Karkala


Karkala

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Karkala| other_name = Karikallu (ಕರಿಕಲ್ಲು)
nickname = Jain Thirth
skyline = Karkal.jpg
skyline_caption = Entrance Gate of Padutirupathi Sri Venkataramana Temple
image_up = India_Karnataka_locator_map.svg
map_caption = Karkala Town
inset_map_marker = yes
type = town| latd = 13.2| longd = 74.983
locator_position = left| state_name = Karnataka
district = Udupi
corp_zone = Karkal
corp_ward = 23
jurisdiction_title_1 = Municipality
jurisdiction_name_1 = Karkal Town Municipal Council
legislature_type = Bicameral
legislature_strength = 156
region = Tulu Nadu
nearest_city = Mangalore
hq = Udupi
distance_1 = Mysore
distance_2 = Bangalore
destination_1 = 250
destination_2 = 350
mode_1 = land
mode_2 = land
division = Mysore Division
leader_title_1 = Counciller
leader_name_1 = Mr. Seetharam
leader_title_2 = Deputy Counciller
leader_name_2 = Mrs. Nalini Achaar
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1912
assembly_const = Karkala Vidhansabha Kshethra(122nd)
parliament_const = Udupi Loksabha Constituency(15th)
official_languages = Tulu, Kannada, Konkani
altitude = 80
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 25118
population_density = 1089.16
area_magnitude= sq. km
area_total = 23.06
area_telephone = 91-(0)8258
postal_code = 574 104
vehicle_code_range = KA-20
sex_ratio = 1.11
unlocode = KARKAL KRN IN
website = www.karkalatown.gov.in
website_caption = Karkala Municipal Office
footnotes = The Famous Jain Centre
autocat = yes

Karkala( Kannada/Tulu-ಕಾರ್ಕಳ, Konkani- कार्कल) is a peaceful silent town and also the headquarters of Karkala Taluk in Udupi district of Karnataka, India, and is located about 300 km from Bangalore.

The first name of this town was Pandya Nagari(ಪಾಂಡ್ಯ ನಗರಿ) during the Jain regime but afterwards it was changed to Karikallu(ಕರಿಕಲ್ಲು) because of black stones. Slowly as the time passed by it was called Karkal(ಕಾರ್ಕಲ್) and then to Karkala.

Karkala with its numerous sights never fails to fascinate people. A mixture of nature and history, the cocktail leaves a pleasant after taste. Its magnificent Ramasamudra Lake flouting its Nelumbiums, black granite outcrops standing tall and dark, the serene smile of Bahubali, Jain basadis galore, blue hillocks on the east all make Karkala a man's concept of paradise.

History and Origin

Karkala has its history from the earliest 10th century; the time ancient Kings ruled over here and then came the Jains who ruled there for about 300 years, due to this reason this place is also known as Jain Thirtha. The landscape is surrounded by thick green forests, black rocks, roofed houses with wells, and lots more.

Original Identity

If there is one thing that symbolises the sunny and serene town of Karkala in Udupi district, it is the black stone. It is prevalent everywhere - in the rocky hills, in the monolithic statue of the Jain saint Bahubali, in the numerous basadis and temples found all over the town. In fact the name of the town, ‘Karkal’ is derived from ‘kari-kallu’ meaning black stone in Kannada. The town nestles in the backdrop of the Western Ghats. There are different names by which this place has been called. Tulus, Jains and Kannadigas call this place as "KARLA".Muslims and Konkanis call it "KARKALA".Christians call it "KARKOL".

Ancient Legends

The Alupas were the first to rule here. Then came the Santaras who were the feudatories of Alupas for a long time. Karkala or ancient Pandya Nagari attained political and cultural importance from the time of Kalasa-Karkala kingdom that was established by Bhairarasa Odeyas between 13th and 16th centuries. The Bhairarasas appear to be the descendants of the Santara chiefs who ruled the western ghats region around the 11th century A.D.

The royal family of Karkala shot to prominence right from the time of the Hoysalas. During the Vijayanagara period this family reached new heights of glory. Their kingdom extended over a wider area comprising Sringeri, Koppa, Balehonnur and Mudigere in Chikamagalur and most of the Karkala taluk. They were rich and maintained a big and strong army. Despite engaging in wars, peace prevailed in the kingdom and this led to increased cultural activity and development.

If Karkala today is a place of tourist delight, the credit should go to the successive kings who developed it. The first important king was Veera Bhairava, who constructed basadis at Karkala and endowed land and money to numerous temples and basadis. Ramanatha and Veerapandya were his two sons. Ramanatha died during his father’s time. In his memory, a scenic lake called "Ramasamudra" was created. This lake still survives in all its glory.

King Veera Pandya, at the insistence of his Guru Lalitakeerti, the pontiff of Karkala Jaina Math, installed the most beautifully carved gigantic statue of Bahubali on the rocky hill of Karkala. The date of the installation has been ascertained as February 13, 1432. This is the icon of the town and a visit to Karkala is incomplete without a visit to this hillock. Veera Pandya also installed the Brahmadeva Pillar in front of the statue in 1436.

Abinava Pandya ascended the throne next and it was he who installed the most beautifully carved manastambha in front of the Neminatha Basadi in Hiriyangadi in 1457 A.D. Hiriyangadi is a small village in Karkala taluk. This nondescript but idyllic village nestling below the Western Ghats attracts an occasional visitor with an eye for architectural grandeur. More than the basadi it is the intricately carved 54 feet pillar in front of the Basadi that speaks highly of the skill and craftsmanship of the artisans of the time. The Neminatha Basadi was renovated in 1946. An oriental school with free boarding and lodging facilities is being run here by the Bhujabali Brahmacharya Ashrama.

Abhinava Pandya’s successor was Pandya VI. He built the famous Kere Basadi, in the middle of a picturesque lake called Anekere in 1545 A.D. It is in this lake that the king’s elephants used to bathe. Both the majestic Basadi and the lake still exist in all their majesty.

