- Jim Bakker
name = James Orsen Bakker
birth_date = Birth date|1940|1|2
Muskegon, Michigan, United States of America Age: 68
Assemblies of God
congregations = "
The PTL Club", " Heritage USA", "Heritage Village Church", "Morningside Church"
Tammy Faye Bakker(1961–1992) Lori Bakker(1998–present)
children = Tammy Sue Bakker Chapman
Jamie Charles ("Jay") Bakker
James Orsen Bakker (born
January 2, 1940, in Muskegon, Michigan) is an American televangelist, a former Assemblies of Godminister, and a former host (with his then-wife Tammy Faye Bakker) of " The PTL Club," a popular evangelical Christiantelevision program. A sex scandal led to his resignation from the ministry. Subsequent revelations of accounting fraud brought about his imprisonmentand divorceand effectively ended his time in the larger public eye.
In 1960, Bakker met Tammy Faye LaValley while both were students at
North Central Universityin Minneapolis, Minnesota. [cite web|last=Welch|first=William M.| title="Ex-wife of evangelist Jim Bakker dies"|publisher=" USA Today"|date= July 21, 2007|url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-07-21-tammy-faye_N.htm | accessdate=2007-11-29 ] Tammy Faye worked in a boutique for a time while Jim found work in a restaurant inside a department store in Minneapolis. They were married on April 1, 1961, and left the Bible College to become itinerantevangelists. They had two children: daughter Tammy Sue (Sissy) Bakker Chapman (born March 2, 1970) and son Jamie Charles (Jay) Bakker (born December 18, 1975). Jim and Tammy Bakker divorced on March 13, 1992, and he married Lori Graham Bakker in 1998.
In 1966, the Bakkers began working at
Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network, which at the time barely reached an audience of thousands. The Bakkers greatly contributed to the growth of the network, and their success with a variety show format (including interviews and puppets) helped make " The 700 Club" one of the longest-running and most successful televangelism programs.Jay Bakker, "Son of a Preacher Man". New York: Harper Collins, 2001 (ISBN 0-06-251698-1).] The "Jim and Tammy Show" was broadcast for a few years from their Portsmouth, Virginia, studio. It was aimed at young children, whom they entertained with such films as " Davey and Goliath", a claymation Bible-story series. The Bakkers then left for California in the mid-1970s.
Teaming with Paul and
Jan Crouch, the Bakkers created the "Praise the Lord" show for the Crouches' new Trinity Broadcasting Networkin California. While that relationship lasted only about a year, this time the Bakkers retained the rights to use the initials PTL and traveled east to Charlotte, North Carolina, to begin their own show, " The PTL Club". Their show grew quickly until it was carried by close to a hundred stations, with average viewers numbering over twelve million, and the Bakkers had established their own network, "The PTL Television Network" (also known as "PTL-The Inspirational Network)". They attributed much of their success to decisions early on to accept all denominations and to refuse no one regardless of race, creed, sexual orientation, or criminal record.
By the early 1980s the Bakkers had built
Heritage USAin Fort Mill, South Carolina, (south of Charlotte), then the third most successful theme park in the U.S., and a satellite system to distribute their network 24 hours a day across the country. Contributions requested from viewers were estimated to exceed $1 million a week, with proceeds to go to expanding the theme park and mission of PTL. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101860217-143137,00.html Power, Glory and Politics, Richard Ostling, TIME magazine] ] In justifying his use of the mass media, Bakker responded to inquiries by likening his use of television to Jesus's use of the amphitheater of the time. "I believe that if Jesus were alive today he would be on TV," Bakker said.
In their success, the Bakkers took
conspicuous consumptionto an unusual level for a non-profit organization. According to Frances FitzGerald in an April 1987 "New Yorker" article, "They epitomized the excesses of the 1980s; the greed, the love of glitz, and the shamelessness; which in their case was so pure as to almost amount to a kind of innocence."
PTL's fund raising activities between 1984–1987 underwent scrutiny by "
The Charlotte Observer" newspaper, eventually leading to criminal charges against Jim Bakker. From 1984 to 1987, Bakker and his PTL associates sold $1,000 "lifetime memberships", which entitled buyers to a three-night stay annually at a luxury hotel at Heritage USA. According to the prosecution at Bakker's later fraud trial, tens of thousands of memberships had been sold, but only one 500-room hotel was ever completed. Bakker sold more "exclusive partnerships" than could be accommodated, while raising more than twice the money needed to build the actual hotel. A good deal of the money went into Heritage USA's operating expenses, and Bakker kept $3.4 million in bonuses for himself, along with the $279,000 payoff for the silence of Jessica Hahn, a Bakker staff member. Bakker, who apparently made all of the financial decisions for the PTL organization, allegedly kept two sets of books to conceal the accounting irregularities. Reporters from "The Charlotte Observer", led by Charles Shepard, investigated and published a series of articles regarding the PTL organization's finances. [cite news | first=Richard N.| last=Ostling | title=Enterprising Evangelism | date= August 3, 1987| publisher= | url =http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,965155,00.html | work =Time | pages = | accessdate = 2007-01-27 | language = ]
March 19, 1987, following the revelation of a payoff to Jessica Hahn, whom Bakker's staff members had paid $279,000 from PTL funds to keep secret her allegation that he had raped her, Bakker resigned from PTL. cite news | first= Richard N. |last=Ostling | title=Jim Bakker's Crumbling World | date= December 19, 1988| work=Time |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,956551,00.html | accessdate=2007-12-05 ] Bakker acknowledges he met Hahn at a hotel room in Clearwater Beach, Florida, but denies raping her. Following Bakker's resignation as PTL head, he was succeeded in late March, 1987, by Jerry Falwell. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964322-1,00.html Taking Command at Fort Mill, Richard Ostling, TIME magazine, May 11, 1987] ] Later that summer, as donations sharply declined in the wake of Bakker's resignation and the end of the Bakkers' popular "PTL Club" TV show, Falwell raised $20 million to help keep the Heritage USA Theme Park solvent, including a well-publicized waterslide plunge there. [cite news | url=http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,965543,00.html | title=American Notes: Fund Raising | publisher="Time" | date= September 21, 1987| accessdate=2007-11-29 ] . Falwell called Bakker a liar, an embezzler, a sexual deviant, and "the greatest scab and cancer on the face of Christianityin 2,000 years of church history." [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article2120961.ece Tammy Faye Bakker - Obituary] ] In 1988, Falwell said that the Bakker scandal had "strengthened broadcast evangelism and made Christianity stronger, more mature and more committed". [cite web | title="Preacher Scandals Strengthen TV Evangelism, Falwell Says" | publisher= The Washington Post| date= March 19, 1988|url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/73577139.html?dids=73577139:73577139&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=MAR+19%2C+1988&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Preacher+Scandals+Strengthen+TV+Evangelism%2C+Falwell+Says&pqatl=google | accessdate=2007-12-05 ] Bakker's son, Jay, wrote in 2001 that the Bakkers felt betrayed by Falwell, whom they thought, at the time of Bakker's resignation, intended to help in Bakker's eventual restoration as head of the PTL ministry organization.
