaul, was irrevocably drawn into war.

Course

A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Helvetii and the Sequani

Beginning of the war—campaign against the Helvetii

By 61 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix. The reasons for their migration are mentioned by Caesar in separate passages as either harassment by the Germanic tribes, or not being able to in turn raid for plunder themselves due to their situation in hilly and mountainous territory.

During this time the Romans in Gallia Narbonensis were also gaining and taking political advantages and fomenting trade disputes.[citation needed]

Via council and parley, the Helvetic chieftain Orgetorix made negotiations with the ambitious Sequani and the Roman dominated Aedui.

The Sequani were beginning to resent and regret the abundances of unruly Germanic warbands and their huge encampments of dependents. The Aedui were loath to obey the Roman spur any longer than they must and they were keen to revisit their former days at council.

The parley for the trek was successful and Orgetorix was granted passage, and with the trek ratified by council, an army was called up and provisioned for.

During this process, Orgetorix had also succeeded in making a personal alliance with the Sequanii chieftain Casticus and the Aedui chieftain Dumnorix through marital arrangements and host exchange of family members. For three whole years the Helvetii planned and prepared themselves, and emissaries were sent out to various Gallic tribes assuring safe passages and alliances.

Orgetorix's Gallic rivals alleged that these political successes and displays of diplomacy were intended to benefit Orgetorix alone and their claims were made more convincing by Roman intrigues and impositions. Again the accord was strained as the Aedui were brought to bay by their "protective" overlords.[citation needed]

In 58 BC Orgetorix's ambitions were declared a ruse for personal power and this rumor was celebrated among the enemies of the Helvetii, especially those of Roman clientele. This succeeded in causing confusion and feuds among the tribes, based mainly on the merits of Orgetorix versus his vices.

There was an effort to seize him at council, however he was protected by his retinue and bodyguards.

During the preceding seasons he had called up a sizeable force of men-at-arms and vassals said to have numbered 10,000 men, this in addition to his armed entourage.

Orgetorix was able to escape capture by his rivals and the councils labored at length to resolve the confusions and disputes; however, Orgetorix was murdered or slain during a dispute within his own encampment.

With many conflicts of interest settled, the Helvetii once again returned to their long planned migration to safer pastures among the Santones tribe on the Atlantic seaboard.

Caesar dated their departure to the 28th of March, and mentions that they burned all their towns and their villages so as to discourage thoughts among undecided client tribes or enemies to occupy their vacated realm.

The Helvetii retained and armed their client tribes: the Rauraci, the Tulingi, the Latovici, and the Boii from whom they had hired a contingent of horsemen.

There were two available routes for them: the first one was the difficult and dangerous Pas de l'Ecluse, located between the Jura mountains and the Rhône River. The second, easier one would lead them to the town of Geneva, where the Lake Geneva flows into the Rhone River and where a bridge allowed passage over the river. These lands belonged to the Allobroges, a tribe which had been subdued by Rome, and were under the control of the Roman republic.

Meanwhile, Caesar was in Rome, and only a single legion was in Transalpine Gaul, the endangered province. As he was informed of these developments, he immediately hurried to Geneva and ordered a levy of several auxiliary units and the destruction of the bridge. The Helvetii sent an embassy under the new leadership of Nammeius and Verucloetius, to negotiate a peaceful passage, promising to do no harm. Caesar stalled the negotiations while his troops fortified their positions behind the river with a sixteen foot high rampart and a parallel trench lined with ballistas; his legionaries were backed by mercenary archers and slingers and Caesar had also hired and/or conscripted a contingent of Gallic horseman from the Remi.

Map of the Gallic Wars

As the embassy returned, Caesar officially refused their request and warned them that any forceful attempt to cross the river would be opposed. Several attempts were quickly beaten off. The Helvetii turned back and entered negotiations with the Sequani to let them pass in a peaceful manner.

