Aegean Macedonians


Aegean Macedonians

ethnic group
group= Aegean Macedonians Егејски Македонци "Egejski Makedonci"


poptime= 150,000 - 200,000
region2 = flagcountry|Macedonia
pop2 = 52,000 - 72,000 (est.)
ref2 = lower| cite book
title= Macedonia Its Disputed History
last= Simpson
first= Neil
authorlink=
coauthors=
year= 1994
publisher= Aristoc Press
location= Victoria
isbn= 0646204629
pages= 101,102 & 91
]

region3 = flagcountry|Australia
pop3 = 2,892(2006
census)smallsup|a - 28,000 (est.)
ref3 = lower| [ [http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/5618AB4511347DC2CA257306000D44C2/$File/2914055002_2006%20(Reissue).xls#Greece!A1 2001 census] and Peter,Hill. (1989) The Macedonians in Australia, Hesperian Press, Carlisle] [The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, 1988, James Jupp(Editor), Angus and Roberston, Sydney.]
region4 =flagcountry|Albania
pop4 = 4,231 (1989 census)smallsup|b
ref4 =lower| [ [http://www.fes.hr/E-books/pdf/Local%20Self%20Government/09.pdf albanija.cdr ] ]
region5 =flagcountry|Canada
pop5 = 26,000 (est.)
ref5 = lower|Peter,Hill. (1989) The Macedonians in Australia, Hesperian Press, Carlisle]
region6 =flagcountry|United States
pop6 = 30,000 (est.)
ref6 = lower|
region1 =flagcountry|Greece
pop1 = 10,000 - 30,000(est.)
ref1 = lower| [ [http://www.usefoundation.org/foundation/research/olp/viewResearch.asp?CID=56&TID=6 U.S.ENGLISH Foundation Official Language Research - Greece: Language in everyday life ] ] [Other Sources: [http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/Profile.aspx?LangID=42&menu=004 UCLA] , [http://www.britannica.com/new-multimedia/pdf/wordat077.pdf Britanicca] , [Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers Volume 27, 1 March 1999, page 44(14) Dr Peter Hill] , [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=GR Ethnologue] , [http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/euromosaic/el3_fr.html Euromosaic] , [http://www.eurominority.org/version/eng/minority-detail.asp?id_minorites=gr-mace Eurominority] , [http://www.statistics.gr/eng_tables/S201_SPO_2_TB_AN_06_7_Y_EN.pdf] , [http://www.minorityrights.org/?lid=326 Minority Rights] , [http://dev.eurac.edu:8085/mugs2/do/blob.html?type=html&serial=1044526702223 Greek Helsinki Monitor] , [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572872_3/Greece.html#s3 Encarta] , [http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/eeo/Aegaeis-Makedonisch.pdf Aegaeis-Makedonisch] ]
region7 = EUR
pop7 = 20,000 (est.)
ref7 = lower| [www.bak-services.com/dossiers/marinov.pdf]
popplace=
rels=Predominantly Macedonian and Greek Orthodox
langs=Macedonian, Aegean Macedonian Dialects and Greek
footnotes = smallsup|a By Birthplace Only
smallsup|b Sometimes considered to be Aegean Macedonians

"Aegean Macedonians" ( _mk. Егејски Македонци, "Egejski Makedonci") or simply "Aegeans" ( _mk. Егејци, "Egejci"), are terms used to refer to members of the Slavophone community of the Greek region of Macedonia who identify as ethnic Macedonians. The term "Aegeans" has also been used to signify those who identify as ethnic Bulgarians, [ [http://balkani.hit.bg/podanstvo.htm Иванов, Антон Ж.. Противоречивата ни национална политика и съдбата на сънародниците ни, добили българско поданство през 1942 г., Македония, бр. 28/14.07.1999] , [http://www.filial.macedonia-science.org/news.php?extend.21 Тюлеков, Димитър. Книга с човешки послания и значим изследователски инструментариум] .] or the Slav-speaking population without a clear sense of ethnic consciousness. [ [http://www.promacedonia.org/v_mak/1999/mak_2_1-9.html Ташев, Спас. В сила ли е от 1942 г. българско гражданство за жителите на Р Македония?, в-к "Македония", брой 2, 13 януари 1999 г.] ] The different uses of the term are linked to the diverse standpoints on the ethnic belonging and history of the Slavophone population in the wider region of Macedonia.

