Plasmodium species infecting birds


Plasmodium species infecting birds

Species in five subgenera of "Plasmodium" infect birds - "Bennettinia", "Giovannolaia", "Haemamoeba", "Huffia" and "Novyella".Wiersch S.C., Maier W.A., Kampen H. (2005) "Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium" gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of malaria parasites. Parasitol. Res. 96(2): 90-94 ] "Giovannolaia" appears to be a polyphytic group and may be sudivided in the future. Martinsen E.S.,Waite J.L.,Schall J.J. Morphologically defined subgenera of "Plasmodium" from avian hosts: test of monophyly by phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial genes (2006) Parasitol. 1-8]

Taxobox
color = khaki
name = "Plasmodium accipiteris"
image_caption =


image_width =
regnum = Protista
phylum = Apicomplexa
classis = Aconoidasida
ordo = Haemosporida
familia = Plasmodiidae
genus = "Plasmodium"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "Plasmodium accipiteris" "Plasmodium alloelongatum" "Plasmodium anasum" "Plasmodium ashfordi" "Plasmodium bambusicolai" "Plasmodium bigueti" "Plasmodium biziurae" "Plasmodium buteonis" "Plasmodium cathemerium" "Plasmodium circumflexum" "Plasmodium coggeshalli" "Plasmodium corradettii" "Plasmodium coturnix" "Plasmodium dissanaikei" "Plasmodium durae" "Plasmodium elongatum" "Plasmodium fallax" "Plasmodium forresteri" "Plasmodium gabaldoni" "Plasmodium gallinacium" "Plasmodium garnhami" "Plasmodium giovannolai" "Plasmodium globularis" "Plasmodium griffithsi" "Plasmodium gundersi" "Plasmodium guangdong" "Plasmodium hegneri" "Plasmodium hermani" "Plasmodium hexamerium" "Plasmodium huffi" "Plasmodium jiangi" "Plasmodium juxtanucleare" "Plasmodium kempi" "Plasmodium lophurae" "Plasmodium lutzi" "Plasmodium matutinum" "Plasmodium megaglobularis" "Plasmodium nucleophilum" "Plasmodium papernai" "Plasmodium paranucleophilum" "Plasmodium parvulum" "Plasmodium pediocetti" "Plasmodium paddae" "Plasmodium pinotti" "Plasmodium polare" "Plasmodium relictum" "Plasmodium rouxi" "Plasmodium tenue" "Plasmodium tejerai" "Plasmodium tumbayaensis" "Plasmodium vaughani"

Parasite listing

Species infecting birds include: "P. accipiteris", "P. alloelongatum", "P. anasum", "P. ashfordi", "P. bambusicolai", "P. bigueti", "P. biziurae", "P. buteonis", "P. cathemerium", "P. circumflexum", "P. coggeshalli", " P. corradettii", "P. coturnix", "P. dissanaikei", "P. durae", "P. elongatum", "P. fallax", "P forresteri", "P. gabaldoni", "P. gallinacium", "P. garnhami", "P. giovannolai", "P. globularis", "P. griffithsi", "P. gundersi", "P. guangdong", "P. hegneri", "P. hermani", "P. hexamerium", "P. huffi", "P. jiangi", "P. juxtanucleare", "P. kempi", "P. lophurae", "P.lutzi", "P. matutinum", "P. megaglobularis", "P. nucleophilum", "P. papernai", "P. paranucleophilum", "P. parvulum", "P. pediocetti", "P. paddae", "P. pinotti", "P. polare", "P. relictum", "P. rouxi", "P. tenue", "P. tejerai", "P. tumbayaensis" and "P. vaughani".

Avian host records

*"P. accipiteris" - Levant sparrowhawk ("Accipiter brevipes")

*"P. alloelongatum" - Levant sparrowhawk ("Accipiter brevipes")
*"P. ashfordi" - great reed warblers ("Acrocephalus arundinaceus") Valkiūnas G., Zehtindjiev P., Hellgren O., Ilieva M., Iezhova T.A., Bensch S. (2007) Linkage between mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages and morphospecies of two avian malaria parasites, with a description of "Plasmodium (Novyella) ashfordi" sp. nov. Parasitol. Res. ]
*"P. bigueti" - the house sparrow ("Passer domesticus") Landau I, Chabaud AG, Bertani S, and Snounou G. (2003) Parassitologia. 45(3-4):119-123 Taxonomic status and re-description of "Plasmodium relictum" (Grassi et Feletti, 1891), "Plasmodium maior" Raffaele, 1931, and description of "P. bigueti" n. sp. in sparrows. ]
*"P. biziurae" - the musk duck ("Biziura lobata")