The next important king was Immadi Bhairava (Bhairava II). He constructed the famous Chaturmukha Basadi on top of a small rocky hill in 1586 A.D. The Basadi has four identical entrances from the four quarters leading to the Garbagriha and hence is popularly known as Chaturmukha Basadi. This is the most celebrated structural temple in Karkala and is referred to in inscriptions as Tribhuvana Tilaka Jina Chaityalaya and Ratnaraya Dhama. The Chaturmukha Basadi is built in the form of a square mandapa or hall with a lofty doorway and pillared portico on each of its four sides and a pillared verandah. The roof is flat and is made of massive granite slabs. It has lifesize statues of three theerthankaras and small images of 24 theerthankaras. It took 30 years to build this temple. In all, there are 108 pillars inside and outside the temple.

There are 18 basadis of antiquity including Mahaveera Basadi, Chandranathaswamy Basadi, Adinathaswamy Basadi, Ananthanatha Basadi, Guru Basadi and Padmavathi Basadi. But Karkala is not famous for Jain basadis alone. The rulers of Karkala were tolerant and patronising towards other religions. The temples of Anantashayana and Venkataramana are of considerable antiquity and testimony to the tolerance of the rulers of Karkala. There are other important temples like Mahamaya Mukhyaprana temple and Adi Shakti Veerabhadra temple. Karkala also boasts of the highly venerated St Lawrence Church built in 1845 in a village called Attur where people of all religions congregate every year in January for the feast of St Lawrence.

World Heritage Site and A Divine Centre

Karkala is a town of historical importance and a famous pilgrim centre for Jains. The famous single stone 42-foot (13 m) statue Gomateshwara (Lord Bahubali) is located about 1 km from the center of the town and is the second tallest in Karnataka . There are about 18 Jain basadis here. The Bahubali statue is the second tallest in the State. This monolithic statue of Lord Bahubali was installed at Karkala on February 13, 1432 on the instructions of the pontiff of Karkala, Lalitakeerti. You can find several other temples, mosques and churches in and around Karkala. Several jain temples were constructed namely Chaturmukha Thirthankara Basadi, Hiriyangaddi Neminatha Basadi and Anekere Padmavathi Basadi. All of these sites mentioned are listed in Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India.

The other statues of Bahubali in the state are at Shravanabelagola installed by Chamundaraya, which is 57 feet tall, at Venur installed by Timmaraja, which is 35 feet (11 m) tall, and at Dharmasthala installed by D. Veerendra Heggade, which is 39 feet (12 m) tall.

Fairs and Festivals

Mahamasthakabhishekam

Once in every 12 years, lakhs of Jain devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a ceremony where the Gommateshwara statue is bathed and anointed with milk, water, and saffron paste and sprinkled with sandal wood powder, turmeric, and vermilion. The last Mahamastakabhisheka was held in February 2002, and the next will be in 2014 A.D. Also an annual Rathotsava is held in February month.

Main festivals celebrated

1.At Saint Lawrence Church, Attur a.St. Lawrence feast (January Month last week)

2.At Padutirupathi Sri Venkataramana Temple, Carstreet- a.Lakshadeepotsava (festival of lights during November-December Month) and b.Rathotsava or Chariot festival (April-May Month) c.Vishwaroopa Darshana (October-November Month)

3.At Sri Ananthapadmanaabh Temple, Ananthshayana Road- a.AnanthaChathurdashi (September Month) b.Deepotsava (November Month) and c.Rathotsava (April Month)

4.At Sri HosaMaarigudi Temple, Bustand a.Maari Puja (May Month third week)

5.At Sri Ucchhanggi Maariamma Temple, A S Road a.Maari Utsava (May Month last week)

6.At Sri MahaLingeshwara Temple, Pervaaje- a.Maha Shivarathri (February or March Month) b.Rathotsava (April Month)

7.At Sri UmaMaheshwara Temple, Shivathikere- a.Maha Shivarathri (February or March Month) b.Karthika Deepotsava(November Month)

8.At Sri Krishna Kshethra, Anekere a.Krishna Janmaashtami(during August Month)

9.At Sri Raghavendra Swamy Temple, Tellar a.Guru Sree Raghavendra Swamy Aaradhana

10.At Jaamia Masjid, Salmaar a.Jumma Masjid feast (ಉರೂಸ್ in Kannada during January)

11.At Sanoor Mosque a.Sanoor Uroos

Other local festivities

In rural areas annual Jathra Mahotsava, Bootha Kola, Naga Darshana and Daiva Nemothsava are also celebrated. Special festivals like Ram Navami, Buddha Poornima, Krishna Janmashtami, Raksha Bhandhan, Ganesh Chathurthi, Navarathri, Diwali, Christmas, Good Friday, Eid Milad, Moharam and Bakrid are celebrated throughout Karkala.

Places to be visited

Being a Jain centre, Karkala is also known as "Piligrim Town" & a tourist spot. It has many piligrimages and centres of attraction like temples, mosques, churches and lakes including Jain basadis.

Churches:- 1.Attur Church of St. Lawrence 2.Gandhi Maidhan Christ King Church

Mosques:- Jumma Masjid at Salmaar

Lakes:- 1.Anekere Lake 2.Ramasamudra pond 3.Matadha Kere

Jain Basadis:- 1.Hiriyangadi Basadi 2.Chathurmukha Basadi 3.Padmavathi Kere Basadi

Vishnu Temples:- 1.Padutirupathi Sree Venkataramana Temple Karkala 2.Ananthashayana Sree Ananthapadmanabh Temple 3.Anekere Sree Krishna Kshethra 4.Tellar Sree DevakiKrishna Ravalnaath Temple 5.Ananthashayana Sree Vishveshwara Venugopal Temple 6.Kabettu Sree Venugopal Temple

Shiva Temples:- 1.Pervaje Sree MahaLingeshwara Temple 2.Shivathikere Sree UmaMaheshwara Temple 3.Sree Veerabhadra Temple

Durga Temples:- 1.Sree AdiShakthi Veerbhadhra Temple 2.Sree HosaMaarigudi Maruthi Temple 3.Sree Ucchanggi Maariamma Temple 4.Sree Padmavathi Temple 5.Neklaaje Sree Kaalikamba Temple

Ganesh Temples:- 1.Vinayakbettu Sree Siddhivinayaka Temple 2.Banddimuta Sree MoodaGanapathi Temple

Guru Temlpes:- Tellar Sree Raghavendra Swamy Temple

Hanuman Temples:- 1.Sree VeeraMaruthi Temple 2.Sree MukhyaPrana Temple These are situated approximately

1.45 km from the Iron Ore Mining Centre Kudremukh 2.40 km from the famous Sacred places Sringeri & Horanadu 3.50 km from the Port City Mangalore and 4.40 km from the Temple Town Udupi also known as "The Abode of Lord Krishna".