History

Slavic tribes began settling in the region of Macedonia in the 6th and 7th centuries and in the following centuries. By the 10th century, Slavs were the majority population in central Balkans. During Ottoman rule, most of the Orthodox-Slavic population of Macedonia had not formed a national identity separate from their neighbors and were instead identified through their religious affiliation.Fact|date=August 2008 In the Middle Ages and later, until XX century the Slavspeaking population of Greek Macedonia (regarded in Republic of Macedonia as ethnic Macedonians) was indentified mostly as Bulgarian or Greek. [ [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=KF0GAAAAQAAJ&dq=Cousin%C3%A9ry+Voyage+dans+la+Mac%C3%A9doine&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=U_MQZRU5bp&sig=GfL8YVz6jzeJfA9rALydncpd2UU&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPA15,M1 Cousinéry, Esprit Marie. Voyage dans la Macédoine: contenant des recherches sur l'histoire, la géographie, les antiquités de ce pay, Paris, 1831, Vol. II, p. 15-17] , one of the passages in English - [http://history-of-macedonia.com/wordpress/2008/04/13/french-consul-in-1831-macedonia-consists-of-greeks-and-bulgarians/] , [http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12606837/index.pdf Engin Deniz Tanir, The Mid-Nineteenth century Ottoman Bulgaria from the viewpoints of the French Travelers, A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University, 2005, p. 99, 142] , [http://promacedonia.org/en/ban/nr1.html#4 Kaloudova, Yordanka. Documents on the situation of the population in the southwestern Bulgarian lands under Turkish rule, Военно-исторически сборник, 4, 1970, p. 72] ] [Pulcherius, Receuil des historiens des Croisades. Historiens orientaux. III, p. 331 – a passage in English - [http://promacedonia.org/en/ban/ma1.html#13] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=L7mhzdOwLHcC&pg=PA259&dq=Kulakia&sig=ACfU3U38aAVVLfDuy6oBEYlIl7osyob8cQ W.M.Leake. Travels in Northern Greece. London, 1835, р. 259.] ] [ [http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/en/carnegie/chapter4_3.html Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, published by the Endowment Washington, D.C. 1914, p. 195-204] ] During the period of Bulgarian National Revival many Bulgarians from these regions supported the struggle for creation of Bulgarian cultural educational and religious institutions, including Bulgarian Exarchate. [Journal Bulgarski knizhitsi, Constantinople, No. 10 May, 1858, p. 19, in English - [http://promacedonia.org/en/ban/nr1.html#23] , [http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/en/ban/nr2.html#53 From a letter of Georgi Gogov, Voden, to G.S. Rakovski, Belgrade, regarding the abuses perpetrated by the Greek bishop Nikodim and his persecution of Bulgarian patriots] , [http://promacedonia.org/en/ban/nr2.html#87 Newspaper Makedonia, Constantinople, No. 26, May 27th, 1867] , Vacalopulos, Konstandinos A. Modern history of Macedonia, Thessaloniki 1988, p. 52, 57, 64]

