90th Fighter Squadron


90th Fighter Squadron

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= 90th Fighter Squadron


caption= 90th Fighter Squadron Patch
dates= 20 August 1917 - 1 October 1949
25 June 1951 - Present
country= United States
allegiance=
branch=United States Air Force
type= Fighter
role=
size=
command_structure= Pacific Air Forces
11th Air Force
3d Wing
3d Operations Group
current_commander=
garrison= Elmendorf Air Force Base
ceremonial_chief=
colonel_of_the_regiment=
nickname=
patron=
motto=
colors=
march=
mascot=
battles= Battle of Saint-Mihiel
Battle of the Bismarck Sea
notable_commanders= Hoyt S. Vandenberg
Nathan F. Twining
Richard H. Ellis
anniversaries=
decorations=
battle_honours=

The 90th Fighter Squadron (90 FS) is part of the 3d Wing at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. It operates the F-22 Raptor aircraft conducting air superiority missions.

Mission

The 90th Fighter Squadron trains in the fighter missions of strategic attack, interdiction, offensive counterair (air-to-surface), suppression of enemy air defenses, as well as offensive and defensive counterair (air-to-air). [http://www.elmendorf.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=7713 90 FS Fact Sheet] ]

History

World War I

The 90th Fighter Squadron was initially activated on 20 August 1917, as the 90th Aero Squadron. Its first location was at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas. The first few months of its existence were consumed by the necessary training to prepare the men for operations in France during World War I. On 12 November 1917, the men of the 90th arrived at Le Havre, France. The initial cadre of officers and enlisted men began preparing the infrastructure necessary to support their flying mission. The air contingent arrived soon after this first group.

The squadron's first aircraft were the Sopwith 1½ Strutter ground attack aircraft. Bruce 5 October 1956, p.590.] The squadron upgraded to Salmson 2-A2s, SPAD Xis, and Breguet BR-14 observation aircraft. Pilots flew from Colombey-les-Belles and scored seven confirmed aerial victories (against aircraft) and participated in the final allied offensives. The 90th earned a positive reputation for its ground attack missions during its continuous participation in the air offensive over Saint-Mihiel. Its first commander, First Lieutenant William G. Schauffler, designed the 90th's Pair o' Dice emblem displaying natural sevens during this campaign. After the war, 90th alumni commissioned Tiffany's of New York to design a silver pin with the squadron logo.

Inter-War Period

After returning from France, the squadron returned to Kelly Field and became one of the four units organized into the 1st Surveillance Group on 15 August 1919. The group was redesignated the 3d Attack Group on 2 July 1921. Their first assignment was to fly daily border patrols between Brownsville, Texas, and Nogales, Arizona, during a period of revolution and unrest in Mexico, which led to border violations and the deaths of American citizens. It was this assignment that gave rise to the cactus in the 3d Wing emblem. The 90th Squadron flew DeHavilland DH-4 aircraft for their low-level observation missions over the border. As the unrest in Mexico died down, Brigadier General William 'Billy' Mitchell, a senior staff officer in the Army Air Service, decided to use this low-level flying experience and the World War I experience of the 3d Group's pilots to create a group devoted to low-level mission of supporting ground troops and attacking ground targets. The 90th Squadron contributed to the pioneering of new tactics for attack aircraft, delivered US mail in 1934, participated in aerial mapping missions during the 1930s, and attracted significant talent among early military airmen. One example of these early airmen was General James H. Doolittle. On 2 September 1922, General Doolittle, then a first lieutenant, became the first pilot to travel coast-to-coast in under 24 hours. Although he could not remember if he was assigned to the 90th during the flight, the Air Force Historical Research Agency confirmed he was a member of the 90th at the time, and his DH-4 aircraft displayed the 90th's pair-o-dice emblem. Early commanders of the 90th also included Lieutenants Hoyt Vandenberg and Nathan Twining, both of whom later became Air Force Chiefs of Staff.