PADUTIRUPATHI KARKALA-The Tirupati of the West Attracting Devotees

This temple's architecture being an ancient and one of the finest is built in a traditional style. Every year, a large number of devotees pay a visit to Lord Venkatramana temple in Karkala with the firm belief in the deities power to grant peoples wishes. It is about 50 km from Mangalore and stands majestically in the heart of the city.

The Venkatramana temple of Karkala is popular with many people of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi District, as many find it irresistible to visit the temple daily and receive the Lord's blessings. Popularly known as 'Padutirupathi'; West means Padu in Kannada and spelt as ಪಡುತಿರುಪತಿ , Lord Venkatramana temple is considered as the main piligrimage of Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSB) of India, even though other community people visit this temple on a daily basis to seek a glimpse of the deities. Legend has it that a family of Gowda Saraswat Brahmins (namely Soire Prabhu and Soma Sharma) brought Lord Venkatramana's idols along with them while migrating from Goa. As they decided to settle down in Karkala, the family built a temple for the Lords and started worshipping them here during 1450 A.D. The exact installation date is still unknown. As and when the temple and its portico was being constructed; other families like Kudvas, Kamaths, Nayaks and others migrated here from Goa (due to tortures from Portuguese invaders) and settled down to help Soma Sharma and Prabhu family with their own agricultural business in developing the temple. The main and presiding deity over here is Lord Sreenivasa which was believed to be brought from Tirumala - Tirupati and daily deity Lord Lakshmi Venkatesha. You can find the photos of deities as displayed.

When a group of dacoits attacked this temple during 1500 A.D, the priests saved the main idols and other valuables by throwing them down a well in Mulki. As things cooled down, they could retrieve the belongings of the temple except for the main deity. However, a person in Mulki found the statue in the well, which was taken as an indication that the Lord wanted to stay there, instead of in Karkala. When Karkala people came to know about this they rushed to Mulki and asked for the idol;but by that time Mulki people had already installed the idol in Sree Veer Vittal Temlpe (around 1520 A.D).It's said that the Lord appeared in people's dreams and asked them to leave his statue with residents of Mulki. He seemed to have reassured them that a hermit would present them his statue in which he resides. The people of Karkala returned back and as told by the Lord himself, a hermit of Tirumala, who was a staunch devotee of Lord Venkatramana from Tirupati, came to Karkala and presented the Lord's statue with the condition that the proceeds of the temple be given to Tirupathi. Heeding to the condition, people of Karkala undertake a pilgrimage to Tirupati each year to present the temple's proceeds. The installation of new idol of Lord Sreenivasa was done on 25th April,1537 and the renovation of the temple took place in the year 1700.

Since the rites and rituals at the Karkala temple are similar to that of Tirupati, it is regarded as Tirupati in the West (while the original shrine is located in the east). So, it's called Padu (or West) Tirupathi. Karnataka Government and Indian Government has declared this temple as Tirupathi of Karnataka and is one of the many temples authorised to collect money for Tirumala Temple. Any kind of pooja performed by a devotee over here is taken as rendering a generous service (work as per his /her own wish) at the feet of the Lord but not as a seva (paid work). A ritual called Vanabhojan (yatra to Tirupathi) is conducted each year in November-December; when the presiding deity Lord Sreenivasa along with Lord Lakshmi Venkatesha is taken to Sri Bhuvanendra College area near Lake Ramasamudra and is kept facing Tirupathi. This is done as the deity can't be taken to Tirupati itself, to comply with the hermit's condition. The deities are bathed with Panchaamrutha (consisting of Milk, Curds, Ghee, Honey and Sugar) and Tender Coconut water (commonly known as Panchaamrutham Abhishekam). It is said that if people do this yatra it is as doing a yatra to Tirupathi. Presenting the offerings to Tirupati at Karkala itself had been an old custom. In the past, these proceeds were also given to Tirupati once in 12 years. Although this is no longer in practice, it is said that people still present their offerings to Tirupati here. Also an annual 6-days chariot festival is celebrated in honour of Tirupathi Lord Sreenivasa Swamy during April-May. The rites and rituals performed during this festival is also the same as in Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams(TTD). The special days celebrated in this temple are Nag Panchami, Sri Krishna Janmaashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Anant Chaturdashi, Deepawali (Vishwaroopa Darshana-means lighting of 50,000 earthen lamps @ 3 A.M during October or November month), Ratha Saptami, Ram Navami and Buddha Poornima.Nag Panchami is celebrated with the pouring of Panchaamrutha abhisheka on the stone idol of snakes in the temple premises. During Janmashtami utsav deity is worshipped as Sri Gopalkrishna and served various items of food. On Ganesh Chathurthi huge silver idol of Lord Ganesha is kept in the temple for 5 days. For Anantha Chathurdashi golden kalasha is taken out to Ramasamdura lake where it is dipped in and holy water is brought back in it while returning to the temple. During Diwali 5 days celebration is being done with the main celebration as Vishwaroopa Darshan done after the 5th day. On Ratha Sapthami day utsav deity is taken out on silver chariot (where in Tirupathi Sreenivas Swamy is taken on SuryaPrabha Vahana). Ram Navami has its own beauty as mass feeding and chariot utsav is the main attraction on that day. Lastly Buddha Purnima in temple has utsav deity taken to Ramasamdura Lake in the morning, evening mass feeding for community people (last one in the year) and in the night half-chariot procession (Bandi utsav); where this utsav has its peculiarity as, a silver palanquin along with utsav deity is kept on Bandi with two wooden dolls holding it on their shoulders. This temple has over 150 Utsavas (Lord taken out to the town and returning back to temple) in a year excluding Amavasyas and Ekaadashis and over 70 mass feedings for the GSB community people. Special mass feedings for other community people are arranged during Shravana(August-September) month and Deepotsava festival. Everyday temple has bhajan recitals by Sri Venkataramana Bhajan group; where over 30 people including children sing recitals of Almighty in Hindi, Konkani, Kannada and Marathi. The temple arranged a 4 month long day-night Sri Raam Naam Sankirthan in the year 1958,1984 and recently in 2006 on July 6th. Sahasra Kumbhaabhishekha (1008 Abhishekham) was held in this temple in the year 1963 March. Raam Dhandu (a trip to Tirumala Tirupathi to offer the offerings given by people) was held regularly in the range of 10 years 3 times, first one in the year 1854 until the year of 1970.

