Kruzenshtern (ship)


Kruzenshtern (ship)

The "Krusenstern" or "Kruzenshtern" ( _ru. Барк «Крузенштерн») is a Russian four masted barque and tall ship that was built in 1926 in Bremerhaven-Wesermünde, Germany, as shipyard number "S408" under the name "Padua" (named after the eponymous Italian city). She was given to the USSR in 1946 as war reparation and renamed after the early 19th century Baltic German explorer in Russian service, Adam Johann Krusenstern (1770-1846).

Of the four remaining Flying P-Liners, the "Ex-Padua" is the only one still in use, mainly for training purposes, with her home ports in Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg) and Murmansk. After the "Sedov", another former German ship, she is the largest traditional sailing vessel still in operation. Originally, like all P-liners, she was painted according to the colours of the German national flag of the German Empire era, black (hull above water, topsides), white (waterline area) and red (underwater body).

The Kruzenshtern led the majestic international procession of tall ships into New York Harbor for Operation Sail on Sunday, July 4, 1976.

As "Padua"

Launched in 1926 as the last of the "P-Liners", the "Padua" was commissioned as a cargo ship, used among other things to ship construction material to Chile, South America, returning with saltpeter around Cape Horn. Later she transported wheat from Australia. The maiden voyage from Hamburg to Talcahuano (Chile) took 87 days. In 1933–1934 she took a record-breaking 67 days from Hamburg to Port Lincoln in South Australia. Prior to World War II she made 15 long trips to Chile and Australia.The fastest voyage she made was in 1938–1939, from Hamburg via Chile to Australia and back to Hamburg in 8 months and 23 days under captain Richard Wendt - a world record voyage for tall ships that has never been broken.

As "Krusenstern"

On January 12, 1946 she was given to the USSR to be integrated into the Soviet Baltic fleet. She was moored in Kronstadt harbour until 1961 where she underwent major repairs and a refit (e. g. the installation of her first engines) for her missions under leadership of the Hydrographic Department of the Soviet Navy. From 1961 to 1965 the ship performed many hydrographic and oceanographical surveys for the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Atlantic ocean, the Caribbean, and Mediterranean, and was used as a training vessel for naval cadets. In 1965 she was transferred to the USSR Ministry of Fisheries in Riga to be used as a schoolship for future fishery officers. From 1968-72 a major modernisation took place, installing her current set of engines and applying her current hull paint - black with a wide white stripe including black 'portholes' which from a distance look just like real gunports. The painting (by the Russian owners) on the side suggests the presence of cannons, but that is just an illusion .

In January 1981 the "Krusenstern" transferred to the "Estonian Fisheries Industry" at Tallinn and in 1991 she became part of the "State Baltic Academy of the Fisheries" fleet with her new home port in Kaliningrad.

The "Krusenstern" takes part in many international regattas. After the fall of the USSR funding became a problem, so passengers are taken aboard for that purpose. In 1995/96 she made a trip around the world in the trail of her namesake. She again circumnavigated the globe in 2005-06 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Krustenstern's circumnavigation. [ [http://izvestia.ru/armia2/article3095452/ Известия.Ру: Выжиматель ветра вернулся домой ] ]

The ship was used in three German films — "Die Meuterei auf der Elsinore" (1935); "Herz geht vor Anker" (1940) and "Große Freiheit Nr. 7" (1944), as well as a number of Russian and Soviet films.

Ship's data and dimensions

*Home ports: Hamburg (as "Padua", 1926-1946), Riga (1946-1981), Tallinn (1981-1991), Kaliningrad (since 1991)
*Length: 114.4 m (376 ft)
*Width: 14.02 m (46.0 ft)
*Height: 51.3 m (168.3 ft)
*Depth (draft): 6.8 m (22.1 ft)
*Sail surface: 3,400 m² (36,600 sq ft)
*Crew: 257
*Tonnage: 4,700 tons
*Engines: 2 x 1,000 hp (diesel)
*max. speed: 17.3 kt (32.0 km/h)

Literature

* Burmester, Heinz: Das Rennen Passat contra Padua 1935. Albatros Jg. 34, Bremen, 1989. pp 1-5, ill. Translation of Olof Granquists account of this journey published in De våra i främmande land, December 1944.
* Burmester, Heinz: Den stora kappseglingen Padua versus Passat. Longitude 17, Stockholm, 1981. pp 28-39, ill.
* Feddersen, Hans-Peter: Acht Tage auf der Krusenstern / Padua. Albatros Jg. 34, Bremen, 1989. pp 26-27.
* Gerdau, Kurt: Viermastbark Padua … ein ruhmreiches Schiff. Koehlers Verlagsgesellschaft, Herford, 1978. 8vo, 99, (5) pp, 12 pl.
* Grönstrand, Lars: Seglande skepps farter. Longitude 3, Stockholm, 1968. pp 30-37, ill.

ee also

*List of large sailing vessels
*List of tall ships

External links

* [http://www.pabloavanzini.com/?p=1 The Kruzenshtern: The end of the Tall Ships?]
* [http://www.vitiaz.ru/congress/en/thesis/64.html L. Sergeeva (Baltic Fishing Fleet State Academy, Kaliningrad, Russia): Academic and research activities on board STS «Krusenstern»]


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