World War II

During World War II, the 90th, now a Bombardment Squadron, operated in the South Pacific, flying A-20 Havoc and B-25 Mitchell aircraft. Their main mission involved highly dangerous skip bombings. In an effort to improve the effectiveness and protection of the 3d Bombardment Group's pilots, Major Paul 'Pappy' Gunn, 3d Bombardment Group engineering officer, devised a modification of the B-25C. The modification replaced the forward bombardier with four forwards firing .50 caliber machine guns, supplemented with two twin .50 caliber gun packages side mounted on the fuselage. The lower turret was discarded. The A-20s received similar modifications. The modified aircraft were first employed by the 90th and proved exceptionally effective, receiving the nickname 'commerce destroyers.' During the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, every aircraft in the 90th scored a hit on the Japanese convoy of 18 ships. It was the first sea-level attack by B-25 strafers in World War II and demonstrated that this tactic was extremely effective. The squadron also participated in the raids on Wewak, New Guinea, which were preemptive strikes that virtually ended the threat of enemy offensive air capabilities.

Cold War

In 1945, after World War II, the 90th Squadron was moved to Japan. The 90th began flying the A-26 Invader as the 3d Bombardment Group became an all A-26 outfit. In September 1946, the 90th moved with the 3d Bombardment Group to Yokota Air Base, Japan, and began training to become combat-ready with the A-26, which was redesignated the B-26 Invader. With the creation of the U.S. Air Force in late 1947, the force began an internal reorganization. This led to the activation of the 3d Bombardment Wing in August 1948, to which the 3d Bombardment Group was assigned. The 90th Squadron was inactivated from 1 October 1949 until 25 June 1951.

At that point, the squadron was redesignated the 90th Bombardment Squadron Light, Night Intruder. In July, as part of the 3d Bombardment Group, the 90th participated in the Korean War. The B-26 Invaders, which the 90th flew, had as many as 12 forward firing .50 caliber machine guns. The 90th's specialty during the Korean War was destroying locomotives and marshalling yards. After the war, the 90th moved with the 3d Bombardment Group to Johnson Air Base, Japan, on 1 October 1954. In January 1956, the unit transitioned to the B-57C Night Intruder. In October 1957, the 3d Bombardment Group inactivated and its heritage transferred to the 3d Bombardment Wing, as did the 90th Bombardment Squadron. In 1960, the wing and squadron transferred to Yokota Air Base, where it trained in bombardment, reconnaissance, and aerial refueling. It also served nuclear alert during this period as well. In the mid-60s, however, the squadron underwent significant changes.

In 1964, the 3d Bombardment Wing converted to a tactical fighter wing, as did the 90th, which became the 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron on 8 June 1964. The wing and the 90th moved to England Air Force Base, Louisiana, as part of an overall reorganization to reduce the number of wings located in Japan. While at England AFB, the 90th gained the F-100 Super Sabre. At the beginning of the Vietnam War, the 3d Bombardment Wing began deploying units to Vietnam on a rotational basis, while the remainder continued training in their ground support role. In November 1965, the wing moved to Bien Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam, during the buildup of forces. The 90th flew close air support missions from Bien Hoa through tens of thousands of sorties. In 1969, the 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron reverted to its pre-World War II designation of 90th Attack Squadron. On 31 October 1970, the 3d Tactical Fighter Wing ended its duties in Vietnam and remained active in 'paper' status until it moved to Kunsan Air Base, South Korea, in March 1971. The 90th Attack Squadron was reassigned to the 14th Special Operations Wing on 31 October 1970 and was redesignated the 90th Special Operations Squadron and remained in Vietnam at Nha Trang Air Base.



thumb|McDonnell Douglas F-4E-42-MC PhantomSerial 69-0275 of the 90th TFS/3d TFW Clark AFB, Phillpines, 1979.From late 1970 until 1974, the 90th underwent several command reassignments. It remained with the 14th Special Operations Wing until 1 September 1971, when it moved to the 483d Tactical Fighter Wing and remained at Nha Trang Air Base. On 15 April 1972, the 90th moved again, this time to the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. This assignment lasted only a few months, as the unit was assigned to the 405th Fighter Wing in December 1972 and moved to Clark Air Base, Philippines. The squadron was redesignated the 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron on 8 July 1973, and began to fly F-4s. In September of the following year, the 90th returned once again to the 3d Tactical Fighter Wing, when it relocated to Clark Air Base after the 405th Fighter Wing was inactivated. In 1975, the 90th converted to the F-4E and participated in combat training and providing air defense for the Philippines.