*"P. buteonis" - common buzzard ("Buteo buteo")

*"P. cathemerium" - red-winged blackbird ("Agelaius phoeniceusp"), great horned owl ("Bubo virginianus"), house finch ("Carpodacus mexicanus"), blue jay ("Cyanocitta cristata"), blue tit ("Cyanistes caeruleus"), wood thrush ("Hylocichla mustelina"), song sparrow ("Melospiza melodia"), Northern Mockingbird ("Mimus polyglottos leucopterus"), cowbirds ("Molothrus ater ater"), house sparrow ("Passer domesticus"), magpies ("Pica pica budsonia"), bronze grackle ("Quiscalus quiscuia aeneus") , finch ("Richmondena cardinalis"), canary ("Serinus canaria"), starling ("Sturnus vulgaris"), house wren ("Troglodytes aedon"), robin ("Turdus migratorius"), white-throated sparrow ("Zonotrichia albicollis")
*"P. circumflexum" - sharp-shinned hawk, ("Accipiter striatus") Kirkpatrick CE, Lauer DM. (1985) Hematozoa of raptors from southern New Jersey and adjacent areas. J Wildl. Dis. 21(1):1-6. ] helmeted guineafowls, ("Numida meleagris"), Earle RA, Horak IG, Huchzermeyer FW, Bennett GF, Braack LE, Penzhorn BL. (1991) The prevalence of blood parasites in helmeted guineafowls, "Numida meleagris", in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 58(3):145-147.] red-winged blackbird ("Agelaius phoeniceus"), blue jay ("Cyanocitta cristata"), Cape May warbler ("Dendroica tigrina"), gray cat bird ("Dumella carolinensis"), juncos ("Junco hyemalis byemalls"), song sparrow ("Melospiza melodia"), cowbirds ("Molothrus ater ater", chestnut-tailed starling ("Sturnus malabaricus"), finch ("Richmondena cardinalis cardinalis"), trumpeter swans ("Olor buccinator"), brown thrasher ("Toxostomar ufum"), robin ("Turdus migratorius"), white-throated sparrow ("Zonotrichia albicollis")
*"P. dissanaikei" - Ross-ringed parakeet ("Psittacula krameri manillensis")
*"P. durae" - turkeys ("Meleagris" species), the common peafowl ("Pavo cristatus"), francolins ("Franoclinus leucoscepus" and "Franoclinus levialanti levialanti"), Japanese quail ("Coturnix japonica") and Lady Amherst pheasents ("Chrysophus amherstiae")
*"P. elongatum" - great reed warblers ("Acrocephalus arundinaceus" Valkiūnas G., Zehtindjiev P., Dimitrov D., Krizanauskiene A., Iezhova T.A., Bensch S. (2008) Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of "Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum", with remarks on species identity of haemosporidian lineages deposited in GenBank. Parasitol. Res. 102(6):1185-1193.] ), red-tailed hawk ("Buteo jamaicensis"), bobwhite quail ("Colinus virginianus virginianus"), bald eagle ("Haliaeetus leucocephalus"), honeycreeper ("Loxops parva"), eastern screech owl ("Otus asio"), black-footed penguins ("Spheniscus demersus"),
*"P. fallax" - pygmy owl ("Glaucidium passerinum"), turkeys ("Meleagris" species), the helmeted guineafowl ("Numida meleagris")
*"P. forresteri" - eastern screech-owls ("Otus asio"), great horned owls ("Bubo virginianus"), barred owls ("Strix varia"), bald eagles ("Haliaeetus leucocephalus"), red-shouldered hawks ("Buteo lineatus"), broad-winged hawks ("Buteo platypterus") and red-tailed hawks ("Buteo jamaicensis")

*"P. gabaldoni" - muscovy duck ("Cairina moschata"), rock pigeon ("Columba livia")
*"P. gallinaceum" - red junglefowl ("Gallus gallus")
*"P. garnhami" - the rain quail ("Coturnix coromendalica")
*"P. giovannolai" - red-billed choughs ("Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax"), the blackbird ("Turdus merula")