In front of Lord Venkatramana's shrine lies Sri VeerMaruthi temple, whose statue towers over 15 feet and the temple was originally built in 1539. Its renovation was done in 1972. It's said that this statue was found under the grounds of Anekere (near Karkala), when it was dug. This statue of Lord Hanuman has a different type of architecture;left hand on his hip, right hand on top facing sky, legs in walking style, eyes starred in angry form and hair on his head waving in the air. Tippu Sultan was among the ardent devotees of this Hanuman; the silver ornament he had offered to the Lord is still seen around his neck. Once in a year in December month a 24hrs day long "Sri Ram Jai Ram Jai Jai Ram" recital is sung by localites of this area. Every Monday, Saturday and on Ekadashi day Ram Naam Sankirthans are sung by devotees for nearly 3 hours.

Several legends illustrate Lord Venkatramana's power to grant wishes. One of them happened in 1912, when the British government at Madras decided to make Moodbidri instead of Karkala the taluk head quarters, which disappointed people here. They prayed to the deity. When a British officer was on his way to Karkala for re-inspection of the place, as he crossed Moodbidri, all of a sudden his horse collapsed and died on the spot. Somehow he managed to reach Karkala. On reaching there, he paid a visit to Lord Venkatramana's temple. After the visit, the British officer dropped the idea of making Moodbidri the taluk headquarters and decided on Karkala. Such are the miracles of the Lord. Right outside the sanctum-sanctorum (garba-griha) of the temple, there are four massive stone pillars decorated with exquisite carvings carved out by Sri Shilpi Renjal Gopal Shenoy. The pillars have amazing carvings of birds, plants, insects and other different varieties of fine sculptures.

The pooja timings of the temple are as follows: 1. Morning 6:00AM Suprabhatam (except during October-November @ 5:30AM) 2. 6:30AM Nirmala Visarjanam and Ganjji Naivedyam (flower decoration to deities and serving of rice item food) 3. 10:30AM Panchaamrutham Abhishekam to Saligrama 4. 12:30PM Naivedyam (serving food to the Lord except on Ekaadashi) 5. 1:00PM MahaMangalaarthi (performing Pooja) 6. 1:30PM Vishraam Seva (temple door closed) 7. 6:00PM Deevtige Seva and Deepaaradhane (temple doors opened to lighten up the oil lamps) 8. 6:30PM Bhajana Seva (Wednesdays and Fridays by Women;rest all days by Men) 9. 8:00PM Naivedyam (serving food to Lord except on Ekaadashi) 10.8:30PM Aarthi (night Pooja) 11.9:00PM Utsavas (daily outing for the Lord except on Ekaadashi, Amavasya and in Monsoon) 12.10:00PM or 10:30PM Vasantha Seva and other poojas (exception days Ekaantha Seva only) 13.12:30AM Ekaantha Seva (to put the deities to sleep)

The temple has a huge pond in front of it which is called as Sri Pushkarni (built in 1860) and next to this pond is a small temple of Sri Kalabhairava, a servant of Lord Almighty. Once a year during Kalabhairavaashtami, abhishekha is performed for the idol of Lord Kalabhairava.

Karkala Venkataramana Temple has three sects of priests from Vasishta Gotra namely Joishys, Puraniks and Tanthris having an origin from 14th century. Joishys and Puraniks are the primary priests who look after the betterment of deities & Temple and Tanthris are secondary priests who take up important services of temple. Presently Ramkrishna Joishy, Arun Puranik and Ramanath Tanthri are holding up the temple poojas yearly twice. Daily poojas are being done by their sons and grandsons (around 200 in total). The temple management has 14 member board committee;out of which 6 are permanent and the rest keep changing in accordance with election every 3 years. This committee administers the temples finances, management and events by holding monthly meetings in the temple premises. Each committee is headed by a president. The Lord Venkatramana Temple Trust owns and manages 7 educational institutions, apart from conducting cultural and traditional activities. Also it has taken up mid-meal scheme for Mentally Disabled children in Chethana Special School. The temple owns a Goshaala (Cow Shed) of about 12 breeds near temple lake very next to Srinivasa Kala Mandir. Temple authorities also own Kala Mandirs for get together and functions."Heethaishee" a small organisation which arranges marriage and ceremonies for Goud Saraswat Brahmin people. GSB Welfare Trust is yet another organisation which organises functions and gives grants for poor people in GSB community once a year during Ugadi (New Year according to Hindu Calendar). The temple has recently taken up many development works in and around the premises & in educational institutions.

For more detailed and updated information refer to website address [http://www.padutirupathi.org Karkala Sri Venkataramana Temple]

ATTUR CHURCH-A Place of Unity and Integrity

ST. LAWRENCE, ATTUR - KARKALA On the outskirts of the Karkala city, about 15 minutes from the main town stands the shrine of St. Lawrence at Attur in the vicinity of Parpale hills. The St. Lawrence Church has remarkably rich history. We learn that the Attur- Karkala parish seems to have been in existence even before 1759 A.D.

History tells us that the Christians of this place too were among those who suffered captivity of Tippu Sultan from 1784-1799 A.D The parish church in those days was situated at a place about 7 kilometers away from the present church. Tippu destroyed it and took the Christians to Shrirangapatna as captives. Those Christians who returned after freedom from captivity built a church with thatched roof on the way to Nakre in the year 1801 A.D. under the leadership of a Goan priest. In the year 1839 it was replaced by another building. It was about 4 kilometers away from the previous one. This new building happened to be on the backside of the present church and was facing west. A small flower garden is standing in that place now. There is an interesting story of the shrine of St Lawrence church worth mentioning here.

