- Irrawaddy Delta
The Irrawaddy Delta or Ayeyarwady Delta lies in the
Irrawaddy Division, the lowest expanse of land in Burmathat fans out from the limit of tidal influence at Myan Aungto the Bay of Bengaland Andaman Sea, 290 km to the south at the mouth of the Ayeyarwady River. cite web|url=http://www.arcbc.org.ph/wetlands/myanmar/mmr_irrdel.htm|title=Irrawaddy Delta|publisher=ARCBC (ASEAN Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation)|accessdate=2008-05-14] The delta region is densely populated, and plays a dominant role in the cultivation of ricein rich alluvial soilas low as just 3 meters above sea level, although it also includes fishing communities in a vast area full of rivers and streams. On 2 May 2008, the delta suffered a major disaster, devastated by Cyclone Nargis, which reportedly killed over at least 84,500 people with over 53,800 missing, and left about 2.4 million homeless. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSBKK15852620080624 "Myanmar cyclone toll rises to 138,000 dead, missing"] " Reuters" June 24, 2008]
Arms and terrain
The Irrawaddy Delta comprises the main arms of Pathein River, Pyapon River, Bogale River, and Toe River. Mawtin Point, formerly
Cape Negrais, is a famous landmark in the Irrawaddy Division, and it also marks the south west end of Myanmar. The highest point of the delta, Waphu Mount (1325 ft) lies between Pathein and Mawtin Zun (point), on the western strip of the delta. A major portion of the area is covered with low lying lands just 3m above sea level. This alluvial plain is bounded to the west by the Rakhine Yoma and to the east by the BagoYoma. It is dissected into peninsulas and islands by the large southward flowing rivers which are subject to tidal intrusion. The lower seaward third of the delta is completely flat with no local relief and stretches for 130 km from east to west.
The waters of these rivers are very turbid due to a heavy silt load they carry and the sea is very shallow with depths less than 5.5 m across the coastline and in the east for a distance of up to 28 km offshore. As a result of constant accretion into the sea, the delta is advancing at a rate of 5-6 km per 100 years, equivalent to about 1,000 hectares per year.
Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (100 in), while it has a mean temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F).cite book | first=Myat | last=Thein | year=2005 | title=Economic Development of Myanmar | id=ISBN 9-8123-0211-5] Most of the rain falls during the
monsoonsbetween mid-May and mid-November. It is cool and dry from mid-October to mid-February when temperatures begin to rise with premonsoon squalls in April and early May.
Water purity lies within the
pHrange of alkalinecondition due to early natural resources and weak environmental control. Mangrovesor "Lamu" and nipa palmor "Dani" are the major vegetation of the delta. Moreover, control of weeds is less active as local farmers make mats during the summer. Destruction of mangroves and deforestationin the coastal region due to the Cyclone Nargis put it more at risk in future. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jAsHwR6ND2rhbFh_Bdz934gG-zpg "IMangrove destruction partly to blame for Myanmar toll: ASEAN chief"] , " Google News", May 6, 2008] , [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7385315.stm "Mangrove loss 'put Burma at risk'"] , " BBC News", May 6, 2008] .
The principal islands include Haingyi Kyun, Leit Kyun (Turtle Island), Pyin Salu Kyun, and Meinmahla Kyun (Pretty Women Island).
Major cities include
Bogale, Maubin, Myaungmya, Moulmeingyun, Pantanaw, Pathein, Pyapon, Dedayeup to Twante, and Kyauktan.
There is no extensive system of irrigation or water transport canals except Twante Canal, constructed during the colonial period. It is much beneficial to the delta region for communication and commerce through water transportation with Yangon. Delta culture hence shifted to Yangon, its influence evident in places and products such as Bogale Market, Mortin Quarter, Yay Kyaw Quarter, Danubyu Restaurants, Pathein Halawa (
halvadessert), Tinphyu mats from Pantanaw, and Pathein umbrella.
The delta was historically populated by the Mon. Politically, the area was controlled by
Mon kingdomsprior to 1057, and after 1057, with few exceptions, by Burman kingdoms farther up the Irrawaddy river. The control of the fertile area reverted back to Bago-based Mon kingdoms in the 13th to 16th centuries (1287-1539) and briefly in 18th century (1747-1757).
The delta was also where the British got their first toe-hold of Burma. The British seized Haingyi Kyun or Negrais Island in 1753, after the Mon resisted their request to establish a trading post. The Burmese king
Alaungpayaceded the island to the British in 1757 but retook the island in 1759 by force when the king felt he had been betrayed by the British in his war against the Mon.cite book|url= http://mission.itu.ch/MISSIONS/Myanmar/Burma/bur_history.pd|title=Burma|author=D.G.E. Hall|year=1960|publisher=Hutchinson University Library] The 1825 battle of Danubyu in the delta was the last major stand by the Burmese against the advancing British forces in the First Anglo-Burmese War(1824-1826). The delta was seized by the British in the Second Anglo-Burmese Warof 1852 and became part of British Burma.
The British colonial administration drained the marshes and swamps that dominated the area, and built dykes and embankments starting from 1861 for rice cultivation as the Burmans began to migrate south into British Burma in search of greener pastures. The delta area has some 1,300 km of major embankments to protect 600,000
It is mainly populated by farming and fishing communities in several villages besides market towns, mostly located along the main rivers. At 100 per km², it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country with a total population of 3.5 million. Current inhabitants include, apart from the Mon and
Bamar, a majority Pwo Kayin, and Muslims.
Economy and development
The region is Myanmar's largest rice producer, so its infrastructure of road transportation has been greatly developed during the 1990s and 2000s. Two thirds of the total arable land is under rice cultivation with a yield of about 2,000-2,500 kg per hectare. Fishing is carried out from fixed fishing frames as well as from small boats. Prawn fishery and harvesting sea turtle eggs are also major commercial activities both of which are now threatened by the loss of mangrove forests as clearing of land proceeds for agriculture. Since communication throughout the delta is easiest by water, almost every household possesses a boat and major towns such as
Bogale, Mawlamyinegyunand Myaungmyaare served by steamer.
National heritage sites and nature reserves
Meinmahla Kyun Reservation is a national
heritagesite as well as a natural habitatto many mangrove forests and diverse sea life. The Irrawaddy dolphinis not a true river dolphin native to the Delta region, but it was named after the river, and these sea dolphins are known to enter the rivers of South East Asia.
* [http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/myanmar/irrawaddy-river-text/3 National Geographic Magazine]
* [http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/myanmar/irrawaddy-river-text/1 National Geographic Magazine1]
* [http://unosat.web.cern.ch/unosat/freeproducts/Myanmar/CycloneNargis/UNOSAT_Myanmar_CycloneNargis_Overview_Lowres_v1.pdf UNOSAT Myanmar map]
* [http://encarta.msn.com/map_701584481/irrawaddy_delta.html Map of Irrawaddy Delta - MSN Encarta]
* [http://www.agrimarketing.com/show_story.php?id=49230 UN:Myanmar's Food Bowl Devastated, May 9 2008]
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