- Football boot
The items of
footwearworn while playing footballare called football boots in British English. They feature studs (cleats) protruding from the sole for tractionon a playing fieldcovered with grassor similar surface; hence they are called "cleats" in American English. Association footballboots are called soccer shoes in American English. In most codes of football, modern "boots" are not technically boots as they do not cover the ankle. They can be made from a wide variety of leathers, kangarooleather being a popular choiceFact|date=March 2008.
The first record of a pair of football boots occurs when
Henry VIII of Englandordered a pair from the Great Wardrobe in 1526. [ [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,,1150460,00.html Who's the fat bloke in the number eight shirt? | | Guardian Unlimited Arts ] ] The royal shopping list for footwear states: "45 velvet pairs and 1 leather pair for football". [http://www.gktgazette.com/2004/mar/features.asp] Unfortunately these are no longer in existence.
association football's Laws of the Game, "Law 4: Player's equipment" deals with football boots. Until 1891, any kind of projection on the soles or heels of football boots was strictly forbidden. The 1891 revision allowed both studs and bars, so long as they were made of leather and did not project more than half an inch, and they had their fastenings driven in flush with the leather. Studs had to be rounded, neither conical nor pointed and not less than half an inch in diameter. The leather studs were originally hammered into the boots on a semi-permanent basis and players would have several pairs of boots with different length studs, but in the mid-1950s Adidas introduced boots with interchangeable screw-in studs made of rubber or plastic for varying weather conditions. Football boots were originally heavy boots with protection for the ankle, and these remained the standard style of boot in northern Europe for many years where the boots needed to stand up to the rigours of use on muddy winter pitches. A lighter boot without ankle protection and resembling a studded shoe became popular in southern Europe and South America where pitches were generally harder and less muddy and this eventually became the standard style.
Different styles for different sports
Depending on the type of surface, kind of sport and even the wearer's position or role in the game, different cuts of boot and particularly stud arrangements are available. For hard fields, amateur participants may wear a sneaker shoe or a plastic-stud boot (known as a "moulded sole"); in most sports and positions this is adequate, although on a well-grassed or sodden field, a screw stud is recommended for more grip; these may be metal, rubber or plastic.
rugby union, the screw-in stud (or in some cases a metal-tipped, moulded stud) is preferred, especially in the positions of prop, hooker, and lock, where more grip is required for contested scrums. These screw-in studs are commonly either completely of metal construction or plastic with metal tips, of a maximum length of 18mm. These boots are often heavier than appropriate for other types of football.
Screw-in studs have been banned in some
Australian rules footballleagues since the 1990s due to the frequency of severe injuries to players as a result of contact with the metal. In football, referees must now check all boots prior to kick off to check for damage to studs, to prevent injury. Before this time, preference between the screw-in stud was based primarily on weather conditions.
More recently, moulded soles with specially designed boots known as "blades" have moulded soles facing in multiple directions, theoretically to maximise grip and minimise ankle injury. Recently, however, "bladed" football boots have faced criticism from some UK sporting bodies for causing potentially serious injuries to players. English football club Manchester United have even banned its players from wearing boots with bladed studs. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/m/man_utd/4277722.stm Ferguson wants bladed boots ban | | BBC Sport ] ]
Association football markets and brands
Originally, association football boots were available only in
black, but in more recent years have become available in various colours such as red, white, yellow, silver and gold. Big name companies such as Nike, Adidas, Umbroand the like have made an impact on the market with record sales. Nike's flagship shoe is the "Total 90" football boot worn by Wayne Rooney, with other versions such as "Mercurial Vapors" worn by Cristiano Ronaldo. German company Adidas are responsible for the Predator range worn by David Beckham, Gary Neville, Kakáand Steven Gerrard. Also, the entire German national side wore Adidas boots during the 2006 FIFA World Cup. English firm Umbro produce the "X-Boot" range endorsed by England captain John Terryand Michael Owen. In recent times, the most successful of these companies is Nike, and their products enjoy great popularity among professional footballers; among Nike's endorsers are two-time FIFA World Player of the Yearand F.C. Barcelonaforward Ronaldinho, aforementioned Manchester United duo Wayne Rooney and Cristiano Ronaldo, AC Milanstriker Ronaldo, and other popular players. Adidas, which has been providing football boots with screw-in studs to the German national side since 1954, have made their impact on the modern market by signing big name players as endorsers: players such as David Beckham, former France captain Zinedine Zidane, Chelsea's Frank Lampard, Steven Gerrardand other successful players. Adidas sells with an image of technology and class in their boots which is key to their success. Umbro, meanwhile, is the weakest of the big name companies in terms of footwear sales, but has a strong association with the England team, whom it produces equipment for to add to the endorsement deals with John Terry and Michael Owen, among others. Both Chelsea and Manchester United had enjoyed long kit manufacturing deals with Umbro, but both teams signed recent deals with Adidas and Nike respectively.
* [http://www.footy-boots.com/ Football Boots]
* [http://www.prodirectsoccer.com fotball boots]
* [http://www.footy-boots.com/caring-for-your-football-boots/ Caring for your Football Boots]
* [http://www.footy-boots.com/football-boots-history/ Football Boot History]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
football boot — ˈfootball boot [football boot] noun (BrE) a leather shoe with pieces of rubber on the bottom to stop it slipping, worn for playing football ( ↑soccer ) compare ↑cleats … Useful english dictionary
Concave football boot — Concave Holdings Ltd is based in Toronto, Canada. The company is globally oriented with a principal office in Manchester UK, executive office in Toronto, and locations in the US. The first application of the firm was the 2008 Concave PT1 football … Wikipedia
Gold Football-Boot Prize — Auksinio batelio prizas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Apdovanojimas, kasmet skiriamas Europos šalių futbolo čempionatų rezultatyviausiam futbolininkui varžybų sezonui pasibaigus. Auksinio batelio prizą įsteigė 1968 m.… … Sporto terminų žodynas
Bronze Football-Boot Prize — Bronzinio batelio prizas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Apdovanojimas, skiriamas Europos šalių čempionatų futbolininkui, pagal rezultatyvumą užėmusiam trečiąją vietą. Įsteigtas 1968 m. Pirmasis Bronzinio batelio prizą pelnė… … Sporto terminų žodynas
Boot — A boot is a type of shoe that covers at least the foot and the ankle and sometimes extends up to the knee or even the hip. Most have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece.… … Wikipedia
Boot Hill (disambiguation) — Boot Hill is the name for a number of cemeteries, chiefly in the American West.Boot Hill may also refer to: * Boot Hill (arcade game), an arcade game from Midway * Boot Hill (film), a western starring Terence Hill * Boot Hill (role playing game) … Wikipedia
Boot money — refers to money paid privately or anonymously to amateur athletes, often to circumvent laws or league regulations prohibiting athlete compensation. It can be paid as an incentive to win or as a reward for a good performance, but especially in… … Wikipedia
Football Far North Coast — ( [http://www.footballfarnorthcoast.com.au Website] ) is the governing body controlling Football (soccer) on the Far North Coast of New South Wales, Australia. The name of the organisation was changed in late 2005 from Soccer Far North Coast in… … Wikipedia
boot|er — «BOO tuhr», noun. Informal. a football or soccer player. ╂[< boot1 + er1] … Useful english dictionary
Football League First Division 1923/24 — Die First Division 1923/24 war die 32. Spielzeit in der Geschichte dieser höchsten englischen Fußballliga. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Vor der Saison 2 Endtabelle 3 Nach der Saison 3.1 Absteiger in die Second Division 3.2 Aufsteiger in die First Divis … Deutsch Wikipedia