The Ottoman Empire identified population groups based on religious orientation. [The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. D P Hupchik ] (see Millet) The people in Macedonia, at that time a roughly defined region, that were under the jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarchate (Greek Orthodox Church) were thus considered "Greek". Those under the Bulgarian Exarchate (Bulgarian Orthodox Church) were thus considered "Bulgarian". The foundation of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870) aimed specifically at differentiating the Bulgarian from the Greek population on an ethnic and linguistic basis, hence providing the conditions for the open assertion of Bulgarian national identity. [Journal of Modern Greek Studies 14.2 (1996) 253-301 Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question by Victor Roudometof.] The Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) was founded in 1893 in Ottoman Thessaloniki by several Bulgarian Exarchate teachers and professionals who sought to create a militant movement dedicated to the autonomy of Macedonia and Thrace within the Ottoman Empire. Many Bulgarian exarchists participated in the Ilinden Uprising in hope of liberation from the Porte. After the Balkan Wars in 1913, Greece took control of southern Macedonia and began an official policy of forced assimilation (Hellenization) which included the settlement of Greeks from other provinces into southern Macedonia, as well as the linguistic and cultural Hellenization of Slav speakers. [The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Dennis Hupchik] which continued even after the First World War. [http://www.hrw.org/reports/pdfs/g/greece/greece945.pdf] After the Balkan Wars and after the First World War many Bulgarians from Aegean Macedonia moved to Bulgaria. There was agreement in 1919 between Bulgaria and Greece which provided opportunities to expatriate the Bulgarians from Greece. [Даскалов, Георги. Българите в Егейска Македония. Rсторико-демографско изследване /1900-1990/, София, Македонски научен институт, 1996, с. 165 (Daskalov, Georgi. The Bulgarians in Aegean Macedonia. Historical-Demographic research /1900-1990/, Sofia, published by Macedonian Scientific Institute, 1996, p. 165) - The Bulgarian-Greek agreement from 1919 officially had for an object to stimulate the voluntary expatriation of the Bulgarian population from Aegean Macedonia and the deporting of the less numerous Greek population from Bulgaria. If in the first years insignificant number of persons from both of minorities embraced the opportunity to move, stipulated in convention, the situation changed radically after 1922. After the Greek military venture against Turkey and the disaster of the Greek army in Asia Minor in 1922 ant after arriving in the Greece of the significant number of refugees Athens adopted policy sending away the Bulgarian population from Aegean Macedonia and Western Thrace.]

On August 10, 1920, upon signing the Treaty of Sèvres, the Greek government reiterated that "measures were being taken towards the opening of schools with instruction in the Slavic language in the following school year of 1925/26".Fact|date=August 2008 Thus, the primer intended for the children of the "Slavic-speaking minority" to learn their native language in school. A bilingual book entitled "Abecedar" was offered as an argument in support of this statement. However, no such schoolbooks ever reached any classrooms. After World War I, Slavic Macedonian (Greek: Σλαβομακεδόνας) nationalism began to arise. [ [http://books.google.bg/books?id=j_NbmSoRsRcC&dq=who+are+the+macedonians&pg=PP1&ots=0Knkik_lzT&sig=BjXQx9sHrG4S-CqpgRV4QRhY_Cg&hl=bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA87,M1 Who Are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton Indiana UP, 2000 ISBN 0253213592. p. 85, The Interwar period - Greece. ] ] In 1934 the Comintern issued a declaration supporting development of Macedonian nationalism ["Резолюция о македонской нации (принятой Балканском секретариате Коминтерна" - Февраль 1934 г, Москва] a decision which was supported by the Greek Communist Party. The Situation for Slavic Macedonians became unbearable when the Metaxas regime took power in 1936. Place names and surnames were forcibly Hellenized and the native Macedonian dialects were banned even in personal use. It was during this time that many Slavic speaking Macedonians fled their homes and immigrated to the US, Canada and Australia.

During the Second World War, many ethnic Macedonians fought within the Greek armyFact|date=August 2008 until the country was overrun in 1941. Many ethnic Macedonians joined the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) and participated in partisan activities. The KKE expressed its intent to "fight for the national self-determination of the repressed Macedonians" [KKE, Πέντε Χρόνια Αγώνες 1931-1936, Athens, 2nd ed., 1946.] . In 1943, the Slavic-Macedonian National Liberation Front (SNOF) was set up by ethnic Macedonian members of the KKE. The main aim of the SNOF was to obtain the entire support of the local population and to mobilize it, through SNOF, for the aims of the National Liberation Front (EAM) [ "Славјано Македонски Глас", 15 Јануари 1944 с.1 ] . Another major aim was to fight against the Bulgarian organisation Ohrana and Bulgarian autorities. ["АМ, Збирка: Егејска Македонија во НОБ 1941-1945 - (Повик на СНОФ до Македонците од Костурско 16 Мај 1944)" ] . During this time, the ethnic Macedonians in Greece were permitted to publish newspapers in the Macedonian language and run schools ["Народно Ослободителниот Фронт и други организации на Македонците од Егејскиот дел на Македонија. (Ристо Кирјазовски)", Скопје, 1985.] . Following the German withdrawal from Macedonia much of the region was dragged into the ensuing Greek Civil War.

