Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh


Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh

Even though the water supply and sanitation sector in Bangladesh is expanding its coverage, it is difficult to keep pace with the rapid population growth. The country used to rely mainly on groundwater, which is why the discovery of arsenic in groundwater resources in 1993 meant a major setback in water supply. Estimates indicate that in 2008 up to 70 million people in the country are still exposed to drinking water which does not comply with WHO standards.cite journal
last = World Health Organization
first =
authorlink = World Health Organization
coauthors =
title = An interview with Mahmuder Rahman Bangladesh’s arsenic agony
journal = Bulletin of the World Health Organization (BLT)
volume = 86
issue = 1
pages = 11-12
publisher =
location =
date = January 2008
url = http://www.who.int/entity/bulletin/volumes/86/1/08-040108.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
] On the other hand, surface water is usually polluted and requires treatment.cite journal
last = Das Gupta
first = Ashim
authorlink =
coauthors = Babel, Mukund Singh; Albert, Xavier; Mark, Ole
title = Water Sector of Bangladesh in the Context of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Review
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 21
issue = 2
pages = 385–398
publisher =
location =
date = June 2005
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620500037818
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 389] The sector is far from reaching cost-recovery due to poor economic efficiency and low tariffs. Although the government's policy has shifted from an agriculturally oriented approach to a more comprehensive water resources management approach, encouraging the adoption of economic principles and the establishment of an independent regulatory agency, those guidelines have not yet been implemented.

The country receives much attention from international donor agencies and NGOs. A new approach to improve sanitation coverage in rural areas, the community-led total sanitation concept, was first introduced in Bangladesh and has successfully contributed to increasing sanitation coverage since 2000. [cite journal
last = Kar
first = Kamal
authorlink =
coauthors = Bongartz, Petra
title = Update on Some Recent Developments in Community-Led Total Sanitation
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies
location = Brighton
date = April 2006
url = http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/CLTS_update06.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
]

Access

Since arsenic was discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. According to the Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation of UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), access to an improved source of water supply grew slightly from 72% in 1990 to 74% in 2004, whereas coverage of improved sanitation nearly doubled from 20% to 39% during the same period.

The Bangladeshi Minister for Local Government an Rural Development announced that his country aims to reach universal coverage of sanitation by 2010. [cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Lessons Learned from Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Scaling-Up Rural Sanitation in South Asia
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = May 2005
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/01/12/000090341_20060112101103/Rendered/PDF/348730SA0SANITATION120STUDY1PRESS.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 69
] To achieve this, a community-led total sanitation campaign was launched in 2003. In its Millennium Development Goals Progress Report 2007, the national government is optimistic about reaching the MDGs, except for safe water supply in rural areas. However, it appears that the national government uses different definitions and/or sources than those of the JMP.cite journal
last = General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Millennium Development Goals. Mid-Term Bangladesh Progress Report 2007
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2007
url = http://www.undp.org.bd/mdgs/MDG_Mid-term_Progress_Report2007.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
, p. 30]

ervice quality

Continuity of supply

According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), there was no uninterrupted water supply in Dhaka in 2001. Where municipalities provide the service, piped water is usually available to consumers for only 2-4 hours a day. Major water shortages in Bangladesh appear mainly during the dry season, between January and March.cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Country Water Resources Strategy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2005-12-20
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/03/21/000160016_20060321180655/Rendered/PDF/355520BDS30Water1CAS01PUBLIC1.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-21
, p. 9]

Drinking water quality

Poor water quality, especially in rural areas has been recognized in the National Water Policy (NWP) of 1999. [cite journal
last = Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Water Resources
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Policy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Dhaka
date = January 1999
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/nw_policy.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 10
] Surface water is often contaminated due to human excreta and urban and industrial pollution. Population growth and industrialization will likely exacerbate the situation. Because groundwater requires less treatment, it is the main freshwater source in Bangladesh. However, in 1993 arsenic contamination was discovered in the groundwater.cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Country Water Resources Strategy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2005-12-20
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/03/21/000160016_20060321180655/Rendered/PDF/355520BDS30Water1CAS01PUBLIC1.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-21
, p. 1] The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2000 that between 35 and 77 million of the 125 million Bangladeshis were at risk of drinking contaminated water. [cite journal
last = Smith, Allan H.
first = Allan H.
authorlink =
coauthors = Lingas, Elena O; Rahman, Mahfuzar
title = Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency
journal = Bulletin of The World Health Organization
volume = 78
issue = 9
pages = 1093-1103
publisher =
location =
date = 2000
url = http://www.who.int/entity/bulletin/archives/78(9)1093.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
, p. 1093
] In an interview published by the WHO in 2008, Bangladeshi Professor Mahmuder said that up to 70 million people still drink water which exceeds the WHO standards of 10 micrograms per liter of arsenic.