The church that was on the way to Nakre was too old to be used. So the devotees of St. Lawrence accompanied by a Goan priest went about in search of a suitable site carrying with them a one-foot wooden statue of St. Lawrence. They were praying to St. Lawrence to guide them in the choice of a place for raising a church in his honour. They crossed the Rama-Samudra of Karkala and coming down the woods of 'Parpale hills' they reached Attur. There was a spring flowing at the bottom of the hill. As they were tired and thirsty they placed the statue of Saint on the ground and after quenching their thirst took some rest. After some time they thought of resuming their journey, but to their great surprise they could not lift the statue it was firm and immovable like a tree. The priest then exclaimed. "Oh St. Lawrence, if you have chosen this site we will have the church built here". With these words he stooped down to lift the statue and it was easily detached from the ground. It was at this very spot, (behind the present church) that they erected the church in the year 1839, and soon it became a place for pilgrimage. Pilgrims from all sides came to this sacred place and innumerable were the favours granted by the saint. The miraculous statue became an object of popular devotion.

In the year 1895 the parish priest, Rev. Fr. Frank Pereira finding so many devotees of St. Lawrence flocking to this church and claiming to have received innumerable favours from the saint fostered the devotion further and organized Novenas and prayer services making them more and more attractive. In the year 1900 Rev. Fr. Frank Pereira had the church built facing the north. This church was blessed and inaugurated on 22.1.1901 by the Vicar General, Very Rev. Mgr. Frachett.Rev. Fr. Frank Pereira's successors too kept up the devotions, and throughout the year people from near and distant places were going to Attur on pilgrimage. St. Lawrence of Attur is known for his special power of intercession with God. Over the past years the patronage of St. Lawrence over Attur has been remarkable. Not only the residents of Karkala and the pilgrims flocking there in great numbers, but also devotees who invoke St. Lawrence of Attur without visiting the shrine have experienced his powerful intercession. The number of pilgrims to the place throughout the year and specially those during the feast days in the month of January is an evident proof that St. Lawrence does not dismay those who come to him in faith and devotion.The little shrine of St. Lawrence that is adjacent to the sacristy was built by Rev. Fr. Frederick P.S. Moniz in the year 1975 wherein the miraculous statue is preserved. In the year 1993 Ref. Fr. Joswey Fernandes came here as Parish Priest. In the year 1994 he started the work of broadening the narrow space between the church and the hill on the eastern side of the church. But during the monsoons a part of the hill slid and the cement sheet portico was destroyed. Also the ground on the eastern side of the church was filled with the mud of the hill. With the aid received from the government and the help of the public this mud was cleared and the school grounds were enlarged with this mud.

A hundred feet high tower representing religious art of various regions was built in 1997, to symbolize the Church's ingenuousness in accepting people of various faiths. In July 1997 due to the heavy rains the hill slid again and the portico of Aluminum sheets was completely destroyed. Nothing happened to the new faced, which indeed was be said to be a miracle of St. Lawrence. With the fallen mud of the hill, the deep ravine in front of the church on the left side was filled up and the school grounds further extended. Because of these the right side of the church became spacious. The people could now move about more conveniently and freely.

In 1998 the 'Miracle-Pond' (PUSHKARINI) was renovated in modern Indian Architectural style with facility for pilgrims to descend into the pond. In addition, the Twin gates in front of the church, built in 1999, in line with the Tower further enhance the beauty of the Holy Place.

In the year 2000 A.D., a church building is put up in front of the existing church joining the recently put up façade. This spacious church is specially meant to manage the Annual Feast crowd of people. The Masses during these days will be celebrated in this new church. The existing church is maintained untouched and will be used as before. The new church was inaugurated and blessed by Rt. Rev. Dr. Aloysius P. D'Souza, the Bishop of Mangalore on 21st January 2001.The whole year round the pilgrims come to visit the Shrine. People believe that St. Lawrence indeed is a powerful intercessor before God. Not only the people of Attur and the pilgrims that visit the Shrine, but also even those who without visiting the shrine, still pray for help from the Saint, have felt the helping hand of St. Lawrence. The great number of pilgrims that visit the shrine during the Feast and throughout the year is a testimony that the Saint does not refuse those who approach him with trust and confidence.

Novena prayers: Every Thursday at 10 a.m. followed by Mass.(also on Sundays at 7.20 a.m. and 10.30 a.m. followed by Mass)Thanksgiving and intentions sent by the devotees are announced every Thursday and Sunday during the Novena and are prayed.Annual Feast: Every year normally in the last week of January.(Thursday of the week is to be within this month)

Rev. Fr. Joswey Fernandes was transferred to Niddodi on 10th June 2001 and Rev. Fr. Francis Cornelio took charge of the parish as new vicar. Rev. Fr. Denish Casthelino joined Fr. Cornelio to reside at Attur to assist the parish and also to monitor the activities for the development of Dalith Christians of the Diocese.

The erection of the ‘Mahadwara’ at Doopadakatte was inaugurated on 27th January 2002. The work of similar Mahadwara is in progress at Kabettu to be inaugurated on 27th April 2002 . The devotion to the historical Cross erected at Parpale Hill was renewed. Recently a few years ago a community hall was built.

CHATHURMUKHA BASADI- A Marvellous Place

Chaturmukha Basadi is a famous Jain temple, situated on a rocky hill at Karkala in Udupi District of Karnataka. Consecrated by Vir Pandya deva, the king of Bairarava family in 1432, the basadi was completed in 1586. It is built in the form of a square mandapa or hall, with a lofty doorway and pillared portico on each of its four sides. Since four identical doorways in four directions lead to the Garbhagriha, it is called Chaturmukha Basadi. The roof is flat and is made of huge granite slabs. In the Garbhagriha, one can see the standing statues of Ara, Malli, and Suyrata. Besides these, the images of the 24th Tirthankar and Yakshi Padmavati can also be found. There are a total of 108 pillars inside and outside the temple. This is the most celebrated temple in Karkala and is referred to in the inscriptions as Tribhuvana Tilaka Jina Chaityalaya and Ratnaraya Dhama.