National Liberation Front

The National Liberation Front (NOF) was organized by the political and military groups of the ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece, active from 1945-1949. At first, the NOF organized meetings, street and factory protests and published illegal underground newspapers. Soon after it founding, members began forming armed partisan detachments. In 1945, 12 such groups were formed in Kastoria, 7 in Florina, and 11 in Edessa and the Gianitsa region. ["Les Archives de la Macedonine, Fond: Aegean Macedonia in NLW" - (Field report of Mihail Keramidzhiev to the Main Command of NOF), 8 July 1945 ] Many Aromanians also joined the ethnic Macedonians in NOF, especially in the Kastoria region. The NOF merged with the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) which was the main armed unit supporting the Communist Party. Owing to the KKE's equal treatment of ethnic Macedonians and Greeks, many ethnic Macedonians enlisted as volunteers in the DSE (60% of the DSE was composed of ethnic Macedonians). ["Η Τραγική αναμέτρηση, 1945-1949 – Ο μύθος και η αλήθεια. Ζαούσης Αλέξανδρος" (ISBN 9607213432).] It was during this time that books written in the Macedonian language were published and ethnic Macedonians cultural organizations theatres were opened. According to information announced by Paskal Mitrovski on the I plenum of NOF on August 1948, about 85% of the Slavic-speaking population in Greek Macedonia had an ethnic Macedonian self-identity. It has been estimated that out of DSE's 20,000 fighters, 14,000 were Slavic Macedonians from Greek Macedonia. [Ζαούσης Αλέξανδρος. "Η Τραγική αναμέτρηση, 1945-1949 – Ο μύθος και η αλήθεια" (ISBN 9607213432).] Given their important role in the battle [ [http://macedonian.atspace.com/doc/nz_govor.htm Speech presented by Nikos Zachariadis at the Second Congress of the NOF (National Liberation Front of the ethnic Macedonians from Greek Macedonia)] , published in "Σαράντα Χρόνια του ΚΚΕ 1918-1958", Athens, 1958, p. 575.] , the KKE changed its policy towards them. At the fifth Plenum of KKE on January 31, 1949, a resolution was passed declaring that after KKE's victory, the Slavic Macedonians would find their national restoration as they wish [ [http://macedonian.atspace.com/doc/5_con_KKE.htm An excerpt from the Resolution of the Fifth Plenary Session of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE)] ]

Refugee children

:::" Futher Information :Child Refugees"

The DSE was slowly driven back and eventually defeated. Thousands of ethnic Macedonians were expelled and fled to the newly-established Socialist Republic of Macedonia, while thousands more children took refuge in other Eastern Bloc countries. In Macedonian they are known as "Децата бегалци/Decata begalci". Many of them made their way to the US, Canada and Australia. Other estimates claim that 5,000 were sent to Romania, 3,000 to Czechoslovakia, 2,500 to Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary and a further 700 to East Germany. [ [http://www.bak-services.com/dossiers/marinov.pdf Nationalism, Society and Culturein post-Ottoman South East Europe] ] Macedonian sources claim up to 213,000 Aegean Macedonian fled Greece at the end of the Civil War.Human Rights Violations Against Ethnic Macedonians-Report 1996, Macedonian Human Rights Movement of Canada, Toronto, 1996; p.111-112] Other sources estimate that 52,000 - 72,000 people in total were evacuated to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.

The return to Greece

Since the end of the Greek Civil War many Aegean Macedonians have attempted to return to their homes in Greece. A 1982 amnesty law which stated "all Greek by Genus who during the civil war of 1946-1949 and because of it have fled abroad as political refugees" had the right to return, thus excluding all those who did not identify as ethnic Greeks.cite book
title= Denying Ethnic Identity; The Macedonians Of Greece
last= Human Rights Watch
first= Helsinki
authorlink=
coauthors=
year= 1994
publisher= Human Rights Watch
location= New York
isbn= 1564321320
pages=
] This was brought to a forefront shortly after the independence of the Republic of Macedonia in 1991. Many ethnic Macedonians have been refused entry to Greece because their documentation listed the Slavic names of the places of birth as opposed to the now-official new Greek names, despite the Child Refugees, now elderly, only knowing their village by the local Macedonian name. These measures were even extended to Australian and Canadian citizens. Despite this, there have been sporadic periods of free entry most of which have only ever lasted a few days. [ [http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/ecri/1-ecri/2-country-by-country_approach/greece/greece_cbc_3.asp#P371_55068 Greece_CBC_3 ] ]