In Dhaka, 82% of the water supply is abstracted from groundwater aquifers. Three surface water treatment plants provide the remaining 18%.cite journal
last = Azharul Haq
first = Khondaker
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Management in Dhaka
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 22
issue = 2
pages = 291–311
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620600677810
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 296]

Wastewater treatment

In Dhaka, nearly one third of domestic effluents does not receive any kind of treatment. About 30% of the served population of the Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is covered by a sewerage system, the only one in the entire country. There is one sewage treatment plant with a capacity of 120,000 m³ per day. About 30% of the population uses conventional septic tanks and another 15% uses bucket and pit latrines. During the rainy season, sewage overflows are common. [cite journal
last = Azharul Haq
first = Khondaker
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Management in Dhaka
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 22
issue = 2
pages = 291–311
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620600677810
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 301
]

Water resources

Water supply in Bangladesh relies mainly on groundwater. In addition, the country generally has an enormous excess of surface water in the summer months and scarcity in the winter months. The country has two main sources of fresh surface water. Rainfalls provide about 250 km³ per year. Inflowing transboundary rivers provide another 1000 km³ annually. Both sources offer the bulk of water between July and October.

Although Bangladesh only occupies 8% of the Brahmaputra, Meghna and Ganges river basins, it is their main catchment area. As a lower riparian, the country depends on upstream developments. Whereas deforestation and flood control in the upstream catchment areas increase the flood peaks in Bangladesh, water withdrawals and water diversions may result in water shortages, particularly in the dry season. Since Bangladesh has limited control over the rivers, the country has to cooperate with other riparians to improve the situation. However, so far there have been only bilateral agreements such as the Ganges Water Sharing Treaty between India and Bangladesh, signed in 1996, which allows Bangladesh to receive a certain amount of water during the dry season. [cite journal
last = Das Gupta
first = Ashim
authorlink =
coauthors = Babel, Mukund Singh; Albert, Xavier; Mark, Ole
title = Water Sector of Bangladesh in the Context of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Review
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 21
issue = 2
pages = 385–398
publisher =
location =
date = June 2005
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620500037818
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 386-387
]

Concerning groundwater, the rapid drop in water levels indicates a depletion of groundwater resources in many areas of Bangladesh. In Dhaka, where arsenic contamination of groundwater is limited, a severe supply shortage is expected by 2015 if the utility continues abstraction from groundwater at the current extent. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant. People's Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/BAN/39405-BAN-RRP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 34-35
]

Water use

About 10,000 million liters (10 million m³) of water are delivered per day. Out of the total consumptive water demand, 73% is used for agricultural purposes and 20% for evaporation in forests, water bodies, charland, urban and rural environment, leaving 7% for water supply and sanitation. However, although population growth has slowed to less than 2% per year, it is predicted that Bangladesh's total population will increase from 129 million people in 2000 to 181 million by 2025 and 224 million by 2050, accompanied by an increased demand for water. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 23; 27-28
]

History and recent developments

The country's national water policy was mainly focused on agricultural issues and was aimed at food self-sufficiency. Accordingly, flood control drainage and irrigation projects were the most common measures. [cite journal
last = Chadwick
first = Matthew
authorlink =
coauthors = Datta, Anjan
title = Water Resource Management in Bangladesh. A policy Review. Working Paper No. 1.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = International Institute for Environment and Development
location =
date =
url = http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/projects/prp/pdfdocs/bangwater.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 2
] cite journal
last = Das Gupta
first = Ashim
authorlink =
coauthors = Babel, Mukund Singh; Albert, Xavier; Mark, Ole
title = Water Sector of Bangladesh in the Context of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Review
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 21
issue = 2
pages = 385–398
publisher =
location =
date = June 2005
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620500037818
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 394] In the 1990s the necessity of a more comprehensive approach was recognized, leading to the formulation of a National Water Policy.