Leaving his single legion under the command of his second-in-command Titus Labienus, Caesar hurried to Cisalpine Gaul. Upon arrival, he took command of the three legions which were in Aquileia and enrolled two new legions, the Legio XI and the Legio XII. At the head of these five legions, he went the quickest way through the Alps, crossing territories of several hostile tribes and fighting several skirmishes en route.

Meanwhile, the Helvetii had already crossed the territories of the Sequani, and were busy pillaging the lands of the Aedui, Ambarri, and Allobroges. These tribes were unable to oppose them, and as Roman allies asked for Caesar's help. Caesar obliged them and surprised the Helvetii as they were crossing the river Arar (modern Saône River). Three quarters of the Helvetii had already crossed, but one quarter, the Tigurine (a Helvetian clan), was still on the east bank. Three legions, under Caesar's command, surprised and defeated the Tigurine in the Battle of the Arar. The remaining Tigurini fled to neighboring woods.

After the battle, the Romans built a bridge over the Saône to pursue the remaining Helvetii. The Helvetii sent an embassy led by Divico, but the negotiations failed. For a fortnight, the Romans maintained their pursuit until they ran into supply troubles. Caesar in the meantime sent 4,000 Roman and allied Aedui cavalry to track the Helvetii but they were severely beaten by only 500 Helvetii cavalry. Apparently Dumnorix was doing everything in his power to delay the supplies. Accordingly, the Romans stopped their pursuit and headed for the Aedui town of Bibracte. The tables were turned, and the Helvetii began to pursue the Romans, harassing their rear guard. Caesar chose a nearby hill to offer battle and the Roman legions stood to face their enemies.

In the ensuing Battle of Bibracte, the Celts and Romans fought for the better part of the day in a hotly contested battle with the Romans eventually gaining victory after hours of hard fighting. Caesar writes that "the contest long and vigorously carried on with doubtful success." The defeated Helvetii offered their surrender which Caesar accepted. However, 6,000 men of the Helvetian clan of the Verbigeni fled to avoid capture. Upon Caesar's orders, other Gallic tribes captured and returned these fugitives, who were executed. Those who had surrendered were ordered back to their homeland to rebuild it, and the necessary supplies were organized to feed them, as they were far too useful as a buffer between the Romans and other northern tribes, such as the Germans, to let them migrate elsewhere. In the captured Helvetian camp a census written in Greek was found and studied: of a grand total of 368,000 Helvetii, of which 92,000 were able-bodied men, only 110,000 survivors were left to return home.

Tribe Population Census
Helvetii 263,000
Tulingi 36,000
Latobrigi 14,000
Rauraci 23,000
Boii 32,000
Total 368,000
Combatants 92,000

Campaign against the Suebi

In 71 BC, Ariovistus, chieftain of the Suebi tribe and King of the Germans, resumed the tribe’s migration from eastern Germany to the Marne and Rhine region.[2] Despite the fact that this migration encroached on Sequani land, the Sequani sought Ariovistus’ allegiance against the Aedui and in 61 BC, the Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory in the Battle of Magetobriga.[3] [4] [5] Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate the Harudes people.[6] [7] This demand 'concerned' Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to take all of the Sequani land and attack the rest of Gaul.[8]

Following Caesar’s victory over the Helvetti, the majority of the Gallic tribes congratulated Caesar and sought to meet with him in a general assembly.[9] Diviciacus, the head of the Aeduan government and spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, expressed concern over Ariovistus’ conquests and the hostages he had taken.[10] [11] Diviciacus demanded that Caesar defeat Ariovistus and remove the threat of a Germanic invasion otherwise they would have to seek refuge in a new land.[12] Not only did Caesar have a responsibility to protect the longstanding allegiance of the Aedui, but this proposition presented an opportunity to expand Rome’s borders, strengthen the loyalty within Caesar’s army and establish him as the commander of Rome’s troops abroad.[13] [14]

