- Gordian III
Gordian III 32nd Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Gordian III, between 242 and 244
Reign 22 April – 29 July 238
(as Caesar to Pupienus
29 July 238 – 11 February 244 (sole, nominally, though government done by senate)
Full name Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Born 20 January 225 Died 11 February 244(aged 19) Place of death Zaitha Predecessor Pupienus and Balbinus Successor Philip the Arab Wife Furia Sabinia Tranquillina,
Dynasty Gordiani Father Unnamed Roman Senator Mother Antonia Gordiana
Gordian III (Latin: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus; 20 January 225 – 11 February 244), was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238.
Rise to power
Following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.
Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian's fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.
Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.
In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.
Year of the Six Emperors – 238
Pupienus and Balbinus, nominally with Gordian III
Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian's death is unknown.
Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new Emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots.
- ^ In Classical Latin, Gordian's name would be inscribed as MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS PIVS AVGVSTVS.
- ^ Res Gestae Divi Saporis, 3–4 (translation of Shapur's inscription at Naqsh-i Rustam)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Meckler, Michael, "Gordian III (238–244 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis
- Ammianus Marcellinus, The Later Roman Empire (AD354-378), 23.5.3
Regnal titles Preceded by
Pupienus and Balbinus
Philip the Arab
Political offices Preceded by
Pontius Proculus Pontianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
with Manius Acilius Aviola
Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus ,
Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus ,
Consul of the Roman Empire
with Clodius Pompeianus
Gaius Vettius Gratus Atticus Sabinianus ,
Gaius Asinius Lepidus Praetextatus
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