List of ad-hoc routing protocols


List of ad-hoc routing protocols

An Ad hoc routing protocol is a convention or standard that controls how nodes come to agree which way to route packets between computing devices in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

In "ad hoc networks", nodes do not have "a priori" knowledge of topology of network around them, they have to discover it.The basic idea is that a new node (optionally) announces its presence and listens to broadcast announcements from its neighbours.The node learns about new near nodes and ways to reach them, and may announce that it can also reach those nodes.As time goes on, each node knows about all other nodes and one or more ways how to reach them.

Note that in a wider context, an ad hoc protocol can also mean an improvised and often impromptu protocol established for a particular specific purpose.

The following is a list of some ad-hoc network routing protocols:

Pro-active Routing (Table-driven)

This type of protocols maintains fresh lists of destinations and their routes by periodically distributing routing tables throughout the network.The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -

#Respective amount of data for maintenance.
#Slow reaction on restructuring and failures.

Examples of proactive algorithms are -

*AWDS (Ad-hoc Wireless Distribution Service) - "Layer 2 wireless mesh routing protocol", LGPL implementation available, http://awds.berlios.de/
* [http://www.pps.jussieu.fr/~jch/software/babel/ Babel] , a protocol inspired by DSDV with faster convergence and ETX link quality estimation. Free implementation available.
*CGSR (Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing protocol) - "CHING-CHUAN CHIANG, HSIAO-KUANG WU, WINSTON LIU, MARIO GERLA Routing in Clustered Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks with Fading Channel, IEEE Singapore International Conference on Networks, SICON'97, pp. 197-211, Singapore, 16.-17. April 1997, IEEE"
*DFR (“Direction” Forward Routing) - YENG-ZHONG LEE, MARIO GERLA, JASON CHEN, JIWEI CHEN, BIAO ZHOU AND ANTONIO CARUSO, Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, Volume 2, Number 2, 2006.
*DBF (Distributed Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol) - "DIMITRI P. BERTSEKAS, ROBERT G. GALLAGER, Distributed Asynchronous Bellman-Ford Algorithm, Data Networks, pp. 325-333, Prentice Hall, Enlgewood Cliffs, 1987, ISBN 0-13-196825-4"
*DSDV (Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector routing protocol) - "C. E. PERKINS, P. BHAGWAT Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) for Mobile Computers Proc. of the SIGCOMM 1994 Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications, Aug 1994, pp 234-244."
*Guesswork - "TOM PARKER AND KOEN LANGENDOEN, Guesswork: Robust Routing in an Uncertain World, to be presented at the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 2005), November 2005" http://www.st.ewi.tudelft.nl/~koen/papers/guesswork.pdf
*HSR (Hierarchical State Routing protocol) - "ALAN O'NEILL HONGYI LI HIERARCHICAL STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL Internet Draft, draft-oneill-li-hsr-00.txt http://alternic.net/drafts/drafts-o-p/draft-oneill-li-hsr-00.txt Distance Source Distance Vector routing protocol (DSDV)"
*IARP (Intrazone Routing Protocol/pro-active part of the ZRP) - "ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) for Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/02nov/I-D/draft-ietf-manet-zone-iarp-02.txt, work in progress, July 2002."
*LCA (Linked Cluster Architecture) - "M. GERLA, J. T. TSAI Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia Radio Network ACM Wireless Networks, VOl 1, No.3, 1995, pp. 255-265"
*MMRP (Mobile Mesh Routing Protocol) - "K. GRACE Mobile Mesh Routing Protocol (MMRP), http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_transfer/mobilemesh/"
*OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) - "PHILIPPE JACQUET, PAUL MUHLETHALER, AMIR QAYYUM, ANIS LAOUITI, LAURENT VIENNOT, THOMAS CLAUSEN Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), RFC 3626. http://www.olsr.net/, http://www.olsr.org/"
*TBRPF (Topology Dissemination based on Reverse-Path Forwarding routing protocol) - "BHARGAV BELLUR, RICHARD G. OGIER, FRED L. TEMPLIN Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF), RFC 3684, February 2004."
*WAR (Witness Aided Routing) - Aron, I.D. and Gupta, S., 1999, “A Witness-Aided Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with Unidirectional Links”, Proc. of the First International Conference on Mobile Data Access, p.24-33.
*WRP (Wireless Routing Protocol) - "SHREE MURTHY, J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-AVECES A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks, Proc. ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 86-95, November, 1995. citeseer|Citeseer: murthy95routing|murthy95routing"; SHREE MURTHY, J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-AVECES, An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks, AACM/Baltzer Journal on Mobile Networks and Applications, Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp 183-197, ACM, October 1996

Reactive Routing (On-demand)

This type of protocols finds a route on demand by flooding the network with Route Request packets. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -

#High latency time in route finding.
#Excessive flooding can lead to network clogging.Example of reactive algorithms are -

*Multirate Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol - "R. Guimaraes and Ll. Cerda", Improving reactive routing on wireless multirate ad-hoc networks, In: Proceedings of 13th European Wireless 2007, https://upcommons.upc.edu/e-prints/bitstream/2117/1173/1/mr-aodv.pdf
*Reliable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol - " Sandhya Khurana, Neelima Gupta, Nagender Aneja, http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/ICNICONSMCL.2006.183 "
*Minimum Exposed Path to the Attack (MEPA) in Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) - " Sandhya Khurana, Neelima Gupta, Nagender Aneja, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=/iel5/4196186/4196187/04196209.pdf?tp=&isnumber=4196187&arnumber=4196209"
* Ant-based Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks - "Mesut Günes et al.", ARA - the ant-colony based routing algorithm for manets, In Stephan Olariu, editor, Proceedings of the 2002 ICPP Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks (IWAHN 2002), pages 79-85, IEEE Computer Society Press, August 2002, http://www.adhoc-nets.de
* Admission Control enabled On demand Routing (ACOR) - "N. Kettaf, A. Abouaissa, T. Vuduong and P. Lorenz, (draft-kettaf-manet-acor-00.txt), July 2006, (Work in progress)] "
* Ariadne - "Y. Chu, A. Perrig, D. Johnson, Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. ACM Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), 2002." http://sparrow.ece.cmu.edu/~adrian/projects/secure-routing/ariadne.pdf
* Associativity-Based Routing - "CHAI-KEONG TOH: A Novel Distributed Routing Protocol To Support Ad hoc Mobile Computing, Proc. IEEE 15th Annual International Phoenix Conference on Computers and Communications, IEEE IPCCC 1996, 27 March-29, Phoenix, AZ, USA, pp. 480-486 / CHAI-KEONG TOH: Long-lived Ad Hoc Routing based on the Concept of Associativity, Internet Draft, March 1999, Expired, http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/99nov/I-D/draft-ietf-manet-longlived-adhoc-routing-00.txt" - US PATENT 5,987,011 http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5987011.html
* Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector - "C. PERKINS, E.ROYER AND S. DAS Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, RFC 3561"
* Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector - "M. Marina, S. Das: On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), pages 14--23, IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001.
* Backup Source Routing - "SONG GUO, OLIVER W. YANG Performance of Backup Source Routing (BSR) in mobile ad hoc networks p 440-444, Proc. 2002 IEEE Wireless Networking Conference"
* CHAMP - CacHing And MultiPath routing - ALVIN C. VALERA, WINSTON K.G. SEAH AND S.V. RAO, "Cooperative Packet Caching and Shortest Multipath Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks", Proceedings of 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2003), Mar 30-Apr 3, 2003. Available from: http://www1.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/~winston/papers/Infocom2003-CHAMP.pdf
* Dynamic Source Routing - "DAVID JOHNSON, DAVID MALTZ, YIH-CHUN HU: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPv4, RFC 4728 / DAVID B. JOHNSON, DAVID A. MALTZ: Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Mobile Computing, Thomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth (Editors), Vol. 353, Chapter 5, pp. 153-181, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996"
* Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing - "YIH-CHUN HU, DAVID B. JOHNSON, DAVID A. MALTZ Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-dsrflow-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001."
* Dynamic NIx-Vector Routing - "Young J. Lee and George F. Riley, Dynamic NIx-Vector Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2005), New Orleans, Mar. 13 - 17, 2005."
* DYnamic Manet On-demand Routing - "I. Chakeres AND C. Perkins: Dynamic MANET On-demand Routing Protocol (DYMO), Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dymo-14.txt, work in progress, June 2008. http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-dymo-14.txt"
*Mobile Ad-hoc On-Demand Data Delivery Protocol - " Humayun Bakht and Others: Mobile Ad-hoc On-Demand Data Delivery Protocol (MAODDP), http://www.geocities.com/humayunbakht/MAODDP1.html "

Flow Oriented Routing

This type of protocols finds a route on demand by following present flows. One option is to unicast consecutively when forwarding data while promoting a new link. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -

#Takes long time when exploring new routes without a priori knowledge.
#May refer to entitative existing traffic to compensate for missing knowledge on routes.Examples of flow oriented algorithms are -