History

The first central institution in the water sector in what is now Bangladesh was the East Pakistan Water and Power Development Agency (EPWAPDA), created in 1959 to plan, construct and operate all water development schemes. In 1964, EPWAPDA, with the assistance of the United States development agency USAID, prepared a 20-year Water Master Plan, including flood control. Although infrastructure was constructed, the lack of operation and maintenance, among other things, soon led to its deterioration.

After the independence from Pakistan in 1971, EPWAPDA was restructured and renamed the Bangladesh Water Development Board. The new republic soon gained support from several agencies. The World Bank published the "Land and Water Sector Study" in 1972, advocating small-scale flood control and irrigation projects. As a result, small-scale irrigation spread quickly during the 1970s and 1980s, partly financed by the private sector. [cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Water Resource Management in Bangladesh: Steps Towards A New National Water Plan.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 1998
url = http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/lo%20web%20sites/bangladesh%20web.nsf/0704a4348e105b2e462566720023975f/a113878abc5eb0544625670c003d1e6b?OpenDocument
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
]

In light of the growing population and the expanding agricultural and industrial sectors, in 1983 the National Water Resources Council (NWRC) was founded and the newly created Master Plan Organization (MPO) started to draw up a comprehensive National Water Plan (NWP). The first phase of the NWP was completed in 1986 and included an assessment of available water resources and future demand. According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a lack of attention to intersectoral and environmental issues led the national government to reject the plan. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 8
] Consequently, the second phase of the NWP was drawn up from 1987 to 1991, including an estimate of the available groundwater and surface water as well as a draft water law. The draft also took into account environmental needs. In 1991, the MPO was restructured and renamed the Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO). [cite journal
last = Chadwick
first = Matthew
authorlink =
coauthors = Datta, Anjan
title = Water Resource Management in Bangladesh. A policy Review. Working Paper No. 1.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = International Institute for Environment and Development
location =
date =
url = http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/projects/prp/pdfdocs/bangwater.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 2-4
]

Two destructive floods in 1987 and 1988 were followed by increased international attention and assistance. In 1989, several studies were prepared by the United Nations Development Fund (UNDO) and national agencies from France, the United States, Japan, and others. The World Bank coordinated the donor activities. At the end of the year, the Flood Action Plan (FAP) was approved by the national government of Bangladesh. However, according to Chadwick the plan was criticized by some donors and civil society. The planned participation of civil society was hampered by the military dictatorship that governed the country at that time. Later, the national government approved the FAP's final report, called the Bangladesh Water and Flood Management Strategy (BWFMS), in 1995 with the support of donor agencies. Among other things, the strategy proposed the formulation of a comprehensive national water management plan, increased user participation and environmental impact assessment as integral parts of planning. Consequently, the Flood Planning Coordination Organization (FPCO), which had been established in 1992 to coordinate the studies, was merged with WARPO in 1996. [cite journal
last = Chadwick
first = Matthew
authorlink =
coauthors = Datta, Anjan
title = Water Resource Management in Bangladesh. A policy Review. Working Paper No. 1.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = International Institute for Environment and Development
location =
date =
url = http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/projects/prp/pdfdocs/bangwater.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 4-7
]

Recent developments

In 1999, on the recommendation of the World Bank [The World Bank published the report: cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Water Resource Management in Bangladesh: Steps Towards A New National Water Plan.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 1998
url = http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/lo%20web%20sites/bangladesh%20web.nsf/0704a4348e105b2e462566720023975f/a113878abc5eb0544625670c003d1e6b?OpenDocument
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
] and after extensive consultation with all relevant actors, including NGOs and the civil society, the National Water Policy (NWP) was adopted. The document explicitly states 6 main objectives: [cite journal
last = Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Water Resources
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Policy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Dhaka
date = January 1999
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/nw_policy.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 3
]
# To address the use and development of groundwater and surface water in an efficient and equitable way
# To ensure the availability of water to all parts of the society
# To accelerate the development of public and private water systems through legal and financial measures and incentives, including appropriate water rights and water pricing rules
# To formulate institutional changes, encouraging decentralization and enhancing the role of women in water management
# To provide a legal and regulatory framework which encourages decentralization, consideration of environmental impacts, and private sector investment
# To develop knowledge and capability in order to facilitate improved future water resources management plans to encourage, among other things, broad user participation