Human rights issues

According to Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, "a widespread policy of Hellenisation was implemented after World War I." [Denying Ethnic Identity: the Macedonians of Greece, Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, New York, 1994] Many Slavic toponyms were deprecated in favour of the official Greek forms, while Slavic inscriptions from churches were removed.Fact|date=May 2008 By 1936 the situation for many Aegean Macedonians had become intolerable, causing many to emigrate. Their native speech was banned even in their own homes. [ cite book
last = Simson
first = Neil
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Macedonia Its Disputed History
publisher = Aristoc Press
date = 1994
location = Victoria
pages = 66
isbn = 0646204629
] [ cite book
last = Poulton
first = Hugh
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Who are the Macedonians?
publisher = C. Hurst & Co. Publishers
date = 2000
location = London
pages = 88
isbn = 1850655340
] [ cite book
last = Hill
first = Peter
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Macedonians in Australia
publisher = Hesperian Press
date = 1989
location = Australia
pages = 7
isbn = 0859051420
] [ cite book
last = Uluslararası
first = İlişkiler Ajansı
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Rising Sun in the Balkans: The Republic of Macedonia
publisher = Polliteccon Publications
date = 1995
location = Australia
pages = 33
isbn = 0646209272
] [ cite book
last = Cowan
first = Jane
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference
publisher = Pluto Press
date = 2000
location =
pages = 57
isbn = 0646209272
] [ cite book
last = Macridge
first = Peter
authorlink =
coauthors = Eleni Yannakakis
title = Ourselves and Others: The Development of a Greek Macedonian
publisher = Berd Publishers
date =1997
location =
pages = 66
isbn = 0646209272
] Many people who broke the rule were deported to the islands of Thasos and Cephalonia [The Rising Sun In the Balkans: The Republic of Macedonia, International Affairs Agency, Sydney, Pollitecon Publications, 1995; p.33] but generally they just had to pay a fine of 30-40 drachmas for speaking the Macedonian language or were arrested.Fact|date=June 2008 Many people were also forced to evacuate the border regions with Yugoslavia.. However this situation was completely reversed during World War Two and the Greek Civil War when the Slavic Macedonian culture and language were allowed to flourish.

However the situation deteriorated after the Communists lost the Greek Civil War. By 1959 the inhabitants of three villages adopted a 'language oath', renouncing their Slavic dialect.Denying Ethnic Identity: the Macedonians of Greece: the Macedonians of Greece, Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, New York, 1994] According to Riki Van Boeschoten,this peculiar ritual took place "on the initiative of local government officials." [cite journal |last=Van Boeschoten |first=Riki |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2006 |month= |title= Code-switching, Linguistic Jokes and Ethnic Identity,Reading Hidden Transcripts in a Cross-Cultural Contex |journal=Journal of Modern Greek Studies |volume=25 |issue= |pages= |id= |url= |accessdate=2008-06-22 |quote= ] According to Vlassis Vlasidis and Veniamin Karakostanoglou, "such oaths were indeed taken by villagers after church service under yet unknown circumstances, probably at the initiative of local officials. Apparently they were discontinued once they became known to authorities in Athens." [Vlassis Vlasidis - Veniamin Karakostanoglou, [http://www.unix.gr/Macedonia/Vlasidis.htm Recycling Propaganda: Remarks on Recent Reports on Greece's "Slav-Macedonian Minority] ]

Many of the people who fled during the Greek Civil War were stripped of their Greek Citizenship and Property. [Decree LZ/1947; later by Law 2536/1953 & Decree M/1948, N/1948, and Law 2536/1953, Denying Ethnic Identity: the Macedonians of Greece: the Macedonians of Greece, Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, New York, 1994] During the Cold War cases of discrimination against people who identified as Ethnic Macedonians and the Macedonian language have been reported by the Human Rights Watch/Helsinki. A 1982 amnesty law excluded all people who identified as non-Greeks from return, this included Ethnic Macedonians.