The Senate had declared Ariovistus a “king and friend of the Roman people” in 59 BC so Caesar could not declare war on the Suebi tribe.[15] Caesar said that he could not ignore the pain the Aedui had suffered and delivered an ultimatum to Ariovistus demanding that no German cross the Rhine, the return of Aedui hostages and the protection of the Aedui and other friends of Rome.[16] Although Ariovistus assured Caesar that the Aedui hostages would be safe as long as they continued their yearly tribute, he took the position that he and the Romans are both conquerors and that Rome had no jurisdiction over his actions.[17] With the attack of the Harudes on the Aedui and the report that a hundred clans of Suebi were trying to cross the Rhine into Gaul, Caesar had the justification he needed to wage war against Ariovistus in 58 BC.[18]

Caesar, learning that Ariovistus intended to seize Vesontio, the largest town of the Sequani, commenced marching his troops toward Vesontio. Some of Caesar’s officers held their posts for political reasons only and had no war experience. Consequently they suffered from poor morale which threatened Caesar’s campaign. Caesar challenged the officers and their legions saying that the only legion he could trust was the 10th. With their pride on the line, the other legions followed the 10th’s lead determined not to be out done. Consequently, Caesar arrived in Vesontio before Ariovistus.[19] [20]

Ariovistus sent emissaries to Caesar requesting a meeting. They met under a truce at a knoll in the plain. The truce was violated when Caesar learned that German horsemen were edging towards the knoll and throwing stones at his mounted escort.[21] Two days later, Ariovistus requested another meeting. Hesitant to send senior officials, Caesar dispatched Valerius Procillus, his trusted friend and Caius Mettius, a merchant who had successfully traded with Ariovistus. Insulted, Ariovistus threw the envoys in chains.[22] [23] Ariovistus marched for two days and made camp two miles behind Caesar thus cutting off Caesar’s communication and supply lines with the allied tribes. Unable to entice Ariovistus into battle, Caesar ordered a second smaller camp to be built near Ariovistus’ position.[24] After the camp was completed Caesar again challenged Ariovistus and was rewarded when Ariovistus attacked the smaller camp and was repulsed.

The next morning Caesar assembled his allied troops in front of the second camp and advanced his legions in triplex acies (three lines of troops) towards Ariovistus. Each of Caesar’s five legates and his quaestor were given command of a legion. Caesar lined up on the right flank.[25] Ariovistus countered by lining up his seven tribal formations. Caesar was victorious in the battle that ensued due in large part to the charge made by Publius Crassus. As the Germans began to drive back the Roman left flank, Crassus led his cavalry in a charge to restore balance and ordered up the cohorts of the third line. As a result, the whole German line broke and began to flee.[26] [27] Most of Ariovistus’ hundred and twenty thousand men were killed. He and what remained of his troops escaped and crossed the Rhine never to engage Rome in battle again. The Suebi camped near the Rhine returned home. Caesar was victorious.[28] [29]

Campaign against the Belgae

In 57 BC Caesar once again intervened in an intra-Gallic conflict, marching against the Belgae, who inhabited the area roughly bounded by modern-day Belgium and had recently attacked a tribe allied with Rome. His army suffered a surprise attack in the battle of the Sabis while it was making camp near the river Sambre and came close to being defeated.

The swiftness of Boduognatus' sudden massed attack, the speed of his allied native footmen ( Atrebates and Virumandui) together with the ferocity and skill at arms of his heavily armed Nerviians had completely routed Caesar's skirmishers and cavalry, overwhelmed his front and very nearly succeeded in taking the Roman camp and capturing Caesar himself. Caesar admits to losing all of his standards and most his centurions dead or felled by wounds. He himself was forced to take up a shield and personally rally his forces which were then threatened with envelopment and massacre. The strong stand by the adjoining X legion and the prompt arrival of the reinforcements enabled Caesar to regroup, redeploy and eventually envelop the Nervii once the Atrebates and Viromandui were stopped, worn down and put to flight.

Caesar remarked that the warlike Nervii refused to yield their ground even after the Atrebates and Virumandui had been put into disarray. When finally surrounded by Roman reinforcements the Nerviians continued fighting as a pitiless hail of missiles rained down on them from the many archers and peltasts Caesar had brought from overseas. The peltasts, slingers and archers were brought for the specific purpose of confounding the Gallic proclivity for shield wall tactics, mass attack and/or individual close combat.