Furthermore, WARPO has developed a National Water Management Plan (NWMP), which was approved by NWRC in 2004 and aims at implementing the NWP within 25 years. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh: Water resources planning organization (WARPO), Country Paper—National Water Sector Apex Bodies.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/Water/NWSAB/2004/Bangladesh_Country_Paper.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 4
] It is expected to be reviewed and updated every five years. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 5-6
] In 2005, the national government included the improvement of water supply and sanitation as part of its agenda for reducing poverty. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, General Economics Division, Planning Commission
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Poverty Reduction Strategy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = October 2005
url = http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPRS1/Resources/Bangladesh_PRSP(Oct-16-2005).pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-29
, p. 4
]

Responsibility for water supply and sanitation

Policy and regulation

The current institutional framework of the Bangladeshi water sector is defined by the NWMP. Altogether, 13 ministries are involved. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 17
]

The National Water Resources Council (NWRC) formulates general water policies in Bangladesh and oversees their implementation. Although the council is expected to provide the main policy guidelines and directions, it is not entrusted with carrying out those policies. The NWRC advises the Cabinet on water policy. It is supported by an Executive Committee and chaired by the Prime Minister. Moreover, 10 ministries and several water experts and other representatives compose the NWRC. [cite journal
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Discussion paper: Study of National Water Sector ‘Apex Bodies’ and Civil Society Involvement in Asia - Case studies of Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url = http://www.wateraid.org/documents/microsoft_word__final_rising_to_the_challenge.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 24-26
]

The Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO), placed under the Ministry of Water Resources, acts as Secretariat of the Executive Committee. [cite journal
last = WaterAid
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Discussion paper: Study of National Water Sector ‘Apex Bodies’ and Civil Society Involvement in Asia - Case studies of Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url = http://www.wateraid.org/documents/microsoft_word__final_rising_to_the_challenge.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 26-29
] According to the 1999 National Water Policy, among its other functions WARPO has an up-to-date National Water Resources Database, checks all water sector projects for their conformity to the NWMP, and carries out further studies and activities as assigned by the Executive Committee or the National Government. [cite journal
last = Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Water Resources
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Policy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Dhaka
date = January 1999
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/nw_policy.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 20
] The NWMP does not explicitly allocate the role of setting sanitation policy for any institution.

Although the NWMP provides for the creation of independent regulatory bodies in order to ensure compliance with appropriate standards as well as cost-effective service provision, [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 41
] no such agency had been created until 2007. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant. People's Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/BAN/39405-BAN-RRP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 36
]

ervice provision

Water supply and sanitation are carried out at the local level by three agencies. In the cities of Dhaka and Chittagong, the semi-autonomous Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) and the Chittagong Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (CWASA) provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial consumption as well as sewerage and stormwater drainage. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 12
]

Bangladesh is subdivided into more than 200 municipalities ("Paurashavas"). Outside of Dhaka and Chittagong, each municipality is responsible for its own water supply, sewerage, and storm drainage. They are empowered to charge tariffs and receive assistance from the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 21
] which is responsible for waterworks development projects as well as planning in the rural water sector and all urban areas except for Dhaka and Chittagong, [cite journal
last = Das Gupta
first = Ashim
authorlink =
coauthors = Babel, Mukund Singh; Albert, Xavier; Mark, Ole
title = Water Sector of Bangladesh in the Context of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Review
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 21
issue = 2
pages = 385–398
publisher =
location =
date = June 2005
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620500037818
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 393
] including construction, improvement ,and expansion of infrastructure. Once the projects are completed, the facilities are handed over to the municipalities. [cite journal
last = Azharul Haq
first = Khondaker
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Management in Dhaka
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 22
issue = 2
pages = 291–311
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620600677810
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 292
]

Private sector and NGOs

In addition to government institutions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector are involved in the provision of services and are acknowledged within the institutional sector framework in the NWMP. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 21-22
] The improvement of the investment climate for the private sector is included in the six main objectives of the document. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 9
] However, private sector participation in the Bangladeshi water supply and sanitation sector remains limited to small businesses. According to Das Gupta, direct private investment is almost non-existent. The NWMP recognizes that large-scale private participation remains a challenge. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 39
]