ANANTHASHAYANA TEMPLE- A Fine Architecture

This was previously a Jain Basadi proposed by one of the Jain king during the year 1567. Once during this time, Sringeri Jagadguru Sri Narasimha Bharathi Swamiji came to Karkala and the Jain King gave him a warm welcome to his Basadi. But Swamiji said "We will stay only if there is a temple with a Lord Almighty in it". So the king gave his Basadi to His Holiness Sringeri Swamiji with installing a stone sculptured Idol of Lord Vishnu in the sleeping form. This Lord Vishnu was found in a lake near Nellikar village. The idol is so magnificent to watch as it is a huge one sculpted out of a single black stone with Lord Brahma on the lotus (coming out of Lord Vishnu's navel), and his wives Sridevi and Bhudevi at his feet. This reminds us of the Sri Govindraja Swamy Temple in Tirupathi. One can find the sculptures of this Basadi in each and every corner of this temple. Also this is a protected site under Archaeological Survey of India.

Tourist Places in Karkala Taluk

Karkala can be visited 365 days in a year; but the best time to visit these beautiful places is from the month of August to May.

Karkala - A famous centre of Jainism, the world famous Bahubali stands erect on the Gomateshwara Betta. There are other temples like Anantashayana, Gopalakrishna, Veerabhadra, and Venkataramana.

1.Attur - The historical Attur church is famous here. There is a Vishnu temple and Mahaganpathi Temple too. 2.Bajagoli - In the month of February every year, a local sport called Luv-Kush Kambala (bullock Race) is held here. 3.Nandalike - The birthplace of poet Muddanna. His memorial is also built there. Mahalingeshwara temple is well known. 4.Vaaranga - This is an important Jain centre. The kere basadi is located in midst of a lake. There are many other basadis too. 5.Jomlutirtha - On the auspicious day of Ellu amavasya, hundreds and thousands of people come to have a dip in the waterfall here. 6.Kudlutirtha - This is an ideal place for a nature lovers. 7.Someshwara - The Someshwara sanctuary well known. Someshwara, a hamlet in Karkala taluk, is about 40 km, from Karkala on Mangalore-Karkala-Agumbe Road. It lies at the foot of the Western Ghats. 8.Hebri - The Famous Ananthapadmanabh Temple. 9.Agumbe - Approximately 32 km from Tirthahalli is the captivating town of Agumbe, situated atop a ghat head. Receiving the highest rainfall in Karnataka, this suburb has many scenic delights to offer. The glorious sunset is the main attraction of this place. Other places of interest include the Gopalakrishna temple and the Observatory maintained by the Meteorological Survey of India.

Nearby Towns and Piligrimage centres

Some important towns and pilgrim centres of Karnataka especially of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi are connected to Karkala.

TOWNS DISTANCES FROM KARKALA JOURNEY---- * Nitte Sri Durgaparmeshwari Temple. (5km) 15mins * Belman Sri Durgaparmeshwari Temple. (11km) 20mins * Mundkur Sri Durgaparameshwari Temple. (13km) 25mins * Kukkundoor Sri Durgaparmeshwari Temple. (3km) 10mins * Miyar Sri Mahaganapapathi Temple. (4km) 10mins * Bajagoli Sri Mahalingeshwara Temple. (10km) 20mins * Kanthavar Sri Kantheshwar Temple. (7km) 15mins * Sanoor Sri Mahalingeshwara Temple. (4km) 15mins * Miyar St. Dominic Church. (7km) 25mins * Sanoor Masjid. (7km) 25mins

PILIGRIMAGES DISTANCES FROM KARKALA JOURNEY---- * Udupi Sri Krishna Mutt. (40km) 1hour * Kollur Sri Mookambika Temple. (77km) 2hr 30mins * Hiriyadka Sri Veerabhadra Temple. (25km) 45mins * Dharmasthala Sri Manjunatheshwara Temple. (60km) 3hours * Kukke Sri Subramanya Temple. (90km) 5hours * Moodabidri Saavira Kambadha Basadi. (18km) 30mins * Sringeri Sri Jagadguru Sharadhaamba Temple. (40km) 1hour * Horanaadu Sri Annapoorneshwari Temple. (40km) 1hour * Hosanaadu Sri Annapurneshwari Temple Kodyadka, Moodabidri.(13km) 25mins * Padubidri Sri Mahalingeshwara Mahaganapathi Temple. (28km) 35mins * Santhooru Sri Subramanya Temple. (18km) 30mins * Mangaluru Sri Mangaladevi Temple. (52km) 1hr 30mins * Kadri Sri Manjunath Temple. (48km) 1hr 20mins * Kudroli Sri Gokarnatheshwar Temple. (45km) 1hr 20mins * Sharavu Sri Mahaganapathi Temple. (45km) 1hr 20mins * Kudupu Sri Ananthpadmanabha Temple. (35km) 50mins * Polali Sri Rajarajehswari Temple. (35km) 50mins * Kateel Sri Durgaparameshwari Temple. (39km) 55mins * Bappanadu Sri Durgaparameshwari Temple. (39km) 55mins * Anegudde Sri Vinayaka Temple. (51km) 1hr 10mins * St. Rosario Church Mangalore. (45km) 1hr 20mins * St. Aloysius Chappel Mangalore. (45km) 1hr 20mins * Milagres Church. (45km) 1hr 20mins * St. Joseph Church Belmaanu. (11km) 20mins * Ullal Darga. (55km) 1hr 45mins

Geography

Karkal is located at coord|13.2|N|74.98|E|. [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/19/Karkal.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Karkal] ] It has an average elevation of 81 metres (265 feet).Fully surrounded by black rocks and lush green forests. This tehsil is also located in Western Ghats with other places. The dark green area on the western side of India indicates the whole stretch of Western Ghats from Kerala to Maharashtra along the west coastline.