The Nervii were especially renowned for skills at warfare. They ruled and subsisted by warfare and by taxing their dependent and client tribes while adhering to a heroic hoplitic tradition. These Gallic conventions were something Caesar exploited as often as he could.

Together with Caesar's prudent and unabashed use of fixed projectile weapons like the 'scorpian' and light ballista, the archers and peltasts took a heavy toll on the densely packed Nervii who themselves shunned all projectile weapons but the lance. It is recorded in Caesar's war commentaries that as the battle raged, the Nervii caught Roman javelins in flight and hurled them back at legionnaires and that although all were eventually slain, not one of the Nervii was seen to flee. As the grim fighting wore on, the Nervii refused to yield and mounds of the fallen formed ramparts and Boduognatus' fighters fought from atop these hills of dead, clashing with the pressing Roman ranks again and again.

The skill with which the veteran Roman legions executed their well practiced 'pilum' barrage and gladius and scutum counter-attacks together with the prudent use of missile weapons was instrumental in defeating the skillful and daring Nervii and associated Belgae.

The Belgae suffered heavy losses and eventually surrendered when faced with the destruction of their towns. The Nervii were severely mauled and forced to flee; thereby all former client tribes surrendered to Caesar or likewise fled. Their absence gave Caesar control of most of what is now Belgium.

Punitive expeditions

A map of Gaul showing all the tribes and cities mentioned in the Gallic Wars.

The following year, 56 BC, Caesar turned his attention to the tribes of the Atlantic seaboard, notably the Veneti tribe in Armorica (modern Brittany), who had assembled a confederacy of anti-Roman tribes. The Veneti were a seafaring people and had built a sailing fleet in the Gulf of Morbihan, requiring the Romans to build galleys and undertake an unconventional land and sea campaign. Eventually Caesar was able to subdue these tribes after a protracted land and sea campaign.

Caesar took his forces across the Rhine in 55 BC in a punitive expedition against the Germans, though the Suebi, against whom the expedition was mounted, were never engaged in battle. That same year, he then crossed the English Channel with two legions on his ships to mount a similar expedition against the Britons. The British adventure nearly ended in disaster when bad weather wrecked much of his fleet and the unfamiliar sight of massed chariots caused confusion among his forces. Caesar did manage to secure a promise of hostages, though only two of them were actually sent. He withdrew but returned in 54 BC with a much larger force that successfully defeated the powerful Catuvellauni and forced them to pay tribute to Rome. The expeditions had little lasting effect, but were great propaganda victories for Caesar, keeping him in the public eye at home.

The campaigns of 55 BC and early 54 BC have caused controversy for many centuries. They were controversial even at the time among Caesar's contemporaries, and especially among his political opponents, who decried them as a costly exercise in personal aggrandizement. In modern times, commentators have been sharply divided between critics of Caesar's nakedly imperialist agenda and defenders of the benefits that the expansion of Roman power subsequently wrought in Gaul.

Consolidation and Gallic offensives

Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BC, following the campaigns of Caesar.

Discontent among the subjugated Gauls prompted a major uprising in the winter of 54–53 BC, when the Eburones of north-eastern Gaul rose in arms under their leader Ambiorix. Fifteen Roman cohorts were wiped out at Atuatuca Tungrorum (modern Tongeren in Belgium) and a garrison commanded by Quintus Tullius Cicero narrowly survived after being relieved by Caesar in the nick of time. The rest of 53 BC was occupied with a punitive campaign against the Eburones and their allies, who were said to have been all but exterminated by the Romans.