Community-led total sanitation

On the other hand, NGOs have been very successful in the provision of services in the country. Bangladesh is the home of a new approach to increasing sanitation coverage, called community-led total sanitation (CLTS), first introduced in 2000 in a small village in the Rajshahi District by Dr. Kamal Kar in cooperation with WaterAid Bangladesh and the Village Education Resource Centre (VERC). [cite journal
last = Kar
first = Kamal
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Subsidy or self-respect? Participatory total community sanitation in Bangladesh,
journal = IDS Working Paper
volume = 184
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Brighton
date = September 2003
url = http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp184.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn = 1 85864 525 5six | id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 3-5
]

Most traditional sanitation programs rely on the provision of subsidies, sanitation promotion, and hygiene education. Under this framework, the subsidized facilities are often very expensive and their acquisition remains limited to non-poor households. In addition, the high subsidies may reduce the feeling of personal responsibility for the toilets, leading to increased carelessness by the target group.

These shortcomings of the established programs led to the development of the new CLTS approach in Bangladesh, shifting the focus on personal responsibility and low-cost solutions. CLTS aims to totally stop open defecation within a community rather than facilitating improved sanitation only to selected households. Awareness of local sanitation issues is raised through a walk to open defecation areas and water points (walk of shame) and a calculation of the amount of excreta caused by open defecation. Combined with hygiene education, the approach aims to make the entire community realize the severe health impacts of open defecation. Since individual carelessness may affect the entire community, pressure on each person becomes stronger to follow sanitation principles such as using sanitary toilets, washing hands, and practicing good hygiene. To introduce sanitation even in the poorest households, low-cost toilets are promoted, constructed with local materials. The purchase of the facility is not subsidized, so that every household must finance its own toilets. [cite journal
last = Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Lessons Learned from Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan; Scaling-Up Rural Sanitation in South Asia.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = May 2005
url = http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWSS/Resources/scalingup_bangladesh_india_pakistan_WSP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 65-66
] [cite journal
last = Kar
first = Kamal
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Subsidy or self-respect? Participatory total community sanitation in Bangladesh,
journal = IDS Working Paper
volume = 184
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location = Brighton
date = September 2003
url = http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp184.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn = 1 85864 525 5
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
]

In 2006, the number of villages with total sanitation was estimated at more than 5,000 throughout the country. At the same time, CLTS had spread in at least six countries in Asia and three in Africa. [cite journal
last = Kar
first = Kamal
authorlink =
coauthors = Bongartz, Petra
title = Update on Some Recent Developments in Community-Led Total Sanitation
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies
location = Brighton
date = April 2006
url = http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/CLTS_update06.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 3-4
] According to the Bangladeshi Millennium Development Goals Progress Report 2007, in 2003 a CLTS campaign was launched in order to reach 100% sanitation coverage by 2010.

Other functions

The Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) under the Ministry of Water Resources has the main function of working on transboundary water issues together with the other riparian countries. Environmental standards are set and enforced by the Department of Environment. The Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) is responsible for the implementation of water projects that exceed 1,000 ha in size, whereas the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) is entrusted with smaller projects. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 10
]

Economic efficiency

Precise figures about efficiency indicators seem to be scarce and hard to find. Nevertheless, the economic efficiency is regarded as poor even in the large WASAs. This problem is recognized in the NWMP, which therefore aims at increasing operational efficiency. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 48-52
]