In July 1977, the 90th once again upgraded its aircraft, this time to the F-4G, which performed a ground radar suppression and destruction mission. During the late 1970s and 1980s, the squadron provided training and support to other units throughout the Pacific, as well as ensuring the readiness of its own pilots and aircraft. By 1990, however, the Philippines had expressed a desire for the withdraw of American military forces in the islands. In May 1991, the 90th Tactical Fighter Squadron was reassigned to the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing located at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. In September 1991, the 90th was redesignated the 90th Fighter Squadron and became part of the 21st Operations Group. This association did not last long, however.

Post-Cold War

In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines and the Air Force quickly decided to evacuate its personnel and equipment from Clark AB. The 3d Tactical Fighter Wing remained in the Philippines during Desert Shield and Desert Storm due to instability in the Philippines. However, it was not going to remain in the islands for very long. It became a 'paper' unit briefly while the Chief of Staff, General Merrill McPeak, decided where to send the wing. He selected on Elmendorf AFB. The 21st Tactical Fighter Wing was inactivated and the 3d Wing replaced it as the lead wing at Elmendorf AFB on 19 December 1991. With the establishment of the 3d Wing on Elmendorf, the 90th Fighter Squadron was once again reunited with its old wing. While these changes occurred with the 3d Wing, the 90th Fighter Squadron deployed six F-4Gs to join coalition forces in the Middle East for the Gulf War. This was the last deployment for the 90th with the F-4Gs. When they returned to Elmendorf, the unit gained new aircraft, the F-15E Strike Eagle. This two-seat dual role updated version of the F-15A/B/C/D Eagle had more survivability enhancements than any other fighter aircraft at the time. It carried a wide array of armament as it performed both air-to-air and air-to-surface attack missions.

Since arriving in Alaska, the 90th Fighter Squadron participated in numerous training exercises in the lower 48 states and other areas of the world. These training exercises included Polar Thrust, Cope Thunder, Tandem Thrust, Cope Thaw, and Red Flag in locations such as Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, Osan Air Base, Korea, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, and Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. The squadron also developed a reputation for safety in its training. On 20 February 1996, the squadron received the Alaska Governor's Safety Award conferred through the Alaska Department of Labor. This was the first time a military organization won the state award since its inception in 1980.

In addition to exercises, the 90th Fighter Squadron also undertook real-world deployments during the 1990s and early 2000s. From October 1995 until January 1996, the squadron deployed 8 F-15Es and 193 personnel to Aviano Air Base, Italy in support of Operation Deny Flight and Operation Joint Endeavor. In February 1998, the squadron deployed 18 F-15Es and over 200 personnel to Kwangju Air Base and Taegu Air Base, both in Korea. While there, the unit flew 1200 joint combat training sorties. Personnel and aircraft redeployed in June 1998.

In 2001 the 90th began a series of deployments which took members of the squadron to the Middle East and Southwest Asia. In March of that year, the 90th participated in a 90-day deployment in support of Operation Northern Watch, patrolling the northern No-fly zone in Iraq. The squadron sent 154 personnel and 10 F-15Es to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey and returned to Elmendorf AFB on 9 June 2001. Later that year, in October, 18 F-15Es were deployed to Kwangju AB, Korea, in support of Afghanistan operations. While deployed pilots flew practice strike missions and provided long-range interdiction strike capability in the region during the absence of the USS Kitty Hawk, they also flew missions over South Korea and repaired base infrastructure while there. The squadron redeployed from the 20-23 December.

The 90th Fighter Squadron participated in an historic event on 4 September 2002. Two Australian exchange officers, Flight Lieutenant Paul Simmons and Flight Lieutenant Tony Southwood, paired up to fly one of the 90th's F-15Es. This was the first time Australian pilots flew an American aircraft in the Pacific Theatre.

In 2003 the squadron undertook another deployment in the Pacific in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. The 90th sent 18 F-15Es to bases in the Pacific, including Osan Air Base, Kunsan Air Base, (both in Korea), Kadena Air Base, Japan and Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. The deployment included 592 personnel from mid-February until mid-May.

