Mustard plant


Mustard plant
Mustard
Indian mustard flower (Brassica juncea L. Czern)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Species

See text.

Mustards are several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis whose small mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into the condiment known as mustard or prepared mustard. The seeds are also pressed to make mustard oil, and the edible leaves can be eaten as mustard greens.

Indian mustard plant

Contents

Varieties

Mild white mustard (Sinapis hirta) grows wild in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe, and has spread farther by long cultivation; oriental mustard (Brassica juncea), originally from the foothills of the Himalaya, is grown commercially in Canada, the UK, Denmark and the US; black mustard (Brassica nigra) is grown in Argentina, Chile, the US and some European countries. Canada grows 90% of all the mustard seed for the international market. The Canadian province of Saskatchewan produces almost half of the world's supply of mustard seed.[1]

In addition to the mustards, the genus Brassica also includes cabbages, cauliflower, rapeseed, and turnips.

Although some varieties of mustard plants were well-established crops in Hellenistic and Roman times, Zohary and Hopf note: "There are almost no archeological records available for any of these crops." Wild forms of mustard and its relatives the radish and turnip can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However, Zohary and Hopf conclude: "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations."[2]

There has been recent research into varieties of mustards that have a high oil content for use in the production of biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel similar to diesel fuel. The biodiesel made from mustard oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. The leftover meal after pressing out the oil has also been found to be an effective pesticide.[3]

An interesting genetic relationship between many species of mustard has been observed, and is described as the Triangle of U.

Diseases

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mustard Statistics". Saskatchewan Mustard Development Commission. Retrieved on 2007-11-14 from http://www.saskmustard.ca/grower/growing/statistics.html.
  2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, Third Edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 139
  3. ^ Retrieved from http://www.bioproducts-bioenergy.gov/pdfs/bcota/abstracts/19/z347.pdf[dead link]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mustard — may refer to: Contents 1 The mustard plant and its products 2 Other uses 2.1 Names 2.2 Fictional names …   Wikipedia

  • MUSTARD — (Heb. חַרְדָּל, ḥardal), the name applied to two species, the common mustard (Sinapis alba), known in rabbinical literature as Egyptian mustard, and the kind called simply mustard. The latter was extracted from the seeds of a different botanical… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Mustard (condiment) — Mustard seeds (top left) may be ground (top right) to make different kinds of mustard. The other four mustards pictured are a simple table mustard with turmeric coloring (center left), a Bavarian sweet mustard (center right), a Dijon mustard… …   Wikipedia

  • mustard — (n.) late 13c. (late 12c. as a surname), from O.Fr. mostarde mustard, mustard plant (Mod.Fr. moutarde), from moust must, from L. mustum new wine (see MUST (Cf. must) (n.1)); so called because it was originally prepared by adding must to the… …   Etymology dictionary

  • mustard — /mus teuhrd/, n. 1. a pungent powder or paste prepared from the seed of the mustard plant, used as a food seasoning or condiment, and medicinally in plasters, poultices, etc. 2. any of various acrid or pungent plants, esp. of the genus Brassica,… …   Universalium

  • mustard greens — noun leaves eaten as cooked greens • Syn: ↑mustard, ↑leaf mustard, ↑Indian mustard • Hypernyms: ↑cruciferous vegetable * * * ˈmustard greens 8 [mustard greens] …   Useful english dictionary

  • mustard — /ˈmʌstəd / (say mustuhd) noun 1. a pungent powder or paste prepared from the seed of the mustard plant, much used as a food seasoning or condiment, and medicinally in plasters, poultices, etc. 2. any of various species of Brassica and allied… …   Australian English dictionary

  • mustard — n. 1 a any of various plants of the genus Brassica with slender pods and yellow flowers, esp. B. nigra. b any of various plants of the genus Sinapis, esp. S. alba, eaten at the seedling stage, often with cress. 2 the seeds of these which are… …   Useful english dictionary

  • mustard — 1. noun /ˈmʌstərd,ˈmas.təd,ˈmʌs.təd,ˈmʌs.tɚd/ a) a plant of the genus Brassica, with yellow flowers, and linear seed pods. When the waitress brought the food I asked her if she had any Dijon mustard. b) a powder or paste made from seeds of the… …   Wiktionary

  • mustard — mus•tard [[t]ˈmʌs tərd[/t]] n. 1) a pungent powder or paste prepared from the seed of the mustard plant, used esp. as a food seasoning or condiment 2) pln any of various acrid or pungent plants, esp. of the genus Brassica, as B. juncea, the chief …   From formal English to slang


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