Non-revenue water

In Dhaka, the share of non-revenue water (NRW), water which is not billed, e.g., due to leakage and illegal connections, is not clear, because different sources provide different figures. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant. People's Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/BAN/39405-BAN-RRP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 35
] It was estimated at 43% in 2001 by the World Bank. At the same time, about 70% of the water connections were metered. [cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Implementation completion report on a credit in the amount of SDRs 51.0 million (US$80.3 million equivalent) to the People's Republic of Bangladesh for a Fourth Dhaka Water Supply Project
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2002-12-30
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2003/02/15/000094946_03020604020958/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 6
] According to an ADB document, in 2001 NRW was 40% and metering coverage was 51% in Dhaka. The level of NRW in both cases is higher than in most other major Asian cities evaluated by the ADB in the same document. Out of 18 cities, only 5 (Colombo (55%), Delhi (53%), Jakarta (51%), Kuala Lumpur (43%) and Manila (62%)) had a higher share than Dhaka. The average was 34%.cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Water in Asian Cities - Utilities Performance and Civil Society Views
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = January 2004
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Water_for_All_Series/Water_Asian_Cities/water_asian_cities.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn = 971-561-524-4
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-11
, p. 3] According to the DWASA website, system losses have been reduced from 54.3% in 2002-2003 to 34.1% in 2005-2006 and 34.8% in 2006-2007. [cite web
last = Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = MIS Report - Finance and accounts: Year-wise System Loss
work =
publisher =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.dwasa.org.bd/mis_finance.htm#Year-wise_System_Loss
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
] Concerning NRW in municipalities, the ADB indicates a share of 33-40%.

Labor productivity

Figures on labor productivity, measured in employees per 1,000 connections, are only available for Dhaka, where in 1996 on average 18.5 employees were responsible for 1,000 connections. [cite journal
last = McIntosh
first = Arthur C.
authorlink =
coauthors = Yñiguez, Cesar E.
title = Second Water Utilities Data Book – Asian and Pacific Region
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = Asian Development Bank
location =
date = October 1997
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Second_Water_Utilities/second_water_utilities.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn = 971-561-125-7
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
, p. 4
] This figure decreased significantly to 11.6 in 2001 and increased again to 14.2 in 2003. [cite journal
last = Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Management Information Report
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2003
url =
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
; cit. in: cite journal
last = Azharul Haq
first = Khondaker
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Management in Dhaka
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 22
issue = 2
pages = 291–311
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620600677810
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 296
] According to the official DWASA website, the utility had 3,717 employees and served 248,346 connections in November 2007, resulting in 15 employees per 1,000 connections. [cite web
last = Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = MIS Report - Administration: Employees statistics
work =
publisher =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.dwasa.org.bd/mis_admin.htm#EMPLOYEES%20STATISTICS
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
] [cite web
last = Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = MIS Report - Operation: Water connection
work =
publisher =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.dwasa.org.bd/mis_operation.htm#WATER%20CONNECTION
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-25
] This figure is quite high, since the ADB found an average of 8.3 in a sample of 18 major Asian cities in 2001. However, it should be noted that in Dhaka water is supplied from 400 supply points, whereas it is internationally usual to operate less than 20 supply points.

Financial aspects

Tariffs and cost recovery

The NWMP provides for the gradual increase of tariffs to fully recover the costs of service provision in urban areas using an increasing block tariff structure. In rural areas, the tariffs should cover at least all operation and maintenance costs. [cite journal
last = Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = National Water Management Plan. Volume 2. Main Report.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = December 2001
url = http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 46
] Since this framework is not yet implemented, municipalities or water utilities have the right to set their own tariffs controlled by the government. [cite journal
last = Azharul Haq
first = Khondaker
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Water Management in Dhaka
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 22
issue = 2
pages = 291–311
publisher =
location =
date = June 2006
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620600677810
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
, p. 308
] There is little evidence about current tariff rates outside of Dhaka.

Dhaka According to the ADB, the average tariff in Dhaka was US$0.06 per m³ in 2001. Those connected to sewerage had to pay double. Connection fees were between US$29 and US$60, according to the diameter of the pipe. According to DWASA's official website, in May 2007 the metered residential tariff per m³ was US$0.08.

Other areas Generally, cost recovery is very poor in rural areas and tariffs are far from recovering operation and maintenance costs. Furthermore, tariffs are regularly eroded by inflation. Many systems rely on development grants by the central government. In small urban water supply systems, imposing property taxes is a common practice to mobilize local resources. [cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Country Water Resources Strategy
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2005-12-20
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/03/21/000160016_20060321180655/Rendered/PDF/355520BDS30Water1CAS01PUBLIC1.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-21
, p. 35
] Again according to the ADB, in a sample of 61 municipalities the total average revenues (including tariffs and taxes) per municipality were US$1,827 in 2000, far from recovering the operation and maintenance costs of US$187,831. [1 Bangladeshi Taka = US$0.01857 (2000-12-31); source: oanda.com] [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 39
]