*GB (Gafni-Bertsekas), "E. Gafni, D. Bertsekas: Distributed Algorithms for Generating Loop-free Routes in Networks with Frequently Changing Topology, IEEE Transactions on Communication, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan, 1981, pp.11-15. The first Link Reversal Routing (LRR) algorithm."
*IERP (Interzone Routing Protocol/reactive part of the ZRP) - "ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR The Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) for Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/02nov/I-D/draft-ietf-manet-zone-ierp-02.txt, work in progress, July 2002."
*LBR (Link life Based routing), "B. S. Manoj, R. Ananthapadmanabha, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "Link life Based Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", Proc. of The 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications 2001 (IC3N 2001), October 2001."
*LMR (Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol) - "M.S. CORSON AND A. EPHREMIDES Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol (LMR), A distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks, Wireless Networks 1 (1995).A Link Reversal Routing (LRR) algorithm."
*LQSR (Link Quality Source Routing) - Microsoft Version of DSR with Link Quality Metrics, http://research.microsoft.com/mesh/
*LUNAR (Lightweight Underlay Network Ad hoc Routing) - "CHRISTIAN TSCHUDIN AND RICHARD GOLD Lightweight Underlay Network Ad hoc Routing (LUNAR), http://www.docs.uu.se/selnet/lunar/"
*MOR - Multipath On-demand Routing Protocol, "Biagioni and Chen, A reliability layer for ad-hoc wireless sensor network routing", [http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2004/2056/09/205690300.pdf]
*MPRDV (Multipoint Relay Distance Vector protocol) - "Géraud Allard, Philippe Jacquet and Laurent Viennot. "Ad hoc routing with multipoint relaying", http://gyroweb.inria.fr/~viennot/postscripts/algotel2003ajv.pdf"
*QuaSAR (QoS aware source initiated ad-hoc routing) - QuaSAR has both reactive and proactive mechanisms that aim to diminish the communication disruption time experienced in highly mobile ad-hoc networks. "Knut-Helge Vik and Sirisha Medidi, "Quality of Service aware source initiated ad-hoc routing", 1st IEEE International Conference on Sensor and Ad hoc Communications and Networks; Santa Clara, CA, USA; October 2004 [http://folk.uio.no/knuthelv/files/quasar_secon04.pdf] .
*RDMAR (Relative-Distance Micro-discovery Ad hoc Routing protocol) - "G. AGGELOU, R. TAFAZOLLI Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR) protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet- rdmar-00.txt, work in progress, September 1999."
*SrcRR DSR and ETX based, optimized for performance "D. AGUAYO, J. BICKET, R. MORRIS, "SrcRR: A High-Throughput Routing Protocol for 802.11 Mesh Networks (DRAFT)", http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/~rtm/srcrr-draft.pdf"
*SSR (Signal Stability Routing protocol) - "R. DUBE, C. D. RAIS, K. WANG, AND S. K. TRIPATHI Signal Stability based adaptive routing (SSR alt SSA) for ad hoc mobile networks, IEEE Personal Communication, Feb. 1997."
*PLBR (Preferred link based routing) -- "R. S. Sisodia, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "A Preferred Link Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 14-21, March 2002

Adaptive Routing (Situation-Aware)

This type of protocols combines the advantages of proactive and of reactive routing. The routing is initially established with some proactively prospected routes and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes through reactive flooding. Some metrics must support the choice of reaction. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. Advantage depends on amount of nodes activated.
2. Reaction to traffic demand depends on gradient of traffic volume.

Example of adaptive algorithms is-

TORA (Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm routing protocol) "V. Park, S. Corson: Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1, Functional Specification, Internet Draft, IETF MANET Working Group, June 2001, [http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-04] . A Link Reversal Routing (LRR) algorithm."

Hybrid (Pro-Active/Reactive)

This type of protocols combines the advantages of proactive and of reactive routing. The routing is initially established with some proactively prospected routes and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes through reactive flooding. The choice for one or the other method requires predetermination for typical cases. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. Advantage depends on amount of nodes activated.
2. Reaction to traffic demand depends on gradient of traffic volume.

Examples of hybrid algorithms are-

*ARPAM, specialized for aeronautical MANETs.

*HRPLS (Hybrid Routing Protocol for Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Mobile Backbones) - "Ashish Pandey, Md. Nasir Ahmed, Nilesh Kumar, P. Gupta: A Hybrid Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Mobile Backbones, IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing, HIPC 2006, pp. 411-423, Dec 2006.

*HSLS (Hazy Sighted Link State routing protocol) - Uses a mathematical optimization to mix link state and reactive routing to optimize network data updates in space and time, "CESAR SANTIVANEZ AND RAM RAMANATHAN Hazy Sighted Link State routing protocol (HSLS), BBN Technical Memorandum No. 1301, 31 August 2001. [http://www.cuwireless.net/OSI/progress_report.html] There's an open-source version.

*OORP (OrderOne Routing Protocol) - proactive/reactive distance vector combined with a hierarchy that is not used to route data. Patented. [http://www.orderonenetworks.com/ OrderOne Networks]

*TORA, see below.

*ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) - "ZYGMUNT J. HAAS, MARC R. PEARLMAN, PRINCE SAMAR The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/02nov/I-D/draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-04.txt, work in progress, July 2002." ZRP uses IARP as pro-active and IERP as reactive component.