Culture

Aegean Macedonian culture is very similar to that of other Ethnic Macedonians. Yet many regional folk songs and dances are performed and practised. They celebrate many Greek and Ethnic Macedonian holidays. Kostas Novakis is an ethnic Macedonian singer from Greece, who performs songs in the Macedonian language. The "lerinsko oro"/lerin dance, with origins in the region of Florina, is also popular amongst Aegean Macedonians. Other Aegean Macedonian dances popularized by the Boys from Buf include the "Bufsko Pušteno" and A"rmensko Oro". Recently world renowned Ethnic Macedonian dance group, Tanec toured through Greece. Greece has blocked attempts by Aegean Macedonians to establish "the Home of Macedonian Culture (Macedonian: Дом на Македонската култура, Greek: Stegi Makedonikou Politismou)" despite being convicted for a violation of freedom of association by the European Court of Human Rigts. [http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=508 The BALKAN Human Rights Web Pages ] ]

Education

Aegean Macedonians in Greece attend Greek language schools as the Macedonian language is not taught in Greece. The Abecedar primer originally printed in 1925 was designed for Slav language students. Many Ethnic Macedonians learned Macedonian throughout the Greek Civil War. The Abecedar primer was reprinted in 2006 by the Rainbow, Political Party, it was printed in Macedonian, Greek and English [http://www.florina.org/archive/abecedar/main.html] . Many of the Child Refugees learned Macedonian, Greek and the host countries language.

Religion

Most Aegean Macedonians are typically of the Orthodox Faith. Unlike other Ethnic Macedonians in the Republic of Macedonia many belong to the Greek Orthodox Church. Recently many emigrants have joined the Macedonian Orthodox Church while most in Greece still follow the Greek Orthodox Church. Archimandrite Nikodim Tsarknias has recently caused controversy after trying to set up a Macedonian Orthodox Church in Greece. His house was stoned and vandalised by local youth reportedly because of his Ethnic Macedonian identity and Conversion to the Macedonian Orthodox Church. [ [http://umdiaspora.org/content/view/320/52/ United Macedonian Diaspora - UMD: New Intimidation Tactics Against Ethnic Macedonian Priest In Greece ] ] There have been attempts to consecrate a Macedonian Orthodox Church in the village Slatino, Greece [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90RmoWcxzl4&feature=related YouTube - Arhimandrit Nikodim Carkanjas over macedonian minorities ] ] while a church has been consecrated in Aridaia, Edessa.

Language

The Aegean Macedonian's speak various dialects of the Macedonian language. The Dialects of the Macedonian language spoken in Greece are the Upper and Lower Prespa dialect's, the Florina variant of the Prilep-Bitola dialect, the Kastoria, Nestorion, Salonica-Eddessa and Serres-Drama-Lagadin-Goce Delčev dialect's. The various Slavic dialects of Greece are often considered as Macedonian. Many Aegean Macedonians also speak Greek. Many of the Child Refugees were educated in the Standard form of Macedonian, along with the host country's language, Greek and often Russian. Archimandrite Nikodim Tsarknias has recently called for the language to be used in Church Services. The Rainbow Party has called for the introduction of the language in Schools and for official purposes. [ http://www.florina.org/public/html/about/manifesto.html] In 2006 the Macedonian language primer "Abecedar" was reprinted in an informal attempt to reintroduce the language. [ [http://florina.org/html/2006/abecedar.html Macedonian Abecedar re-published in Greece after 81 years ] ]

Media

Throughout the Greek Civil War many Macedonian language radio stations and newspapers were established and operating amongst the local population. After the KKE were defeated all of these were shut down and equipment dismantled. Until the fall of Communism there has been virtually no Macedonian language media in operation in Greece. Since then many informal types of Macedonian language media has been in operation in Greece. The Rainbow Party produces a journal named "Zora" [ [http://www.florina.org/archive/info_zora/info_zora_archive.html Info Zora - Archive ] ] which is in both Greek and Macedonian. Radio stations have also been shut down reportedly due to the use of the Macedonian language on air and the broadcasting of Ethnic Macedonian Music "Macedonian Sound (Greek: Makedonikos Ichos)" was notable example of this.