Investment and financing

In the Annual Development Programme (ADP) of the Bangladeshi Planning Commission, the government's development investment in water supply and sanitation ranged between US$50 million and US$101 million from fiscal years 1994-1995 to 2000-2001. [All figures in real prices of 2006; 1 Bangladeshi Taka = US$0.01499 (2006-12-31); source: oanda.com; GDP-Deflator source: World Development Indicators database: http://devdata.worldbank.org/query/]

ImageSize = width:auto height:240 barincrement:70PlotArea = left:40 right:60 height:200 bottom:20AlignBars = late

DateFormat = x.yPeriod = from:0 till:110.0TimeAxis = orientation:verticalScaleMajor = gridcolor:tan2 increment:20 start:0

PlotData= color:blue width:25 bar:1994-95 from:start till:76.9 bar:1995-96 from:start till:56.2 bar:1996-97 from:start till:53.9 bar:1997-98 from:start till:100.8 bar:1998-99 from:start till:74.4 bar:1999-2000 from:start till:72.7 bar:2000-01 from:start till:83.8

TextData= pos:(10,222) fontsize:M text: Annual investment in water supply and sanitation in million US$ by national government

From 1994-1995 to 2000-2001, the water resources subsector, including flood control and irrigation received much more funding than the water supply and sanitation sector, which is shown above. On average, US$74 million or US$0.55 per capita have been spent per year. In 1996-1997, the investment for water resources was more than almost four times as high as the amount provided for water supply and sanitation. From 1973 to 1990, the share of development expenditures for water supply and sanitation decreased gradually in the respective five-year plans. In the first one, it was 2.48% of development investment, dropping to 2.14% and 1.25% in the second and third five-year plans, respectively. In the fourth plan, the allocation increased slightly to 1.41% of the budget. [cite journal
last = Khan
first = Hamidur Rahman
authorlink =
coauthors = Siddique, Quamrul Islam
title = Urban Water Management Problems in Developing Countries with Particular Reference to Bangladesh
journal = Water Resources Development
volume = 16
issue = 1
pages = 21-33
publisher =
location =
date = 2000
url =
doi = 10.1080/07900620048545
issn = 1360-0648
isbn =
id =
accessdate =
]

According to an ADB document comparing water supply in major Asian cities, DWASA's capital expenditure was US$26 million or US$3.51 per user in 2001.

Rural areas According to an evaluation by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 30% of the rural water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh is financed by the national government, whereas 34% comes from bilateral and multilateral donors and another 4% from international and local NGOS. The users contribute the remaining 32%, a remarkable share compared to other countries evaluated in the study, such as Ghana, Egypt or Benin. [cite journal
last = Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark
first =
authorlink = Ministry_of_Foreign_Affairs_of_Denmark
coauthors =
title = Evaluation of Danish Support to Water Supply and Sanitation (1999-2005)
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.um.dk/NR/rdonlyres/0022B5A5-8B1C-4B6C-99EB-14F86146E337/0/200705WSS_EvaluationReport_www.pdf
doi =
issn = 1399-4972
isbn = 978-87-7667-821-0
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-24
, p. 54
]

External cooperation

Several external donors have been active in the sector for decades. Concerning urban water supply and sanitation, the Government of Bangladesh and the following donors signed a partnership framework in November 2007: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA), the Government of Japan, the Government of the Republic of Korea, and the World Bank.

The main objectives of the framework are to cooperate in order to extend the coverage of water, sanitation, wastewater, and drainage services in Dhaka and Chittagong, especially to the poor, and to address long-standing reforms. Under the common partnership framework, all donors carry out individual projects in urban areas. However, the five donors and the Government of Bangladesh have agreed upon general strategies and necessary policy actions as well as an exchange of progress information. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant. People's Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/BAN/39405-BAN-RRP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 15; 41-43
]