Hierarchical Routing Protocols

With this type of protocols the choice of proactive and of reactive routing depends on the hierarchic level where a node resides. The routing is initially established with some proactively prospected routes and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes through reactive flooding on the lower levels. The choice for one or the other method requires proper attributation for respective levels. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. Advantage depends on depth of nesting and addressing scheme.
2. Reaction to traffic demand depends on meshing parameters.

Examples of hierarchical routing algorithms are-

*CBRP (Cluster Based Routing Protocol) - "M. JIANG, J. LI, Y. C. TAY Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional Specification Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp.txt, work in progress, June 1999."

*CEDAR (Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing) - "RAGHUPATHY SIVAKUMAR, PRASUN SINHA, VADUVUR BHARGHAVAN Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt"; "PRASUN SINHA, RAGHUPATHY SIVAKUMAR, VADUVUR BHARGHAVAN CEDAR: A Core-Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing Algorithm, The 18th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, INFOCOM '99 New York, NY, USA, pp. 202-209 IEEE, March 1999"

*DART (Dynamic Address Routing) - "JAKOB ERIKSSON, MICHALIS FALOUTSOS, SRIKANTH KRISHNAMURTHY Scalable Ad Hoc Routing: The Case for Dynamic Addressing, in proceedings of INFOCOM 2004. Project website http://dart.cs.ucr.edu"

*DDR (Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm) - "NAVID NIKAEIN, HOUDA LABIOD, CHRISTIAN BONNET Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm (DDR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in proceedings of the MobiHOC 2000 : First Annual Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing http://www.eurecom.fr/~nikaeinn/ddr.ps"

*FSR (Fisheye State Routing protocol) - "MARIO GERLA, GUANGYU PEI, XIAOYAN HONG, TSU-WEI CHEN Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) for Ad Hoc Networks Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-fsr-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001." (see http://wiki.uni.lu/secan-lab/Fisheye+State+Routing.html)

*GSR (Global State Routing protocol) - "Global State Routing protocol (GSR) [Chen98] Tsu-Wei Chen and Mario Gerla, "Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks" Proc. IEEE ICC'98, Atlanta, GA, USA, June 1998, pp. 171-175. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/60636.html; [Iwata99] A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks" IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Aug. 1999, pp.1369-79. http://www.cs.ucla.edu/NRL/wireless/PAPER/jsac99.ps.gz"

*HARP (Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol) - "NAVID NIKAEIN, CHRISTIAN BONNET, NEDA NIKAEIN Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol - HARP, in proceeding of IST 2001: International Symposium on Telecommunications http://www.eurecom.fr/~nikaeinn/harp.ps"

*HSR (Host Specific Routing protocols)This type of protocols requires thorough administration to tailor the routing to a certain network layout and a distinct flow strategy. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. Advantage depends on quality of administration addressing scheme.
2. Proper reaction to changes in topology demands reconsidering all parametrizing.

*HSR (Hierarchical State Routing) - "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks"

*LANMAR (Landmark Routing Protocol for Large Scale Networks) - "MARIO GERLA, XIAOYAN HONG, LI MA, GUANGYU PEI Landmark Routing Protocol (LANMAR) Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet- lanmar-01.txt, work in progress, June 2001."

*ATR (Augmented Tree-based Routing) - "MARCELLO CALEFFI, GIANCARLO FERRAIUOLO, LUIGI PAURA Augmented Tree-based Routing Protocol for Scalable Ad Hoc Networks, in proceedings of MHWMN 2007: The Third IEEE International Workshop on Heterogeneous Multi-Hop Wireless and Mobile Networks. http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.3099 - Multi-path DHT-based routing protocol for scalable networks."

Geographical Routing Protocols

This type of protocols acknowledges the influence of physical distances and distribution of nodes to areas as significant to network performance. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. Efficiency depends on balancing the geographic distribution versus occurrence of traffic.
2. Any dependence of performance with traffic load thwarting the negligence of distance may occur in overload.
See also the geographic routing main article.

*ALARM (Adaptive Location Aided Routing Protocol - Mines) - "J. Boleng and T. Camp, Adaptive Location Aided Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing, Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC '04), pp. 423-432, 2004." For more information also see http://toilers.mines.edu/pub/Public/PublicationList/Boleng-PhD.pdf.

*BGR (Blind Geographic Routing) - "MATTHIAS WITT, VOLKER TURAU BGR: Blind Geographic Routing for Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Intelligent Solutions in Embedded Systems (WISES'05). Hamburg, Germany, May 20, 2005."

*DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility) - "S. BASAGNI, I. CHLAMTAC, V. R. SYROTIUK, B. A. WOODWARD A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 76-84, October 1998."