The uprising was, however, merely the prelude to a much bigger campaign led by Vercingetorix, chief of the Arverni tribe of central Gaul, who successfully united many Gallic tribes and states under his leadership. Recognizing that the Romans had an upper hand on the battlefield due to their panoply and training, he declined to give battle against them and instead fought a "scorched earth" campaign to deprive them of supplies. Caesar hurriedly returned from Italy to take charge of the campaign, pursuing the Gauls and capturing the town of Avaricum (modern city of Bourges) but suffering a defeat at Gergovia. Vercingetorix, instead of staying mobile and in the open, chose to hold out at Alesia (see Battle of Alesia). Caesar successfully besieged him and beat off a huge Gallic relief force who ran out of food and had to disperse. This effectively marked the end of the Gallic Wars, although mopping-up actions took place throughout 51 BC. A number of lesser rebellions took place subsequently, but Roman control of Gaul wasn't seriously challenged again until the 2nd century AD.

The Gallic Wars in literature and culture

The primary historical source for the Gallic Wars is Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico in Latin, which is one of the best surviving examples of unadorned Latin prose. It has consequently been a subject of intense study for Latinists, and is one of the classic prose sources traditionally used as a standard teaching texts in modern Latin education.

The Gallic Wars have become a popular setting in modern historical fiction, especially that of France and Italy. Claude Cueni wrote a semi-historical novel "The Caesar's Druid" about a fictional Celtic druid, servant of Caesar and recorder of Caesar's campaigns. Similarly, Norman Spinrad's The Druid King follows the campaigns from Vercingetorix's perspective.[30] In addition, the comic Astérix is set shortly after the Gallic Wars, where the titular character's village is the last holdout in Gaul against Caesar's legions.

The historical novel Caesar by Colleen McCullough gave a thorough, popular account of the Gallic Wars.

Notes

  1. ^ That the Balkans were Caesar's original target is argued by several scholars, including: Penguin Classics The Conquest of Gaul: "Introduction", chapter 3 "The course of the war"[clarification needed], Adrian Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, chapter 8 "Caesar in Gaul". It is suggested by the provinces Caesar initially wanted for himself (Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum) and supported by the initial placement of three of his four legions in Aquileia.
  2. ^ Michael Grant, Julius Caesar (London, England: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969), 87
  3. ^ Grant, Julius Caesar, 87
  4. ^ Gérard Walter, Caesar: A Biography, trans. Emma Craufurd( New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1952), 159
  5. ^ Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar (London, England: Orion Books Ltd, 2007), 246
  6. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 159
  7. ^ J. F. C Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant (London, England: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1965), 106
  8. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 159
  9. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 158
  10. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 158 and 161
  11. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 271
  12. ^ Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant, 106
  13. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 271
  14. ^ Maria Wyke, Caesar: A Life in Western Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 42
  15. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 247
  16. ^ Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant, 107
  17. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 272
  18. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 163-165.; Goldsworthy, Caesar, 272
  19. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 274-275
  20. ^ Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, Tyrant, 108
  21. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 173-176
  22. ^ Walter, Caesar: A Biography, 177
  23. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 277
  24. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 277-278
  25. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 279-280
  26. ^ Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant, 109
  27. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 280-281
  28. ^ Grant, Julius Caesar, 89
  29. ^ Goldsworthy, Caesar, 281
  30. ^ Snider, John C. (2003). "Book Review: The Druid King by Norman Spinrad". SciFiDimensions. http://www.scifidimensions.com/Aug03/druidking.htm. Retrieved 10 April 2011. 

References

  • The conquest of Gaul, ISBN 0-14-044433-5, by Gaius Julius Caesar, translated by S. A. Handford and revised by Jane F. Gardner
  • "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries at Project Gutenberg.
  • Fuller, J. F. C. Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant. London, England: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1965.
  • Gilliver, Kate. Caesar's Gallic Wars 58–50 BC. London: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 0-415-96858-5
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. Caesar. London, England: Orion Books Ltd, 2007.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. In the name of Rome. ISBN 0-75381-789-6
  • Grant, Michael. Julius Caesar. London, England: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969.
  • Holland, Tom. Rubicon. ISBN 0-385-50313-X
  • Matyszak, Philip. The enemies of Rome. ISBN 0-500-25124-X
  • Walter, Gérard. Caesar: A Biography. Translated by Emma Craufurd. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1952.
  • Wyke, Maria .Caesar: A Life in Western Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.



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