Diaspora

During the 19th and 20th century many Aegean Macedonians went on pečalba or seasonal work to many other regions of the Balkans. Eventually many Ethnic Macedonians made their way to America, Canada, Australia and Brazil. More still decided to emigrate after the Metaxas regime came to power. After the Greek Civil war thousands were expelled and fled to the Eastern Bloc before making their ways to Canada, America and Australia. Of the total number of people evacuated to the Eastern Bloc, 9052 went to Romania, 11,623 to Czechoslovakia, 11,458 to Poland, 7,253 to Hungary, 3,019 to Bulgaria and 11,980 were sent to the Soviet Union.

Republic of Macedonia

After the Greek Civil War the bulk of all Ethnic Macedonian refugees ended up in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. Many refugees sent to the Eastern Bloc returned to theSocialist Republic of Macedonia in the 1950s. Many associations such as '"he Association of Macedonians from the Aegean Part of Macedonia" and "Association of Refugee Children from Aegean Macedonia" were established in order to provide support and community. Every year a re-union of the Refugee Children is held in Skopje.

Canada

Many thousands of Aegean Macedonians emigrated to Canada in the 20th century. The settled primarily in Ontario. By 1910 an estimated 1090 Aegean Macedonians had emigrated to Canada.Fact|date=May 2008. Many early Aegean Macedonian immigrants found industrial work in Toronto, either as factory hands or labourers in abattoirs, local sheet metal industries, or iron and steel foundries. From these jobs, they quickly progressed to the ownership of a great number of restaurants, grocery stores and butcher shops. Macedonian entrepreneurs and their descendants eventually employed their numerical strength within the food service industry as a catapult into a variety of larger and more sophisticated ventures. The majority of Macedonians today are employed in the professional, clerical and service sector of the economy. They set up many organizations such as "The Lerin Region Macedonian Cultural Association of Ontario". In 1979 the "The Association of Refugee Children from Aegean Macedonia" (ARCAM) was set up in order to unite the former child refugees from all over the world. It was reported that chapters had been set up in Toronto, Melbourne, Perth, Skopje, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland.

Australia

The Aegean Macedonian people have had a long history with Australia. In 19th Century pečalba, working away from home, was a widespread Macedonian custom. The first Aegean Macedonian was Stojan Kenkov who came to Australian in 1914.Fact|date=May 2008 Pre-World War Two migration occurred in two waves: the first, in 1924, when the USA imposed heavy immigration restrictions and the second, after 1936, when the fascist regime of Ioanis Metaxas in Greece took power. [ [http://www.migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/readingroom/reports/npws/npws-4_-2.html Migration Heritage Centre: A Multicultural Landscape: National Parks and the Macedonian Experience: 4. Macedonian migration to Australia ] ] The third wave occurred after the Greek Civil War when many ethnic Macedonians fled Greece. Charles Price estimates that by 1940 there were 670 Ethnic Macedonians from Florina and 370 from Kastoria resident in Australia. [Charles Price,Southern Europeans in Australia, page 11 and 23, 1963] Charles Price also claims that by 1989 an estimated 21,140 could claim ethnic Macedonian ancestry from Greece. Peter Hill also estimates a figure of 50,000 Aegean Macedonians (including second generation and excluding the aegean Macedonians who identify as Greeks). 2.5% of adherents to the Macedonian Orthodox Church in Australia were born in Greece [http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/pdf/people_of_australia.pdf The People of Australia.pdf ] ] while 3,152 speakers of the Macedonian language were born in Greece and 2,919 people born in Greece claimed ethnic Macedonian ancestry or roughly 3.6% of the total population group.