*GLS(Grid) (Geographic Location Service) - "JINYANG LI, JOHN JANOTTI, DOUGLAS S. J. DE COUTU, DAVID R. KARGER, ROBERT MORRIS A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science"

*LAR (Location-Aided Routing protocol) - "Y.-B. KO, V. N. H. Location-Aided Routing in mobile Ad hoc networks In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 66-75, October 1998."

*GPSAL (GPS Ant-Like Routing Algorithm) - "Daniel Câmara, Antonio Alfredo F. Loureiro, A Novel Routing Algorithm for Hoc Networks, Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, 18:1-3, 85-100, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001."

*ZHLS (Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing) - "JOA NG, I-TAI LU Zone-Based Hierchical Link State Routing (ZHLS). An abstract routing protocol and medium access protocol for mobile ad hoc networks Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy (Electrical engineering) in January 1999."; "MARIO JOA-NG, I-TAI-LU A Peer-to-Peer Zone-Based Two-Level Link State Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communication, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 1415-1425, August 1999". A improving approach can be find in ZHLS-GF (Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol with Gateway Flooding).

* GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) - "BRAD N. KARP, H. T. KUNG GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the sixth annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '00), pages 243-254, August 2000."

* Greedy Face Greedy (GFG) - "Prosenjit Bose and Pat Morin and Ivan Stojmenovic and Jorge Urrutia": Routing with guaranteed delivery in ad hoc wireless networks, DIALM '99: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Discrete algorithms and methods for mobile computing and communications, Seattle, Washington, United States, pages 48-55, 1999, ISBN 1-58113-174-7,doi http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/313239.313282, publisher = {ACM Press}

* SiFT (Simple Forwarding over Trajectory) - "A. Capone, I. Filippini, M.A. Garcia de la Fuente, L. Pizziniaco, SiFT: An efficient method for Trajectory Based Forwarding, International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems 2005 (ISWCS2005), Siena, Sept. 2005."

* FACE, see GFG.

Power Aware Routing Protocols

Energy required to transmit a signal is approximately proportional to d^alpha, where d is the distance and alphageq 2 is the attenuation factor or path loss exponent, which depends on the transmission medium.When alpha=2 (which is the optimal case), transmitting a signal half the distance requires one fourth of the energy and if there is a node in the middle willing spend another fourth of its energy for the second half, data would be transmitted for half of the energy than through a direct transmission - a fact that follows directly from the inverse square law of physics. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are -
1. This method induces a delay for each transmission.
2. No relevance for energy network powered transmission operated via sufficient repeater infrastructure.

*ISAIAH (Infra-Structure Aodv for Infrastructured Ad Hoc networks) - "ANDERS LINDGREN AND OLOV SCHELÉN Infrastructured ad hoc networks In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (International Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN 2002)). pages 64-70. August 2002."

*PARO (Power-Aware Routing Optimization Protocol) - "J. GOMEZ, A. T. CAMPBELL, M. NAGHSHINEH, C. BISDIKIAN, T.J. WATSON POWER-AWARE ROUTING OPTIMIZATION PROTOCOL (PARO) Internet Draft, draft-gomez-paro-manet-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001. http://comet.ctr.columbia.edu/~javierg/paro/draft-gomez-paro-manet-00.txt"

*EADSR (Energy Aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol) - "T.X. Brown, S. Doshi, S. Bhandare, University of Colorado-Boulder, draft-brown-eadsr-00.txt, work in progress, June 2003, source code and documentation at http://pecolab.colorado.edu/EADSR.htm"

*PAMAS (PAMAS-Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling Ad Hoc Networks) - "S. SINGH, C.S. RAGHAVENDRA PAMAS & PAMAS-Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling Ad Hoc Networks"

*DSRPA (Dynamic Source Routing Power-Aware) D. Djenouri N. Badache, The International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC), volume 1, number 3, pp 126-136, May 2006, Inderscience publisher.

Multicast Routing

*ABAM (On-Demand Associativity-Based Multicast) - Chai-Keong Toh, Guillermo Guichal, and Santithorn Bunchua: "On-demand associativity-based multicast routing for ad hoc mobile networks (ABAM)", In "Proc. of the 52nd IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) 2000 Fall", vol. 3, pages 987 - 993, Boston, MA, September 2000.

*ADMR (Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing) - Jorjeta G. Jetcheva and David B. Johnson: "Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", In "Proc. of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Mobile and Ad-hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHOC)", pages 33 - 44, Long Beach, CA, October 2001.

*AMRIS (Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol utilizing Increasing id-numberS) - Chun Wei Wu and Yong Chiang Tay: "AMRIS: A Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", In "Proc. of the IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM)", pages 25 - 29, Atlantic City, NJ, November 1999.

*AMRoute (Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol) - Mingyan Liu, Rajesh R. Talpade, Anthony McAuley, and Ethendranath Bommaiah: "AMRoute: Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol", "University of Maryland CSHCN Technical Report 1999-1", College Park, MD, 1999.

