- No. 488 Squadron RNZAF
No. 488 (NZ) Squadron RAF Active 1 September 1941 – 26 April 1945 Country United Kingdom Allegiance New Zealand Branch Royal Air Force Role Fighter squadron Motto Māori: Ka ngarue ratau
(Translation: "We shake them")
Insignia Squadron Badge In front of a taiaha and tewhatewha in saltire, a morepork Squadron Codes NF (Oct 1941 – Jan 1942)
ME (Jun 1942 – Apr 1945)
Aircraft flown Fighter Brewster Buffalo
de Havilland Mosquito
488 Squadron was the name given to two distinct Royal New Zealand Air Force squadrons during the Second World War. Both were formed under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme and served under the operational command of the Royal Air Force.
Day Fighter Unit
488 (NZ) Squadron was formed on 1 September 1941 at Rongotai, New Zealand under squadron leader W.G.(Wilf) Clouston, a veteran of the Battle of France and Battle of Britain with 9 victories to his credit. The squadron was one of several Commonwealth squadrons equipped with Brewster Buffaloes, and arrived at Kallang Airfield Singapore in November 1941, where it took over the Brewsters of No. 67 Squadron RAF. Kallang was shared with a Brewster detachment of the 2-VLG-V of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Air Force, and No. 243 Squadron RAF, in which most of the aircrew were Kiwis.
When the Japanese attacked, the squadron was still in training and sorting out difficulties with its machines, including dysfunctional oxygen which prevented high altitude flying, weight difficulties which resulted in armour and machine guns being deleted and high maintenance requirements resulting from Brewster's use of worn out ex-airline engines in manufacturing the aircraft (which had been supplied to No. 67 Squadron in March). There were also problems getting spares and with the peacetime red tape and restricted flying hours laid down by the British High Command in Singapore.
Frequent air battles over Singapore occurred from 12 January 1942, the Japanese pilots being better trained and outnumbering the defenders, but (despite widespread claims of Mitsubishi Zeros being present), with the exception of a few Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa "Oscars" most Japanese fighters and many bombers were in no better condition than those of the Royal Air Force's. As the Buffalo squadrons, (many manned by New Zealanders and Australians) lost men and machines, several were amalgamated into 488 Squadron. Clouston had presented a plan "Get Mobile" to provide daylight air cover off the coast to Admiral Phillip's Force Z, but this was rejected by the Navy.
The squadron received 9 Hawker Hurricanes at the end of January to partially replace the Buffaloes, but by 31 January, losses and the ground situation forced a withdrawal to Palembang, Sumatra and a few days later to Tjililitan airfield, near Batavia, Java, where Dutch East Indies Buffalo squadrons were facing a similarly unequal fight. Clouston handed over command to Squadron Leader MacKenzie and stayed with remaining staff to become a prisoner when Singapore fell.
On 23 February the squadron evacuated Tjililitan, to Fremantle in Australia where it disbanded on 2 March, the New Zealand pilots returning home to form the nucleus of No. 14 Squadron RNZAF. Figures for the squadrons achievements in the Far East are difficult to determine, but one notable pilot, Pilot Officer Noel Sharp, who flew a Brewster Buffalo in Singapore, is credited with three victories.
Night Fighter Unit
When it switched to a defensive role in August 1943 it re-equipped with de Havilland Mosquitoes. In November 1944 the squadron moved to France, and was based in Belgium and Holland in the closing stages of the war. It disbanded on 26 April 1945.
Possibly the top scoring 488 squadron Mosquito of the war was NF.Mk.XII MM466, ME-R, which shot down seven enemy aircraft between July 1944 and November 1944, after which the aircraft was passed on to 409 Sqn., with which it shot down another four. In its night fighter incarnation, 488 Squadron flew 2899 sorties, shot down 67 aircraft and, in its intruder role, destroyed 40 trains. Pilots were awarded 5 DFCs, a DSO and an AFC.
488 Squadron was unique in that it was the only "Article XV" New Zealand unit to have two distinct and separate roles, in different theatres, during World War Two.