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

By 2003, the ADB had provided 19 loans qmounting to nearly US$700 million in the Bangladeshi water management sector. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 16
] Under the partnership framework, the bank provides a program loan of US$50 million and a project loan of US$150 million within the Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program, approved in April 2008. [cite web
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Projects, official website
work =
publisher =
date = 2008-04-28
url = http://www.adb.org/projects/summaries.asp?browse=1&ctry=BAN&type=&query=
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
] The former loan aims to support reforms in the urban water supply and sanitation sector, including the strengthening of local institutions and the structure of DWASA, the preparation of a sector strategy and plan and the improving of financial sustainability. The project loan comprises physical investment to rehabilitate and optimize DWASA's distribution network and improve the quality of the services provided,as well as a capacity building and institutional strengthening component, and project management and implementation support. The program and the project, which are both accompanied by technical assistance, are expected to be completed at the end of 2013. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Bangladesh Water Sector Review, 2003
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date =
url = http://www.adb.org/water/cfws/roadmap-ban.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-22
, p. 5-23
]

World Bank

Under the partnership framework, the World Bank is planning to provide US$100 million to assist DWASA. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
first =
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
coauthors =
title = Proposed Loans and Technical Assistance Grant. People's Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka Water Supply Sector Development Program.
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = November 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/BAN/39405-BAN-RRP.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
, p. 15
] [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Projects - Bangladesh : Dhaka Water Supply and Sanitation Project
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P093988&Type=Implementation&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64330676&menuPK=64282137&piPK=64302789
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
] Apart from the urban sector, the bank also assists water supply and sanitation through the Water Management Improvement Project and the Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project.

Water Management Improvement Project

This project principally seeks to improve water resources management in Bangladesh and consists of two main objectives. First, to improve water resources management through the strengthening and involvement of local communities in all stages; and second, to improve the institutional performance of the main Bangladeshi water institutions, particularly BWDB and WARPO. Under the project, rehabilitation and improvement of about 102 existing flood control, drainage, and irrigation schemes will be supported. Together with 98 additional systems, their management will be handed over to local communities. The World Bank is contributing a loan of more than US$120 million to the project, which was approved in 2007. The project is expected to end in 2015. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Projects - Bangladesh : Water Management Improvement Project
work =
publisher =
date = 2007-08-29
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P040712&Type=Overview&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64283627&menuPK=64282134&piPK=64290415
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
]

Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project

The World Bank is contributing a US$40 million loan to the Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project, designed to support Bangladesh in achieving the MDGs in water supply and sanitation by 2015 through safe water free from arsenic and pathogens in small towns and rural areas. Private-sector participation in rural areas as well as in municipalities is promoted. In small arsenic-affected villages, measures are introduced to mitigate arsenic. The project is accompanied by a monitoring and evaluation system. Furthermore, adequate regulations, monitoring, capacity building, and training, as well as the development of a local credit market and risk mitigation mechanisms for village piped water supply are supported under the project. It began in 2004 and will likely end in 2010. [cite web
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Projects - Bangladesh : Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project
work =
publisher =
date = 2004-05-27
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P086661&Type=Overview&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64283627&menuPK=64282134&piPK=64290415
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-04-28
]

Fourth Dhaka Water Supply Project

The Fourth Dhaka Water Supply Project was carried out from 1996 to 2002. The World Bank contributed US$80.3 million to the project. It was launched in order to support institutional reforms in the sector, applying commercial principles and increasing private sector participation. The existing infrastructure was rehabilitated and the use of surface and groundwater water resources was optimized. In 2001, DWASA had introduced the concept of outsourcing billing and collection in two of its revenue zones. A Managing Director with a private sector background was appointed to manage the utility and an arrangement was introduced to focus upon efficiency and commercial aspects. Water resources management was improved through a shift in treating surface water instead of overexploiting groundwater. The Saidabad water treatment plant was constructed, producing 225 million liters per day. [cite journal
last = World Bank
first =
authorlink = World Bank
coauthors =
title = Implementation completion report on a credit in the amount of SDRs 51.0 million (US$80.3 million equivalent) to the People's Republic of Bangladesh for a Fourth Dhaka Water Supply Project
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
location =
date = 2002-12-30
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2003/02/15/000094946_03020604020958/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf
doi =
issn =
isbn =
id =
accessdate = 2008-04-23
, p. 4-12
]

References

External links

* [http://www.dwasa.org.bd/ Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA)]
* [http://www.warpo.gov.bd/NWMP/main_report.pdf National Water Management Plan (2004)]
* [http://www.warpo.gov.bd/nw_policy.pdf National Water Policy (1999)]
* [http://www.warpo.gov.bd/ Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO)]


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