*AQM (Ad Hoc QoS Multicast) - Kaan Bür and Cem Ersoy: "Ad Hoc Quality of Service Multicast Routing", "Elsevier Science Computer Communications", vol. 29, no. 1, pages 136 - 148, December 2005.

*BEMRP (Bandwidth-Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol) - T. Ozaki, Jaime Bae Kim and T. Suda: "Bandwidth-efficient multicast routing protocol for ad-hoc networks", In "Computer Communications and Networks, 1999. Proceedings. Eight International Conference", pages 10-17, Boston, MA, September 1999.

*CAMP (Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol) - J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and Ewerton L. Madruga: "The Core Assisted Mesh Protocol", "IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks", vol. 17, no. 8, pages 1380 - 1394, August 1999.

*CBM (Content Based Multicast) - Hu Zhou and Suresh Singh: "Content based multicast (CBM) in ad hoc networks", In "Proc. of the 1st ACM International Symposium on Mobile and Ad-hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHOC)", pages 51 - 60, Boston, MA, August 2000.

*DCMP (Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol) - Subir Kumar Das, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy: "A Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", In "Proc. of the 3rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile and Ad-hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHOC)", pages 24 - 35, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 2002.

*DDM (Differential Destination Multicast) - Lusheng Ji and M. Scott Corson: "Differential Destination Multicast-A MANET Multicast Routing Protocol for Small Groups", In "Proc. of the 20th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM)", pages 1192 - 1202, Anchorage, AK, April 2001.

*DSR-MB (Simple Protocol for Multicast and Broadcast using DSR) - Jorjeta G. Jetcheva, Yih-Chun Hu, David A. Maltz, and David B. Johnson: "A Simple Protocol for Multicast and Broadcast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", "Internet Draft draft-ietf-manet-simple-mbcast-01.txt (outdated)", July 2001.

*ExOR (wireless network protocol) - Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for Wireless Networks; Sanjit Biswas, Robert Morris, 2005; Uses standard 802.11 radios. Tested, and now seems to be commercially available from Meraki, a start-up company founded by the authors.

*FGMP (Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) - Ching-Chuan Chiang, Mario Gerla, and Lixia Zhang: "Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP) for Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks", "ACM-Baltzer Journal of Cluster Computing: Special Issue on Mobile Computing", vol. 1, no. 2, pages 187 - 196, December 1998.

*LAM (Lightweight Adaptive Multicast) - Lusheng Ji and M. Scott Corson: "A Lightweight Adaptive Multicast Algorithm", In "Proc. of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Globecom)", pages 1036 - 1042, Sydney, Australia, November 1998.

*MAODV (Multicast Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing) - Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins: "Multicast Operation of the Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol", In "Proc. of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom)", pages 207 - 218, Seattle, WA, August 1999.

*MOLSR (Multicast Optimized Link State Routing) - Anis Laouiti, Philippe Jacquet, Pascale Minet, Laurent Viennot, Thomas Clausen, Cedric Adjih: "Multicast Optimized Link State Routing", INRIA research report,RR-4721, Feb 2003 (http://www.inria.fr/rrrt/rr-4721.html).

*MCEDAR (Multicast Core-Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing) - Prasun Sinha, Raghupathy Sivakumar, and Vaduvur Bharghavan: "MCEDAR: Multicast Core-Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing", In "Proc. of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC)", pages 1313 - 1317, New Orleans, LA, September 1999.

*MZR (Multicast Zone Routing) - Vijay Devarapalli, Ali A. Selcuk, and Deepinder Sidhu: "MZR: A Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", In "Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)", pages 886 - 891, Helsinki, Finland, June 2001.

*ODMRP (On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol) - Sung-Ju Lee, Mario Gerla, and Ching-Chuan Chiang: "On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol", In "Proc. of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC)", pages 1298 - 1302, New Orleans, LA, September 1999. Available from: http://www.cs.ucla.edu/NRL/wireless/PAPER/odmrp-wcnc99.ps.gz

*PUMA (Protocol for Unified Multicasting Through Announcements) - Vaishampayan, Ravindra. and Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.: " Efficient and Robust Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", In "2004 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems", pages 304- 313, Fort Lauderdale, FL, October 2004. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1392169. A NS-2 implementation by [mailto:sidney@dsc.ufcg.edu.br Sidney Doria] is available in: .

*SMF (Simplified Multicast Forwarding) - Joseph Macker, editor, SMF Design Team: "Simplified Multicast Forwarding for MANET", work in progress, Available from http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-smf-04.txt.

