- Abstract analytic number theory
**Abstract analytic number theory**is a branch ofmathematics which takes the ideas and techniques of classicalanalytic number theory and applies them to a variety of different mathematical fields. The classicalprime number theorem serves as a prototypical example, and the emphasis is on abstract asymptotic distribution results. The theory was invented and developed byJohn Knopfmacher in the early 1970s.**Arithmetic semigroups**The fundamental notion involved is that of an "arithmetic semigroup", which is a

commutative monoid "G" satisfying the following properties:*There exists a

countable subset (finite or countably infinite) "P" of "G", such that every element "a" ≠ 1 in "G" has a unique factorisation of the form::$a\; =\; p\_1^\{alpha\_1\}\; p\_2^\{alpha\_2\}\; cdots\; p\_r^\{alpha\_r\}$

:where the "p"

_{"i"}are distinct elements of "P", the α_{"i"}are positiveinteger s, "r" may depend on "a", and two factorisations are considered the same if they differ only by the order of the factors indicated. The elements of "P" are called the "primes" of "G".*There exists a real-valued "norm mapping" $|mbox\{\; \}|$ on "G" such that:#$|1|\; =\; 1$:#$|p|\; >\; 1\; mbox\{\; for\; all\; \}\; p\; in\; P$:#$|ab|\; =\; |a|\; |b|\; mbox\{\; for\; all\; \}\; a,b\; in\; G$:#The total number $N\_G(x)$ of elements $a\; in\; G$ of norm $|a|\; leq\; x$ is finite, for each real $x\; >\; 0$.

**Examples***The prototypical example of an arithmetic semigroup is the multiplicative

semigroup of positiveinteger s "G" =**Z**^{+}= {1, 2, 3, ...}, with subset of rational primes "P" = {2, 3, 5, ...}. Here, the norm of an integer is simply $|n|\; =\; n$, so that $N\_G(x)\; =\; lfloor\; x\; floor$, the greatest integer not exceeding "x".

*If "K" is analgebraic number field , i.e. a finite extension of the field ofrational number s**Q**, then the set "G" of all nonzero ideals in the ring of integers "O"_{"K"}of "K" forms an arithmetic semigroup with identity element "O"_{"K"}and the norm of an ideal "I" is given by the cardinality of the quotient ring "O"_{"K"}/"I". In this case, the appropriate generalisation of the prime number theorem is the "Landau prime ideal theorem ", which describes the asymptotic distribution of the ideals in "O"_{"K"}.

*Various "arithmetical categories" which satisfy a theorem of Krull-Schmidt type can be considered. In all these cases, the elements of "G" are isomorphism classes in an appropriate category, and "P" consists of all isomorphism classes of "indecomposable" objects, i.e. objects which cannot be decomposed as a direct product of nonzero objects. Some typical examples are the following.

**The category of all finiteabelian group s under the usual direct product operation and norm mapping $|A|\; =\; mbox\{\; card\}(A)$. The indecomposable objects are thecyclic group s of prime power order.

**The category of all compactsimply-connected globally symmetric Riemannianmanifold s under the Riemannian product of manifolds and norm mapping $|M|\; =\; c^\{mbox\{dim\; \}M\}$, where "c" > 1 is fixed, and dim "M" denotes the manifold dimension of "M". The indecomposable objects are the compact simply-connected "irreducible" symmetric spaces.

**The category of all pseudometrisable finitetopological space s under the topological sum and norm mapping $|X|\; =\; 2^\{mbox\{card\}(X)\}$. The indecomposable objects are the connected spaces.**Methods and techniques**The use of

arithmetic function s andzeta function s is extensive. The idea is to extend the various arguments and techniques of arithmetic functions and zeta functions in classical analytic number theory to the context of an arbitrary arithmetic semigroup which may satisfy one or more additional axioms. Such a typical axiom is the following, usually called "Axiom A" in the literature:*"Axiom A". There exist positive constants $A$ and $delta$, and a constant $u$ with $0\; le\; u\; <\; delta$, such that $N\_G(x)\; =\; Ax^\{delta\}\; +\; O(x^\{\; u\})\; mbox\; \{\; as\; \}\; x\; ightarrow\; infin.$

For any arithmetic semigroup which satisfies Axiom "A", we have the following "abstract prime number theorem":

:$pi\_G(x)\; sim\; frac\{x^\{delta\{delta\; log\; x\}\; mbox\; \{\; as\; \}\; x\; ightarrow\; infin$

where π

_{"G"}("x") = total number of elements "p" in "P" of norm |"p"| ≤ "x".The notion of "

arithmetical formation " provides a generalisation of theideal class group inalgebraic number theory and allows for abstract asymptotic distribution results under constraints. In the case of number fields, for example, this isChebotarev's density theorem .**References***cite book | title=Abstract Analytic Number Theory | author=John Knopfmacher | publisher=Dover Publishing | year=1975 | isbn=0-486-66344-2

*cite book | author=Hugh L. Montgomery | authorlink=Hugh Montgomery (mathematician) | coauthors=Robert C. Vaughan | title=Multiplicative number theory I. Classical theory | series=Cambridge tracts in advanced mathematics | volume=97 | year=2007 | isbn=0-521-84903-9 | pages=278

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