Aegean Macedonians were essential in the establishment of the Macedonian-Australian People's League ("Macedonian: Makedono-Avstraliski Naroden Sâjuz") which dominated ethnic Macedonian life throughout the 1940s and 1950s. They then went on to establish organizations and events such as Macedonian Cultural Week, Preston Makedonija, Makedonska Iskra, Macedonian Community of S.A, Nova Makedonija and many others.. There are Aegean Macedonian minorities in Richmond, Melbourne, Manjimup [ [http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/LocationSearch?locationLastSearchTerm=manjimup&locationSearchTerm=manjimup&newarea=UCL517000&submitbutton=View+QuickStats+%3E&mapdisplay=on&collection=Census&period=2001&areacode=UCL517000&geography=&method=Location+on+Census+Night&productlabel=&producttype=QuickStats&topic=&navmapdisplayed=true&javascript=true&breadcrumb=PL&topholder=0&leftholder=0&currentaction=104&action=401&textversion=false&subaction=1 2001 Census QuickStats : Manjimup] ] , Shepparton, Wanneroo and Queanbeyan. The Church of St George and the Florina Community Centre and Day Care center was built in Shepparton the Aegean Macedonian hall - Kotori was built by 32 families from the village Kotori in Richmond. Another Church was established by Aegean Macedonians in Queanbeyan and a hall erected in Manjimup. Other Aegean Macedonians oragnizations include the "Aegean Macedonian Association of Australia" and the "Richmond Aegean Macedonian Cultural and Sporting Association.

Notable Aegean Macedonians

*Aleksandar Florovski - Macedonian politician
*Alex Marcou - Australian Rules footballer
*Andreas Tsipas - communist leader during the Greek Civil War from Florina
*Chris Joannou - musician
*Deni Stojčevski - academic from Florina
*Dimitar Dimitrov - Former Minister in the Republic of Macedonia
*Dimo Todorovski - sculptor from Thessaloniki
*Giorgi Ajanovski - writer and journalist
*Jagnula Kunovska - jurist, politician and painter from Kastoria
*Kata Misirkova - famous poet in the Republic of Macedonia (from Pella)
*Kiril Penušlinski - folklorist from Thessaloniki
*Kostas Novakis - folklorist from Koufalia, Greece
*Marek Jankulovski - Czech soccer player (father from Greek Macedonia)
*Mihajlo Keramitchiev - Commander of the NOF
*Mihal Smatrakalev - poet from Serres
*Milka Velinovska - Macedonian journalist
*Mirka Ginova - NOF fighter from Edessa
*Nase Parisis - Human rights activist and Rainbow Party member from Naousa, Imathia
*Nikodim Tsarknias - Macedonian monk from Aridaia, Greece
*Nikola Gruevski - Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia (father from Florina)
*Olga Genčova - academic from Florina
*Paskal Mitrovski - Secretary of the NOF
*Pavlos Voskopoulos - Human rights activist and Rainbow Party member from Florina
*Risto Kirjazovski - scientist and historian from Kastoria
*Steve Staios - hockey player
*Steve Stavro - Canadian businessman from Kastoria
*Taško Georgievski - narrator, novelist and screenwriter from Kastoria
*Trifun Kostovski - the current mayor of Skopje (mother from Giannitsa)
*Vasil Tupurkovski - former member of Yugoslav Presidency

See also

*Rainbow Party
*Slavic dialects of Greece
*Dialects of the Macedonian language
*Ethnic Macedonians
*Macedonians in Albania
*Slavophone Greeks

Multimedia


* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaVD9sNN_CU Aegean Macedonian Folklore and Dance]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4giIHdsejY&feature=related Ethnic Macedonians in Greece celebrating Illinden]

External links

* [http://www.lerin.ca The Lerin Region Macedonian Cultural Association of Ontario]
* [http://www.pollitecon.com/html/life/index.html Pollitecon Publishers, Publishers of Books about Aegean Macedonians]
* [http://www.florina.org Website of Rainbow, Political Party]
* [http://macedonian.atspace.com/knigi/bt_peub.htm First Aegean Shock Brigade] mk icon
* [http://www.hrw.org/reports/pdfs/g/greece/greece945.pdf Human Rights Watch document: "Denying Ethnic Identity - The Macedonians of Greece", April 1994]
* [http://www.osce.org/documents/odihr/2006/10/21446_en.pdf OSCE-HDIM,WARSHAV 2006]

References


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