Following a 16-month Federal grand jury probe, Bakker was
indictedin 1988 on eight counts of mail fraud, 15 counts of wire fraudand one count of conspiracy. ["U.S. v. Bakker", (C.A.4, 1991), 925 F.2d 728, 740, case no. 89-5687] In 1989, after a five week trial in Charlotte, the jury found him guilty on all 24 counts, and Judge Robert Potter sentenced him to 45 years in federal prisonand a $500,000 fine.cite web | last=Peifer | first=Justice Paul E. | title="Jim Bakker's Federal Court Appeal" | publisher=Supreme Court of Ohio website | date= April 12, 2000| url=http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/Justices/pfeifer/column/2000/jp041200.htm | accessdate=2007-11-29 ]
He served time in the
Federal Medical Center, Rochesterin Rochester, Minnesota, sharing a cell with activist Lyndon LaRouche.
In early 1991, a federal appeals court upheld Bakker's conviction on the fraud and conspiracy charges, but voided Bakker's 45-year sentence, as well as the $500,000 fine, and ordered that a new sentencing hearing be held. At that hearing, Bakker was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
In 1993, after serving almost five years of his sentence, Bakker was granted
parole. Bakker's son, Jay, spearheaded a letter-writing campaign to the parole board on his father's behalf, urging leniency.
A federal jury subsequently ruled that PTL was not selling securities by offering Lifetime Partnerships at Heritage USA, as Bakker had contended.
July 23, 1996, a North Carolinajury threw out a class action suitbrought on behalf of more than 160,000 onetime supporters who contributed as much as $7,000 each to Bakker's coffers in the 1980s.
"The Charlotte Observer" reported that the
Internal Revenue Servicestill holds Bakker and Roe Messner, Tammy Faye's husband from 1993 until her death in 2007, liable for personal income taxes owed from the 1980s when they were building the PTL empire, taxes assessed after the IRS revoked the PTL ministry's nonprofit status. Tammy Faye Messner's new husband said that the original tax amount was about $500,000, with penalties and interest accounting for the rest. Notices stating the IRS liens list still identify "James O. and Tamara F. Bakker" as owing $3,000,000, liens on which Jim Bakker still pays.
Bakker has renounced his past teachings on
prosperity theology, saying they were wrong. In his 1996 book, "I Was Wrong", he admitted that the first time he read the Bible all the way through was in prison, and that it made him realize he had taken certain passages out of context - passages which he had used as "proof texts" to back up his prosperity teachings. He wrote:
In 1998, Bakker released another book, "Prosperity and the Coming Apocalypse", and, in 2000, he published "The Refuge: The Joy of Christian Community in a Torn-Apart World".
His son, Jay, who is now a minister at Revolution Church in
New York City, wrote of the PTL years in his book, "Son of a Preacher Man": "The world at large has focused on my parents' preaching of prosperity, but...I heard a different message — one of forgiveness and the abundance of God's love. I remember my dad always seating a mentally handicapped man in the front row and hugging him. And when vandals burned an African American church down, Dad made sure its parishioners got the funds to rebuild. His goal was to make PTL a place where anyone with a need could walk in off the streets and have that need met."
In January 2003, Bakker began broadcasting the daily "Jim Bakker Show" at Studio City Cafe in
Branson, Missouri, with his second wife, Lori Bakker. It is carried on the DISH and DirecTVsatellite networks and the CTN cable network.
In January 2008, Bakker's ministry moved into a new, elaborate television studio near Branson. The studio is housed within a 600-acre development that resembles Bakker's former location, Heritage USA. Most or all of the property in the new development (named Morningside) is owned by associates of Bakker, rather than Bakker himself. As the St. Louis Post-Dispatch has pointed out, Bakker is still in debt to the IRS for about $6 million. [ [http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/stories.nsf/missouristatenews/story/9133CC5A10327DE7862573F2001D41BE?OpenDocument STLtoday - Jim Bakker, with the PTL and prison behind him, dreams big in Missouri ] ]
Christian evangelist scandals
* [http://www.jimbakkershow.com Jim Bakker Show]
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