Meteorological Details

City Area 23.06sq.km Number of Properties 9526 habitats Length of Roads 77.5 km. Total Water Supply 2 MLD Type of Land Wet. Water Supply Source Mundli River. Summer Temperature 38 DegreeCelsius. Winter Temperature 24 DegreeCelsius. Annual Rain Fall 4372.7 MM. Agriculture Crops Paddy, Coconut, Arecanut, Jackfruit. Latitude 13.2000 Longitude 74.9833 Altitude (feet) 265 Lat (DMS) 13°11'60 N Long (DMS) 74°58'60 E Altitude (meters) 80 Population (Approx for 7 km radius) 40000

Weather Details

Humidity 56.54587% Cloud Cover 32% Visibility 8km Max Temp. 34°C Dewpoint 20°C Min Temp. 23°C Ceiling 2,316.5m Departure -1°C Apparent Temp. 33°C High Past 34°C Wind Chill 30°C Low Past 30°C Wind Speed 8km/h Precipitation 0.0mm Wind Direction NW Wind Gusts 12km/h

Demographics

As of 2001 India census, [GR|India] Karkal town had a population of 25,118. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Karkal has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 79%. In Karkal, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. According to recent statistics by town municipality, now currently 25,635 people reside in this town, while as per the recent statistics Karkala taluk has a population of 2.10 Lacs (previous 2001 census is 2,04,571).

Culture

The undivided Dakshina Kannada District is very well known for its diversity and variety of cultures. This small town Karkala is a delicious fruit of a branch of this cultural tree. Yet now being a part of Udupi District it still has the same old taste of diversities.

Language and People

Karkala is a multi-cultural and multi-lingual city that follows four popular types of religion namely Hinduism, Islams, Christianity and Jainism. Local people normally speak four local languages Tulu, Kannada, Beary and Konkani apart from Hindi, Urdu and English which are well understood. The various communities over here include Tuluvas (Bunts, Mogaveeras, Billavas, Dalits etc), Konkanis (Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, Saraswats,Daivajnas Roman Catholics) , Kannadigas (Brahmins),Vishwakarma Bhrahmins, Jains, Brahmins, Marathi speaking Maharashtrians (chitpavans)(very small in number) Christians and Urdu & Beary speaking Muslims.

Tradition

Hulivesha (Tiger dance) is a unique form of folk dance in Dakshina Kannada [26] that fascinates the young and the old alike. Since tiger is considered as the favored carrier of Goddess Sharada (the deity in whose honor Dussera is celebrated), this dance is performed during the Dussera celebration. It is also performed during other festivals like Krishna Janmasthami. Bhuta Kola or spirit worship is practised here. Bhuta Kola is usually done at night. Kambala or buffalo race is also conducted in water filled paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfight) is another favourite sport for village people. Nagaradhane or Snake worship is also practised according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species which lived on the top. Konkani speaking GSBs have their own tradition of celebrating Rathotsava and Deepotsava like the Kannada speaking Brahmins.

The Christians in Karkala celebrate a special feast called "Saanth Maari" also known as Attur Church festival for 3 days. Thousands and thousands of people from all over India come here to watch this.

The Muslims celebrate Uroos in the Masjids and Jains have their Jain Milans yearly.

Media

All the media materials to Karkala are directely published and broadcasted from Mangalore and Udupi.

Newspaper Dailies

Among Kannada newspapers Udayavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Prajavani, Kannada Prabha and Varthabharathi are popular. There are evening newspapers like Karavali Ale, Mangalooru Mitra, Sanjevani and Jayakirana being published here. A lot of other periodicals are also being published from Mangalore. Major national English newspapers like The Hindu, Deccan Herald, Times of India and Indian Express publish Mangalore editions.

Entertainment Broadcasting

The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable Television providers air cable channels of independently owned private networks.Direct To Home cables and TataSky Satellites have recently gained entrance.

Communication and Radio

Almost all mobile and landline connections are available at Karkala; *Airtel *Vodafone *Spice Telecom *Tata Indicom *BSNL *RelianceMost of the FM channels and Akashwani broadcasts are gaining popularity among the local people over here. Internet connections ranging from dailup to broadband from Airtel and BSNL ISPs have gained entrance recently.

Administration

Government offices in Karkala are the same as in other places with main Municipality at the Taluk centres and Grama Panchayats in villages. There is one municipality in town, taluk office (with all services) at Kukkundoor and 50 gram panchayats having over 100 villages in Karkala Taluk.

Civic Administrative Office

The Karkala Town Municipal Council (Karkala Purasabe in Kannada; ಕಾರ್ಕಳ ಪುರಸಬೆ) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. The council comprises 23 elected representatives, called "councillors", one from each of the 23 wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. One of the councillor from the majority party is selected as a Chief Officer.The municipal wards are:
* 1.Banglegudde-Kaje
* 2.Banglegudde-Paraneeru
* 3.Pervaje-Sadbhavana
* 4.Pervaje-Bandeematha
* 5.Salmara-Jarigudde
* 6.Shrinivasa nagara-Pervaje
* 7.Pervaje-Pattonjikatte
* 8.Market-Atri nagara
* 9.Bobbala-Vinayakabettu
* 10.Tellaru-Marinapura
* 11.Ananthashayana-College
* 12.Varnabettu-Gomatabettu
* 13.Danashale
* 14.Kalikamba
* 15.Danashale
* 16.Madhyapete
* 17.Gandhi maidana-Havaldarabettu
* 18.Gandhi maidana-Atturu
* 19.Kabettu-Hiriyangadi
* 20.Kuntalpady-Hiriyangadi
* 21.Taluk Off-Kabettu
* 22.Kabettu-Rotari
* 23.Kabettu-Cholpadi

The headquarters of municipality is located near Karkala Bus Station. Taluk Office area has a Mini Vidhana Soudha (Government Office).At present according to new delimitation of constituent assemblies, Karkala is 122nd Legislative Assembly Constituency in Karnataka with nearly 2 Lakh voters. Also Karkala comes under Udupi-Chikkamaglur LokaSabha Constituency.

Law and Order

Karkala has one Town Police station in the town area at Kabettu and check posts in all the grama panchayats under the Karnataka State Police Administration. Also a taluk magistrial court is present to handle all the civil and criminal cases happening in Karkala as a whole; monthly Lok Adalats are held in all village panchayats.