*SPBM (Scalable Position-Based Multicast) - Matthias Transier, Holger Füßler, Jörg Widmer, Martin Mauve, and Wolfgang Effelsberg: "Scalable Position-Based Multicast for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks", In "Proc. of the 1st International Workshop on Broadband Wireless Multimedia: Algorithms, Architectures and Applications (BroadWim)", San José, CA, October 2004.Available from: http://www.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/pi4/publications/Transier2004c.pdf. A NS-2 implementation available from:http://www.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/pi4/projects/pbm/kernel.html

*SRMP (Source Routing-based Multicast Protocol) - Hasnaa Moustafa and Houda Labiod: "SRMP: A Mesh-based Protocol for Multicast Communication in ad hoc networks", In "Proc. of the 2002 International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond", pages 43 - 48, San Francisco, CA, May 2002.

*EraMobile (Epidemic-based Reliable and Adaptive Multicast) - Zulkuf Genc and Oznur Ozkas

*OBAMP (Overlay, Boruvka-based, Ad-hoc multicast Protocol) - Andrea Detti, Nicola Blefari-Melazzi: "Overlay, Boruvka-based, Ad-hoc multicast Protocol: description and performance analysis", Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Wiley, 2008 (www.radiolabs.it/obamp).

Geographical Multicast Protocols (Geocasting)

*LBM (Location Based Multicast) - "Y.KO AND VAIDYA 1998 Location Based Multicast (LBM)"

*GeoGRID (Geographical GRID (see GLS)) - "WEN-HWA LIAO AND JANG-PING SHEU AND YU-CHEE TSENG GeoGRID & Geographical GRID: A Fully Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Telecommunication Systems 2001,volume 18, number 1-3, pages 37-60"

*GeoTORA (Geographical TORA (see TORA)) - "Y. KO AND N. VAIDYA A protocol for geocasting in mobile ad hoc networks (GeoTORA) Tech. Rep. 00-010, Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, March 2000. 23"

*MRGR (Mesh-Based Geocast Routing) - "BOLENG, CAMP AND TOLETY 2001 Mesh-Based Geocast Routing (MRGR)"

* MOBICAST (Mobile Just-in-time Multicasting) - "Q. Huang, C. Lu and G-C. Roman, Mobicast: Just-in-time multicast for sensor networks under spatiotemporal constraints, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2634, pages 442-457"

* Abiding Geocast / Stored Geocast (Time Stable Geocasting) - C. Maihöfer, T. Leinmüller, E. Schoch: Abiding Geocast: Time-Stable Geocast for Ad Hoc Networks, Second ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET 2005), Cologne, Germany, September 2, 2005

Other Protocol Classes

*FQMM (Flexible QoS Model for MANET) - "H. XIAO, WINSTON K.G. SEAH, A. LO and K.C. CHUA, A Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In the proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 15-18 May 2000, Tokyo, Japan, pp445-449. Available from: http://www1.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/~winston/papers/VTC2000Spring-FQMM.pdf"

*SMP (Skewed Map Forwarding) - C. LIU and WINSTON K.G. SEAH, "Skewed Map Forwarding for Location-based Multipath Routing in Ad Hoc Networks", Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2006), Lipari, Sicily (Italy), June 14-17, 2006. Available from: http://www1.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/~winston/papers/MedHocNet2006-Skewed-Map-Forwarding.pdf.

*INSIGNIA (In-band signaling support for QoS in Mobile Ad hoc Networks) - "S.B. LEE, G.S. AHN, X. ZHANG, and A.T. CAMPBELL, "INSIGNIA: An IP-Based Quality of Service Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing (Academic Press), Special issue on Wireless and Mobile Computing and Communications, Vol. 60 No. 4 pg. 374-406, April 2000, http://www.comet.columbia.edu/insignia"

*IMEP (Internet Manet Encapsulation Protocol) - "M. S. CORSON, S. PAPADEMETRIOU, P. PAPADOPOULOS, V. PARK, A. QAYYUM INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL (IMEP) SPECIFICATION, Internet Draft draft-ietf-manet-imep-spec-01.txt"

*ANMP (Adhoc Network Management Protocol) - "W. Chen, N. Jain, S. Singh, ANMP: Ad hoc network management protocol, IEEE JSAC, Aug. 1999, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1506-1531. Available at http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~singh/anmp.html"

*Terminode Routing which is a combination of two routing methods namely Termode local routing and Terminode Remote Routing

*Support - I.Chatzigiannakis, S.Nikoletseas and P.Spirakis: Distributed Communication Algorithms for Ad-hoc Mobile Networks. In the Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing (JPDC), Elsevier, 63 (1): pp. 58-74, 2003, Special Issue on Mobile Ad-hoc Networking and Computing.