*"P. globularis" - yellow-whiskered greenbul ("Andropadus latirostris")
*"P. griffithsi" - wild turkeys ("Meleagris gallopavo intermedia")
*"P. gundersi" - Owls ("Otus asio")
*"P. guangdong" - Red-whiskered Bulbul ("Pycnonotus jocosus")
*"P. hegneri" - common teal ("Anas crecca")
*"P. hermani" - turkeys ("Meleagris gallopavo") and bobwhites ("Colinus virginianus")
*"P. hexamerium" - bluebirds
*"P. jiangi" - the red-whiskered bulbul ("Pycnonotus jocosus")
*"P. juxtanucleare" - red junglefowl ("Gallus gallus"), black-footed penguins ("Spheniscus demersus"), white eared-pheasant ("Crossoptilon crossoptilon") Murata K., Nii R., Sasaki E., Ishikawa S., Sato Y., Sawabe K., Tsuda Y., Matsumoto R., Suda A., Ueda M. (2008) "Plasmodium (Bennettinia) juxtanucleare" infection in a captive white eared-pheasant ("Crossoptilon crossoptilon") at a Japanese zoo. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 70(2):203-205]
*"P. kempi" - turkeys ("Meleagris gallopavo"), bobwhites ("Colinus virginianus"), chukars ("Alectoris graeca"), guinea fowl ("Numida meleagris"), peacocks ("Pavo cristatus") and canaries ("Serinus canaria"). Mallards ("Anas platyrhynchos") and domestic geese ("Anser anser") may be transiently infected. Christensen B.M., Barnes H.J., Rowley W.A. (1983) Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of "Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi" sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa. J. Wildl. Dis. 19(3):204-213]
*"P. loprae" - Peking duck ("Anas platyrhynchos")
*"P. matutinum" - pigeons and doves ("Colubma" species)

*"P. megaglobularis" - the olive sunbird ("Cyanomitra olivacea")

*"P. nucleophilium" - great tit ("Parus major"), gray catbird ("Dumetella carolinensis")
*"P. nucleophilum toucani" - Swainson's Toucan ("Ramphastos swainsonii")
*"P. octamerium" - pintail whydah bird ("Vidua macroura") Manwell R.D. (1968) "Plasmodium octamerium" n. sp., an avian malaria parasite from the pintail whydah bird "Vidua macroura". J. Protozool. 15(4):680-685]
*"P. paddae" - the Java Sparrow ("Padda oryzivora")
*"P. paranucleophilum" - South American tanager
*"P. parvulum" - vanga species
*"P. pedioecetii" - lesser prairie-chicken ("Tympanuchus pallidicinctus"), Darwin's Nothura ("Nothura darwinii"), grouse
*"P. pinotti" - the Bananaquit ("Coereba flaveola"), "Euneornis campestris", "Loxipasser anoxanthus", the black-faced Grassquit ("Tiaris bicolor")
*"P. polare" - Bald Eagle ("Haliaeetus leucocephalus"), the Barn Swallow ("Hirundo rustica"), yellow wagtails ("Motacilla flava") Valkiunas G., Iezhova T.A. (2001) A comparison of the blood parasites in three subspecies of the yellow wagtail "Motacilla flava". J. Parasitol. 87(4):930-934.] and cliff swallows ("Petrochelidon pyrrhonota")
*"P. relictum" - reed warbler ("Acrocephalus scirpaceus"), little night owl ("Athene noctua"), house finch ("Carpodacus mexicanus"), blue quails ("Coturnix chinensis"), blue tit ("Cyanistes caeruleus"), Gyr falcons ("Falco rusticolus"), chaffinch ("Fringilla coelebs"), red-backed shrike ("Lanius collurio"), common crossbill ("Loxia curvirostra"), Hawaiian honeycreepers, yellow wagtails ("Motacilla flava"), the house sparrow ("Passer domesticus"), red-billed choughs ("Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax"), the tree sparrow ("Passer montanus"), the great tit ("Parus major"), the bearded tit ("Panurus biarmicus"), Magellanic penguins ("Spheniscus magellanicus"), black-footed penguins ("Spheniscus demersus"), starling ("Sturnus vulgaris"), pheasents ("Tragopan satyra"), White-eyed Thrush ("Turdus jamaicensis"), the yellow-faced Grassquit ("Tiaris olivacea")
*"P. rouxi" - partridges
*"P. tenue" - a babbler ("Garrulax canorus taewanus") and the Pekin Robin ("Leiothrix luteus")
*"P. tejerai" - domestic turkeys ("Meleagris gallopavo")
*"P. tumbayaensis" - the thrush ("Planethicus anthracinus")
*"P. vaughani" - blue jay ("Cyanocitta cristata"), robins ("Erithacus rubecula"), red-billed Leiothrix ("Leiothrix lutea"), "Loxigilla violacea", starlings ("Sturnus vulgaris"), juncos ("Junco hyemalis hyemalis"), the house sparrow ("Passer domesticus"), eastern meadowlark ("Sturnella magna"), starling ("Sturnus vulgaris"), Black-faced Grassquit ("Tiaris bicolor") and White-eyed Thrush ("Turdus jamaicensis")

