Jokichi Takamine


Jokichi Takamine

Infobox Scientist
name = Jokichi Takamine


image_width =
caption =
birth_date = December 221854
birth_place = Takaoka
death_date = July 221922
death_place =
ethnicity = Japanese
field = chemistry
work_institutions =
alma_mater = University of Tokyo
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = isolating and purifying adrenaline
nihongo|Jokichi Takamine |高峰 譲吉 |Takamine Jōkichi|extra= December 221854July 221922 was a Japanese chemist.

Early Life and Education

He was born in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture, Japan the son of a physician, moved to Kanazawa in next year and educated in Osaka, Kyoto, and Tokyo, graduating from the University of Tokyo in 1879. He did postgraduate work at University of Glasgow and Anderson College in Scotland. He returned to Japan in 1883 and joined the division of chemistry at the department of agriculture and commerce.

He learned English as a child from a Dutch family in Nagasaki and so always spoke English with a Dutch accent.

Career

Japan

In 1884 he married Caroline Field Hitch, with whom he had two children. Takamine continued to work for the department of agriculture and commerce until 1887. Leaving, he founded the Tokyo Artificial Fertilizer Company, where he later isolated the enzyme Takadiastase, an enzyme of rice malt, from his research in rice fermentation for the production of sake.

United States

In 1894 Takamine emigrated to the United States. He established his own research laboratory in New York City, but licensed the commercial production of Takadiastase. In 1901 he isolated and purified the hormone adrenaline (the first effective bronchodilator for asthma) from animal glands, becoming the first to accomplish this for a glandular hormone. [cite journal |author=Yamashima T |title=Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922), the samurai chemist, and his work on adrenalin |journal=J Med Biogr |volume=11 |issue=2 |pages=95–102 |year=2003 |pmid=12717538] [cite journal |author=Bennett M |title=One hundred years of adrenaline: the discovery of autoreceptors |journal=Clin Auton Res |volume=9 |issue=3 |pages=145–59 |year=1999 |pmid=10454061 | doi = 10.1007/BF02281628 ]

Many of the beautiful cherry blossom trees in the West Potomac Park surrounding the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C. were donated by the mayor of Tokyo, Yukio Ozaki and Dr. Takamine in 1912. [cite web|url=http://www.islands.ne.jp/8686/column/20010315.html|title=Cherry Trees in Washington DC]

The Emperor of Japan honored Takamine with an unusual gift. In the context of the 1904 World's Fair, the Japanese government replicated of an historical Japanese structure, the "Pine and Maple Palace" ("Shofu-den"), modelled after the Kyoto Imperial Coronation Palace of 1,300 years ago. This structure was given to Dr. Takamine. [Estrow, Milton. [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30E1FFB3A5F1A7A93CAAB1782D85F438485F9&scp=1&sq=Japanese+Palace%3B+Replica+near+monticello&st=p "Japanese Palace; Replica Near Monticello Now Open to Public,"] "New York Times." September 28, 1947.] He had the structure transported in sections from Missouri to his summer home in upstate New York, seventy-five miles north of New York City. In 1909, the structure served as a guest house for Prince and Princess Kuni of Japan, who were visiting the area. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9805E2D81F31E733A25753C2A96F9C946897D6CF&scp=10&sq=Takamine&st=p "Kuni in Japanese House; Host of Prince, Dr. Takamine, Has Japanese Structures of St. Louis Fair,"] "New York Times." September 20, 1909.] Although the property was sold in 1922, the reconstructed structure remained in its serene setting. In 2008, it still continues to be one of the undervalued tourist attractions of New York's Sullivan County. [ [http://shofuden.com/index.php?page=history Shofu-den history] ]

ee also

*National Cherry Blossom Festival

References

References

* [http://www.jce.divched.org/JCEWWW/Features/eChemists/document.php?chemid=20 Biographical snapshots: Jokichi Takamine,] "Journal of Chemical Education" web site.

Further reading

* "Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission: [http://www.fullbooks.com/Final-Report-of-the-Louisiana-Purchase7.html Japan's participation]

External links

* — Dr. Jokichi Takamine: Japanese father of American Biotechnology.
*— Production of Microbial Enzymes and Their Applications.
* [http://www.jpo.go.jp/seido_e/rekishi_e/jokichi_takmine.htm History of Industrial Property Right, Jokichi Takamine Taka-Disatase, Adrenaline] , Japan patent Office.


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