Electricity and water

Power Supply

Electricity in Karkala is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) & distribution is through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM). Like many cities in India, this town experiences 3 to 6 hours of scheduled and unscheduled power cuts the whole year to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as small industries. The main power source for Karkala is Hiriyadka Power Sub Station. Also in Nitte area there is a sub station called Kemar Power Station.

Water Connections

Potable water to the city is supplied by municipality. Almost all water is taken from the vented dam constructed across the Mundli river. Some houses have wells and borewells.

Health Centres

There are several clinics in and around Karkala town with 2 well equipped Hospitals namely City Hospital and Rotary Hospital. Also Government setup primary health centres are present in each Village Panchayats

Infrastructure, Lifestyle and Morality

Just a couple of years ago, Karkala is being developed into a city with huge buildings and posh Bungalows. But the traditional lifestyle of people over here is the same from many years. People of this area enjoy modernisation with traditional and moral values.

Transportation

Karkala mainly has got good road connectivity as railways and airports are situated far away from this place. Also there are good taared and damarised roads available in the town with good drainage system provided by Municipality.

Roads connected

Karkala is connected to 3 major state roads and one major highway. 1.National Highway 13(Karkala-Mudabidri-Mangalore) 2.State Highway-66(Karkala-Nitte-Padubidri)which is also connected to National Highway 17 (India) 3.State Highway-37(Karkala-Manipal-Udupi) and 4.State Highway-25A(Karkala-Hebri-Udupi).

Nearest air station and rail terminus

Since this town is far off from air and rail terminals; nearby airport and railway station is situated at 1. Bajpe in Mangalore and 2. Indrali in Udupi.

Long distance travel and Local Transport

The local and long distance transport includes the buses which ply regularly. Some of them are mini buses and some are air suspension buses.

The bus station of Bangalore and Mangalore plies KSRTC buses regularly to all the important places of Karnataka via Karkala. Private buses from Karkala are also available to Bombay, Mysore and Bangalore.Local and Express buses to many places of Udupi and Mangalore district ply every 5-10 minutes.

Local and State Permits

1.Autorickshaws and private permit cars are also available to view places in Karkala taluk. 2.Ambassador cars (state permit) to travel throughout Karnataka are also available.

Boarding, Lodging and Food

Cuisines @ preferable rate

Sagar Restaurant (Tel: 08258-230602), located in Karkala's Gopal Tower serves South and North Indian and Chinese food. Amrita Restaurant (Tel: 232464) on Market Road has pure veg South Indian. Try the surnali dosa. Non-vegetarian can be had at Madhura Restaurant (Tel: 235630), half a kilometre from Karkala's Bus Stand on the Mangalore Road. Try the Madhura Special thali and the ghee roast dosa. Local Hotels are also available for local food taste.

Comfortable Stay @ manageable price

Prakash Hotel Boarding and Lodging, AnathaShayana Rd, Karkala, Udupi- 574 104 Ph: 08258-23 4981Hotel Suhag, Gopal Towers, Near Bus Stand, Karkala, Udupi – 574 104 Tel: 08258-231991 Hotel Shreshta, AnanthaShayana Road, Karkala, Udupi – 574 104 Tel: 0820-231853Hotel Swagath, Near Bus Stand, Karkala, Udupi – 574 104 Tel: 08258-230755Hotel King’s Court, A S Road, Karkala, Udupi – 574 104 Tel: 08258-230827

Banks

* Corporation Bank
* Syndicate Bank
* Canara Bank
* Karnataka Bank
* Vijaya Bank
* Other Local and State Government banks

Commerce and Industries

Traditional and Modern Trading

In this semi-urban township business (all types of legalised business forms), hotels (small to large), shops have gained high yearly incomes. Also tuition classes run by different people have made peoples life little better. A family man also gains extra income through rents paid by Paying Guests. Almost all the trading units in Karkala have computerised and cash memo billings.

Companies

Small scale industries have come up giving jobs to poor people. SEZ's are yet to come up. Some of the small scale industries in and around Karkala town limits are:
* Sanoor Cashew Factory, Sanoor.
* Kukkundoor Industrial Area, Ajekar.
* Bola Cashew Factory, Manjarpaalke.
* Bharath Beedies Pvt Ltd, Karkala.
* Lamina Industries Pvt Ltd, Nitte.
* Gayathri Exports, Karkala.

ports

Yearly and monthly sports activities are held at two places in particular namely Gandhi Maidhan and Swaraj Maidhan. Cricket, Volleyball, and different types of matches are being played. Also State Government arranged tournies are held. Some local organisations arrange tournaments either as Day Light or Night Light matches. Famous Player Ashwini Nachhappa had inaugurated recently a night played Volleyball match under flood lights. Schools and colleges also arrange their own sports functions in these two stadiums.

Cultural, Traditional and Co-Curicular Activities

All over the town there are halls in which one or the other activities are held for the betterment of the people. Some are held for one day, some for 3 days or 7 days and some for a month. Even during festive occasions some important get together are held in places like Sri Manjunath Pai Cultural Hall, Sri Sharada Kalyana Mantap, Sri Annapurneshwari Sabha Bhavan, Veeramaruthi Sabha Bhavan (behind Veeramaruthi Temple), Kalyan Mantap of S V Temple Padutirupathi, Sri Adhishakthi Veerbhadra Hall and Bahubali Pravachan Mandir. Saahitya Sammelan, Painting Exhibitions and School-College competitions are held at Seminar Hall of Hotel Prakash.

ee also

* Moodbidri
* Shravanabelagola
* Kukke Subramanya Temple
* Dharmastala
* Horanadu
* Shringeri
* Udupi Krishna Temple

External links

* [http://www.karkalatown.gov.in Municipal Council]
* [http://www.karnatakatourism.org/heritage_devine_karkala.htm Offical State Tourism Site]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/karkala Photos from Karkala]
* [http://www.karkala.gsb.in Info about Padutirupathi]
* [http://www.indianetzone.com/21/karkala_udupi_district_karnataka_is_a_major_religious_center.htm Brief about Karkala as UNESCO site]
* [http://www.hindu.com/mag/2007/06/24/stories/2007062450190700.htm News Topic about Karkala]
* [http://st.dominic.church.faithweb.com/index.htm Miyar Church]

References

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