Kwangju AB, Korea, once again became home to members of the 90th Fighter Squadron in 2004. In August the squadron deployed 12 F-15Es in a rotation. The unit was temporarily designated the 90th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron and assigned to the 3d Air Expeditionary Group. While deployed the unit flew more than 1100 sorties over the Korean Peninsula and provided two important flights to distinguished visitors, Republic of Korea Air Force Brigadier General Ko and Republic of Korea General Kim, Commander Korean Ground Forces.

In 2005, the squadron focused on training and preparation for their next real-world deployment. Amidst the training and exercises, however, the squadron was able to showcase their talent with participation in the Aero India Airshow and with a flyby at the United States Air Force Academy before the Air Force-Army football game. Additionally, the F-15Es completed an upgrade of their weapons systems. This upgrade allowed the aircraft to carry and use more advanced weaponry, including the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and eventually the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB). As 2006 progressed, the 90th Fighter Squadron began to prepare for significant changes in its mission and weapons system. The F-15Es were scheduled to relocate to Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, through the BRAC decisions in 2005. Replacing those F-15Es, the 90th began receiving the advanced F-22 Raptor in August 2007, which greatly enhanced the 90th Fighter Squadron's ability to perform its duties.


=Operations [http://afhra.maxwell.af.mil/rso/squadrons_flights_pages/0090fs.asp AFHRA 90 FS Page] ] =

*World War I
*World War II
*Korean War
*Vietnam War
*Operation Deny Flight
*Operation Joint Endeavor
*Operation Northern Watch


=Lineage=

*90th Aero Squadron (1917 - 1919)
*90th Squadron (Surveillance) (1919 - 1921)
*90th Squadron (Attack) (1921 - 1923)
*90th Attack Squadron (1923 - 1939)
*90th Bombardment Squadron (Light) (1939 - 1942)
*90th Bombardment Squadron (Dive) (1942 - 1943)
*90th Bombardment Squadron (Light) (1943 - 1944)
*90th Bombardment Squadron, Light (1944 - 1951)
*90th Bombardment Squadron, Light, Night Intruder (1951 - 1955)
*90th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical (1955 - 1964)
*90th Tactical Fighter Squadron (1964 - 1969)
*90th Attack Squadron (1969 - 1970)
*90th Special Operations Squadron (1970 - 1973)
*90th Tactical Fighter Squadron (1973 - 1991)
*90th Fighter Squadron (1991 - Present)


=Assignments=

*I Air Depot (1917 - 1918)
*I Corps Observation Group (1918)
*IV Corps Observation Group (1918)
*III Corps Observation Group (1918)
*3d Bombardment Group (1919 - 1949)
*3d Bombardment Wing (1951 - 1964)
*41st Air Division (1964)
*Tactical Air Command (1964)
*3d Tactical Fighter Wing (1964 - 1965)
**Attached: 405th Fighter Wing (7 February - 10 May 1965)
**Attached: 39th Air Division (8 August - 5 December 1965)
*834th Air Division (1965 - 1966)
**Attached: 401st Tactical Fighter Wing (c. 5 December 1965 - c. 7 February 1966)
*3d Tactical Fighter Wing (1966 - 1970)
*14th Special Operations Wing (1970 - 1971)
*483d Tactical Airlift Wing (1971 - 1972)
*18th Tactical Fighter Wing (1972)
*405th Fighter Wing (1972 - 1974)
*3d Tactical Fighter Wing (1974 - 1991)
*21st Tactical Fighter Wing (1991)
*3d Wing (1991 - Present)