* C. Siva Ram Murthy, B.S. Manoj, "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks : Architectures and Protocols", Prentice Hall PTR, May 2004, New Jersey, USA. Link: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/013147023X/sr=8-1/qid=1148971820/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-9396180-5519166?%5Fencoding=UTF8

*B.A.T.M.A.N. - Better approach to mobile adhoc networking

*W2LAN (Wireless to LAN Protocol) - "W2LAN: protocol that transforms a 802.11 mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) into an Ethernet LAN, CIIT2004, International Conference on Communications, Internet & Information Technology, pp. 317-320, ISBN 0-88986-445-4."

*ODLW (On-Demand Link-Weight routing protocol for Ad Hoc Networks), A N Al-Khwildi, K.K. Loo & H S Al-Raweshidy ” An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Science of Electronic Technology of Information and Telecommunications (SETIT 2007 IEEE), Tunisia 2007.http://www.brunel.ac.uk/about/acad/sed/sedres/nmc/wncg/security/adhoc/

* A. Kashyap, H. Nishar, and P. Agarwal, "Survey On Unicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", citeseer|Citeseer: 481660|481660

External links

This is a list of existing definitions or even implementations of Ad hoc network routing protocols.These are links to code that can combine inexpensive commercial radios with inexpensive computers to form self-organizing radio-based network systems:

*AODV
**Ad-hoc Support Library and AODV-UIUC, http://aslib.sourceforge.net
**Embedded AODV & TORA, http://www.nova-eng.com/novaroam.html
**AODV-UCSB, http://moment.cs.ucsb.edu/AODV/aodv.html#Implementations
**AODV-UU, http://core.it.uu.se/adhoc
**HUT AODV for IPv6, http://www.tml.hut.fi/~ajtuomin/manet/aodv/
**AODV for IPv6 (Based on AODV-UU), http://www.crl.se/?go=aodv6
**AODV Kernel, http://w3.antd.nist.gov/wctg/aodv_kernel/
**AODV Spanning Tree, http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~krishna/aodv-st/
**UoB-JAdhoc - Java based multi-platform implementation, http://www.aodv.org
**UoBWinAODV - Microsoft Windows based implementation, http://www.aodv.org
*DSR
**DSR-UU, http://core.it.uu.se/adhoc
**picoNet - DSR implementation, http://piconet.sourceforge.net/
**Monarch implementation of DSR, http://www.monarch.cs.rice.edu/dsr-impl.html
**UC Boulder implementation of DSR, http://pecolab.colorado.edu/DSR.html
*OLSR
**olsrd (Unik-OLSR) (for Linux and Windows) http://www.olsr.org
**qolyester (OLSR) http://qolsr.lri.fr/
**INRIA implementation of OLSR, http://menetou.inria.fr/olsr/ and http://menetou.inria.fr/OOLSR/
**SMOLSR/MOLSR - a multicast OLSR implementation by INRIA, based on OOLSR, http://menetou.inria.fr/SMOLSR-MOLSR/
**UPV implementation of OLSR for Windows NT/CE, http://www.grc.upv.es/calafate/olsr/olsr.htm
**NRL modifications to INRIA OLSRv3, nolsrd, http://pf.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/olsr/
**Independent NRL implementation of OLSR, nrlolsrd, http://pf.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/olsr/
*OSPF MANET
** Boeing's implementation of OSPF MANET (quagga patch), http://hipserver.mct.phantomworks.org/ietf/ospf/ ( [http://cvs.quagga.net/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi?p=quagga.git;a=shortlog;h=wospf/boeing quagga git branch] )
** Overlapping Relays implementation by Kenneth Holter, http://folk.uio.no/kenneho/index.php?page=studies&subpage=wospf
*MISC
**Authenticated Routing for Ad-Hoc Networks (ARAN) (based on Ad Hoc Support Library) http://prisms.cs.umass.edu/arand/
**CUWiN implementation of HSLS for NetBSD http://cuwireless.net/download
**DYMO, http://sourceforge.net/projects/dymoum/
**LQSR, http://research.microsoft.com/mesh/
**LUNAR http://www.docs.uu.se/selnet/lunar
**MMRP (Mobile Mesh Routing Protocol) for Linux, http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_transfer/mobilemesh/
**MMRP for Windows, http://ipmesh.sourceforge.net/
**SPBM, http://www.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/pi4/projects/pbm/kernel.html
**INSIGNIA, http://www.comet.columbia.edu/insignia
**TORA, http://wiki.uni.lu/secan-lab/Temporally-Ordered+Routing+Algorithm.html
**ZRP, http://www.zrp.be/
**MAODDP, http://www.geocities.com/humayunbakht/annualcon.pdf
**http://www.cms.livjm.ac.uk/research/seminars/2005/HumayunBakht.htm
**How the Internet is influencing vehicle-to-vehicle communications, http://domino.research.ibm.com/comm/research.nsf/pages/d.compsci.vehicle_communications_podium.html
**OBAMP, http://www.radiolabs.it/obamp


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