Aircraft Operated by no. 488 Squadron RNZAF, data from From To Aircraft Version October 1941 January 1942 Brewster Buffalo Mk.I January 1942 February 1942 Hawker Hurricane Mk.IIb June 1942 March 1943 Bristol Beaufighter Mk.IIf March 1943 September 1943 Bristol Beaufighter Mk.VIf August 1943 May 1944 de Havilland Mosquito Mk.XII October 1943 September 1944 de Havilland Mosquito Mk.XIII September 1944 April 1945 de Havilland Mosquito Mk.XXX
Bases and airfields used by no. 488 Squadron RNZAF, data from From To Base Remark 1 September 1941 2 September 1941 Rongotai, New Zealand Formed here 2 September 1941 10 October 1941 en route to Singapore 10 October 1941 2 February 1942 RAF Kallang, Singapore Det. at Kluang, Malaysia 2 February 1942 9 February 1942 Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 9 February 1942 23 February 1942 Tjililitan, Java, Dutch East Indies 23 February 1942 1 March 1942 en route to Australia 1 March 1942 2 March 1942 Fremantle, Australia Disbanded here 25 June 1942 1 September 1942 RAF Church Fenton, Yorkshire Reformed here 1 September 1942 3 August 1943 RAF Ayr, Ayrshire, Scotland Dets at RAF Drem, East Lothian, Scotland and RAF Coltishall, Norfolk 3 August 1943 3 September 1943 RAF Drem, East Lothian, Scotland 3 September 1943 3 May 1944 RAF Bradwell Bay, Essex 3 May 1944 11 May 1944 RAF Colerne, Wiltshire 11 May 1944 28 July 1944 RAF Zeals, Wiltshire 28 July 1944 9 October 1944 RAF Colerne, Wiltshire 9 October 1944 15 November 1944 RAF Hunsdon, Hertfordshire 15 November 1944 5 April 1945 B.48/Amiens-Glisy, France 5 April 1945 26 April 1945 B.77/Gilze-Rijen, Netherlands Disbanded here
Officers commanding no. 488 Squadron RNZAF, data from From To Name September 1941 January 1942 S/Ldr. W.G. Clouston January 1942 March 1942 S/Ldr. J.N. McKenzie June 1942 February 1943 W/Cdr. R.M. Trousdale, DFC February 1943 July 1943 W/Cdr. J. Nesbitt-Dufort, DSO July 1943 September 1943 W/Cdr. A.R. Burton-Giles September 1943 January 1944 W/Cdr. P.H. Hamley January 1944 October 1944 W/Cdr. R.C. Haine, DFC October 1944 April 1945 W/Cdr. R.G. Watts
A note on New Zealand Squadrons in the RAF
It is now largely accepted that the seven World War II squadrons of the Royal Air Force manned by New Zealanders are recorded by a formulation such as 486 (NZ) Squadron RAF. However some authors (e.g. Bill Gunston) have used a formulation like 486 squadron RNZAF. Some claim the latter is misleading. RNZAF units were a separate entity, formed and controlled entirely by the RNZAF; all RNZAF units operated in the Pacific Theatre. An anomaly exists in that the official badges of the six New Zealand units units reads (e.g.:) "486 Squadron Royal New Zealand Air Force". However, as Gerard S Morris explains:
Interestingly, this carried over into the naming of the six New Zealand squadrons...It was impractical, for operational and administrative reasons to establish and maintain RNZAF squadrons in Britain. So, although the squadron badges carried the name Royal New Zealand Air Force, the squadrons were in fact receiving their pay cheques from the British government and official records such as the Operations Record Book acknowledged this. For example, 485 Squadron was referred to informally as 485 (New Zealand) or 485 (NZ) and never as 485 Squadron, RNZAF.(italics added)
On December 19, 1939 Article XV was promulgated, creating the Empire Air Training Scheme. Under this article provision was made for the formation of Commonwealth squadrons within the RAF. On 17 April 1941 a further agreement was negotiated allowing for six New Zealand Squadrons to be formed: 485 Sqn., 486 Sqn., 487 Sqn., 488 Sqn., 489 Sqn. and 490 Sqn. These units were manned and (mostly) commanded by New Zealanders trained under the EATS. provisions, although this didn't preclude other nationalities from being members. Administratively the "Article XV squadrons" were an integral part of the RAF, with all command appointments being made by the RAF. Other Dominion or Commonwealth countries involved were Australia and Canada, along with Rhodesia and South Africa.