=Bases stationed=

*Camp Kelly, Texas (1917)
*Garden City, New York (1917)
*Colombey-les-Belles, France (1917 - 1918)
*Amanty, France (1918)
*Ourches, France (1918)
*Souilly, France (1918)
*Béthelainville, France (1918 - 1919)
*Belrain, France (1919)
*Colombey-les-Belles, France (1919)
*Libourne, France (1919)
*Saint-Denis-de-Piles, France (1919)
*Bordeaux, France (1919)
*Hazelhurst Field, New York (1919)
*Kelly Field, Texas (1919)
**Flight A: Eagle Pass, Texas (27 August 1919 - 12 June 1920)
*Sanderson, Texas (1919 - 1921)
**Flight A: Del Rio, Texas (12 June 1920 - 20 June 1921)
*Kelly Field, Texas (1921 - 1926)
*Fort Crockett, Texas (1926 - 1935)
**Detachment: Fort Huachuca, Arizona (7 April - 12 May 1929)
*Barksdale Field, Louisiana (1935 - 1940)
**Deployed: Bakersfield, California (3 - 23 May 1937)
*Savannah, Georgia (1940 - 1942)
*Brisbane, Australia (1942)
*Charters Towers, Australia (1942 - 1943)
*Port Moresby, New Guinea (1943)
*Dobodura, New Guinea (1943 - 1944)
*Nadzab, New Guinea (1944)
*Hollandia, New Guinea (1944)
*Dulag, Leyte (1944)
*San Jose, Mindoro (1944 - 1945)
*Sobe, Okinawa (1945)
*Atsugi Air Base, Japan (1945 - 1946)
*Yokota Air Base, Japan (1946 - 1949)
*Iwakuni, Japan (1951)
*Kunsan Air Base, South Korea (1951 - 1954)
**Deployed: Pusan Air Base, South Korea (25 April - 17 May 1952)
*Johnson Air Base, Japan (1954 - 1960)
**Deployed: Itazuke Air Base, Japan (18 January - 2 February 1957)
*Yokota Air Base, Japan (1960 - 1964)
*England Air Force Base, Louisiana (1964 - 1966)
**Deployed: Clark Air Base, Philippines (7 February - 10 May 1965)
**Deployed: Misawa Air Base, Japan (3 August - 5 December 1965)
*Bien Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam (1966 - 1970)
**Deployed: Phan Rang Air Base, South Vietnam (9 - 14 April 1967)
*Nha Trang Air Base, South Vietnam (1970 - 1972)
*Kadena Air Base, Japan (1972)
*Clark Air Base, Philippines (1972 - 1991)
*Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska (1991 - Present)


=Aircraft Operated=

*Sopwith 1 (1918 - 1919)
*Salmson 2 (1918 - 1919)
*Spad XI (1918 - 1919)
*Breguet 14 (1918 - 1919)
*DH-4 (1919 - c. 1925, 1926 - 1932)
*GA-1 (1921 - 1922)
*O-2 (1921 - 1928)
*A-3 Falcon (1928 - 1934)
*O-1 (1920s - early 1930s)
*XO-6 (1920s - early 1930s)
*A-8 Shrike (1920s - early 1930s)
*Y-8 (1920s - early 1930s)
*A-12 Shrike (1933 - 1936)
*A-17 Nomad (1936 - 1939)
*A-18 Shrike (1939 - 1941)
*B-18 Bolo (1939- 1941)
*B-12 (1939 - 1940)
*A-20 Havoc (1941, 1943 - 1945)
*A-24 Banshee (1941, 1942)
*B-25 Mitchell (1942 - 1944, 1945)
*A-26 Invader (1945 - 1949)
*B-26 Marauder (1945 - 1949, 1951 - 1956)
*B-24 Liberator (1944 - 1946)
*B-57 Canberra (1956 - 1964)
*F-100 Super Sabre (1964 - 1969)
*A-37 Dragonfly (1969 - 1970)
*C-123 Provider (1970 - 1972)
*C-130 Hercules (1970 - 1972)
*F-4 Phantom II (1973 - 1991)
*F-15 Eagle (1994 - 2007)
*F-22 Raptor (2007 - Present)

References

Notes

Bibliography

* [http://afhra.maxwell.af.mil/rso/squadrons_flights_pages/0090fs.asp AFHRA 90th Fighter Squadron History]
* [http://www.elmendorf.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=7713 90th Fighter Squadron Fact Sheet]
* Bruce, J.M. " [http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1956/1956%20-%201434.html The Sopwith 1½ Strutter: Historic Military Aircraft No. 14 Part II] ". "Flight", 5 October 1956, Pages 586-591.

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