Subspecies of avian malaria


*"P. relictum" has been divded into subspecies: "P. relictum capistranoae", "P. relicturn matutinum" and "P. relictum relictum".
*"P. nucleophilum" has at least one subspecies - "P. nucleophilum toucani" Interelatedness
*"P. durae" is related to "P. asanum", "P. circumflexum", "P. fallax", "P. formosanum", "P. gabaldoni", "P. hegneri", "P. lophrae", "P. lophrae", "P. pediocetti", "P. pinotti", and "P. polare".
*"P. gallinacium" is related to "P. griffithsi"
*"P. relictum" is related to "P. cathemerium", "P. giovannolai" and "P. matutinum". "P. relictum" may be difficult to distinguish from "P. giovannolai" on either morphological grounds or on the basis of host species.
*"P. hexamerium" is related to "P. vaughni".
*"P. ashfordi" is related to "P. vaughni".

Vectors of avian malaria


*"Aedes" species:
*"Aedes aegypti" - "P. gallinacium"

*"Culex" species:
*"Culex fatigans" - "P. relictum"
*"Culex pipiens" - "P. cathermerium", "P. paddae"
*"Culex pipiens pipiens" - "P. kempi"
*"Culex nigripalpus" - "P. elongatum", "P. hermani"
*"Culex quinquefasciatus" - "P. relictum"
*"Culex restuans" - "P. elongatum", "P. forresteri"
*"Culex salinarius" - "P. elongatum", "P. hermani"
*"Culex stigmatastoma" - "P. relictum"
*"Culex tarsalis" - "P. kempi", "P. hexamerium", "P. relictum"

*"Mansonia" species:
*"Mansionia crassipes" - "P. gallinacium"

Avian malaria notes


*"P. relictum" is known to infect over 70 bird families and 359 wild bird species so the record here should be regarded as incomplete. Additional host species can be found under the link "Plasmodium relictum". It is likely that this species has been responsible for more bird extinctions than any other protist.
*"P. vaughani" is the second commonest species of avian malaria parasites after "P. relictum".
*"P. inconstans", "P. irae", "P. praecox", "P. subpraecox" and "P. wasielewski" have been re classified as "P. relictum". "P. subpraecox" was described by Grassi and Feletti in 1892. "P. wasielewski" was described by Brumpt in 1909.
*"P. elongatum" infects 21 bird families and 59 species of bird. Additional host species are given under the link "Plasmodium elongatum".
*"P. dominicana" is species known only from fossil amber. Poinar G. (2005) "Plasmodium dominicana" n. sp. ("Plasmodiidae: Haemospororida") from Tertiary Dominican amber. Systematic Parasitol. 61 (1) 47-52] It is thought to have been a species infecting birds. It has been placed in the subgenus "Nyssorhynchus".
*The taxonomic status of "P. corradettii" (Laird, 1998) is currently regarded as dubious and may be revised.
*"P. huffi" may be the same species as "P. nucleophilum toucani".
*"P. oti" is now regarded as the same species as "P. hexamerium".
*There are currently 13 species recognised in the subgenus "Novyella" all of which are listed here. A number of additional species have been described in birds - "P. centropi", "P. chloropsidis", "P. gallinuae", "P. herodialis", "P. heroni", "P. mornony", "P. pericorcoti" and "P. ploceii" - but the suggested speciation was based at least in part on the idea - 'one host - one species'. It has not been possible to reconcile the descriptions with any of the currently recongised species and these are not currently regarded as valid species. As further investigations are made into this genus these species may be resurrected. A species "P. japonicum" has been reported Manwell R.D. (1966) "Plasmodium japonicum", "P. juxtanucleare" and "P. nucleophilum" in the Far East. J. Protozool. 13(1):8-11. ] but this appears to be the only report of this species and should therefore be regarded of dubious validity.

References


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