Many New Zealanders served with mainstream RAF squadrons and several were to become Wing Commanders and Group Captains. Two outstanding New Zealanders to play a vital role in the war, and two of the best commanders in aviation history were Sir Keith Park and Sir Arthur Coningham.
- ^ a b Rawlings 1978, p. 452.
- ^ a b c Halley 1988, p. 531.
- ^ Flintham and Thomas 2003, p. 91.
- ^ Bowyer and Rawlings 1979, p. 76.
- ^ Flintham and Thomas 2003, p. 89.
- ^ Bowyer and Rawlings 1979, pp. 71–72.
- ^ Clayton 2008, p. 52.
- ^ A kill ratio of 2:1 was claimed by the Buffalo squadrons
- ^ Clayton 2008, p. 83.
- ^ Sharp and Bowyer 1995, p. 449.
- ^ a b Rawlings 1978, pp. 452–453.
- ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 95.
- ^ a b Halley 1988, p. 532.
- ^ Rawlings 1978, p. 453.
- ^ New Zealand Electronic Text Centre (Day Fighter period)
- ^ New Zealand Electronic Text Centre (Night Fighter period)
- ^ History of squadrons 485 till 490 on rafweb
- ^ Morris 2000, p. 20.
- Bowyer, Chaz. Mosquito Squadrons of the Royal AIr Force. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Ltd., 1984. ISBN 0-7110-1425-6.
- Bowyer, Michael J.F. and John D.R. Rawlings. Squadron Codes, 1937-56. Bar Hill, Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-85059-364-6.
- Clayton, Graham. Last stand in Singapore: the story of 488 Squadron RNZAF. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House, 2008. ISBN 978-186979-033-2. (about his father Bert Clayton).
- Cull, Brian with Paul Sortehaug and Mark Haselden. Buffaloes over Singapore: RAF, RAAF, RNZAF and Dutch Brewster Fighters in Action Over Malaya and the East Indies 1941-1942. London, UK: Grub Street, 2003. ISBN 1-90401-032-6.
- Cull, Brian with Paul Sortehaug. Hurricanes over Singapore; RAF, RNZAF and NEI fighters in action over the Island and the Netherlands East Indies 1942. London, UK: Grub Street 2004. ISBN 1-90401-080-6.
- Flintham, Vic and Andrew Thomas. Combat Codes: A Full Explanation and Listing of British, Commonwealth and Allied Air Force Unit Codes since 1938. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-84037-281-8.
- Frances, Neil. Ketchil: A New Zealand pilot’s war in Asia and the Pacific. Wairarapa Archive, 2005. ISBN 0-95826-170-9. (about Vic Bargh).
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918-1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Hunt, Leslie. Defence until Dawn: the Story of 488 N.Z. Squadron, Church Fenton 25 June 1942 - Gilze Rijen Holland 26 April 1945. Southend-on-Sea, UK: Washbourne & Sons, 1949. 104 p & maps, plates.
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE,BA,RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
- Morris, Gerard S. Spitfire, the New Zealand Story. Auckland, New Zealand: Reed Books, 2000. ISBN 0-7900-0696-0.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (new edition 1976, reprinted 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
- Sharp, Martin and Michael J.F. Bowyer. Mosquito. London: Faber & Faber, 1967.(2nd edition: Bristol, UK: Crécy Books Ltd., 1995. ISBN 0-947554-41-6).
- Shores, Christopher with Brian Cull and Yasuho Izawa. Bloody Shambles, Vol 1: The Drift to War to the Fall of Singapore. London, UK: Grub Street 1992. ISBN 0-948817-50-X.
- Shores, Christopher with Brian Cull and Yasuho Izawa. Bloody Shambles, Vol 2: The Defence of Sumatra to the Fall of Burma. London, UK: Grub Street 1993. ISBN 0-948817-67-4.
- Official New Zealand History (available online)
- Thompson, Wing Commander H.L. New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force (Vol I): European Theatre September 1939-December 1942. Wellington, New Zealand: War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1953. ISBN N/A
- Thompson, Wing Commander H.L. New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force (Vol II): European Theatre January 1943-December 1945. Wellington, New Zealand: War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1956. ISBN N/A
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