- Whites in Zimbabwe
Infobox Ethnic group
group = White Zimbabweans
David Coltart· Cara Black· Warren Carne· Nick Price
pop = 46,743 "(2002)" 1/3rd of 1% of total population
languages = Major: English, some
religions = Mainly
Christianity, minorities practicing Judaism, Catholicismor no religionA small number of people of European ethnic origin (Whites) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabweduring the late nineteenth century. A steady immigration of Whites followed after the end of WWII, and to avoid African rule known as the Wind Of Change, Southern Rhodesia illegally broke away under UDI and a Whites-Only self-governing country known as Rhodesiawas established. Up to the end of the 1970s, Whites were the privileged ethnic group in the country, although their numbers never exceeded 300,000, or about 5.5% of the population.
As was the case (to varying degrees) in most European colonies in Africa and Asia, white immigrants took a privileged position in many areas of society. However, the position in Rhodesia was distinguished by the fact that the local white minority entrenched its political, economic and social dominance of the country. Extensive areas of prime farmland were reserved for Whites Only. Senior positions in the public services were reserved for Whites, and Whites working in manual occupations enjoyed legal protection against job competition from Africans. As time passed, this situation became increasingly unwelcome to the majority ethnic groups within Zimbabwe and also to wide sections of international opinion.
After the country’s independence as Zimbabwe in 1980, Whites had to adjust to being an ethnic minority in a country with an African government. Many Whites emigrated in the early 1980s, being uncertain about their future, but many remained. Political unrest and the legal seizure of farms resulted in a further exodus commencing in 1999. Two White farmers and an unknown number of African farmworkers were killed while defending their farms from these seizures. The 2002 census recorded 46,743 Whites remaining in Zimbabwe. More than 10,000 were elderly and fewer than 9,000 were under the age of 15. [Irish Examiner report: [http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2005/08/24/story662306828.asp 2002 census returns] ]
Zimbabwe (then known as
Southern Rhodesiaand later just as Rhodesia) was selected as a settlement colony by South African, British and Afrikanercolonists from the 1890s onwards, following the subjugation of the Matabele, (Ndebele), and Shona nations by the British South Africa Company(BSAC). The early White settlers came in search of mineral resources, finding deposits of coal, chromium, nickel, platinum, and gold. They also found some of the best farmland in Africa. The central part of Rhodesia is a plateau which varies in altitude between 900 m and 1,500 m (2,950 and 4,900 ft) above sea level. This gives the area a sub-tropical climate which is conducive to European settlement and agricultural practices. [This is a journey: [http://www.thisisajourney.org/item/item_topic-vervolg.asp?id=142&Item_CountryID=3&Item_TopicID=10 the geography of Zimbabwe] ]
The White soldiers who assisted in the BSAC takeover of the country were each given 3,000-acre (or more) land grants, and blacks living on this land became tenants. Later, Land Apportionment and Tenure acts reserved extensive low rainfall areas for either black only tribal trust lands and high rainfall areas for white ownership, which gave rise to cases of blacks being excluded from their own land. White settlers were attracted to Rhodesia by the availability of tracts of stolen prime farmland that could be purchased from the state at low cost. This resulted in a major feature of the Rhodesian economy—the "white farm". The white farm was typically a large (>100 km² (>38.6 mi²)) mechanised estate, owned by a white family and 'employing' hundreds of blacks. Many white farms provided housing, schools, and clinics for black employees and their families. At the time of independence in 1980, over 40% of the country's farming land was contained within 5,000 white farms. It was claimed that these farms provided 40% of the country's GDP and up to 60% of its foreign earnings. [Multinational Monitor, April 1981 : [http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1981/04/khatami.html Zimbabwe's government wins confidence] ] Major export products included tobacco, beef, sugar, cotton, and maize.
The minerals sector was also important. Gold, asbestos, nickel, and chrome were mined by foreign owned concerns such as
Lonhroand Anglo American. These operations were usually run by white managers, engineers, and foremen.
The Census of 3 May 1921 found that Southern Rhodesia had a total population of 899,187 of whom 33,620 were Europeans, 1,998 were Coloured (mixed races), 1,250 Asiatics, 761,790 Bantu natives of Southern Rhodesia, and 100,529 Bantu aliens. [Official Year Book of the Colony of Southern Rhodesia, No. 1, 1924 (Art Printing and Publishing Works, Salisbury, 1924)] The following year, Southern Rhodesians rejected, in a referendum, the option of becoming a province of the
Union of South Africa. Instead, the country became a self-governing British colony. It never gained full dominionstatus, although unlike other colonies, it was treated as a "de facto" dominion, with its Prime Minister attending the Commonwealth Prime Minister's Conference.
The growth of the white community
In 1891, before Southern Rhodesia was established as a territory, it was estimated that there were about 1,500 Europeans residing there. This number grew slowly to around 75,000 in 1945. In the period 1945 to 1955 the white population doubled to 150,000. During that decade, 100,000 blacks were forcibly resettled from farming land designated for white ownership. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p60] ] It must be noted that some members of the white farming community opposed the forced removal of blacks from land designated for white ownership and some even favoured the handover of underutilized white land to black farmers. For example, in 1947 Wedza white farmer Harry Meade unsuccessfully opposed the eviction of his black neighbour Solomon Ndawa from a 500-acre irrigated wheat farm. Meade represented Ndawa at hearings of the Land Commission and attempted to protect Ndawa from abusive, racist questioning. [ Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p52] ]
Large-scale white emigration to Rhodesia did not begin until after the
Second World War, and at its peak in the late 1960s Rhodesia's white population consisted of as many as 270,000. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p62, fig 1.6] ] There were influxes of white immigrants from the 1940s through to the early 1970s. The most conspicuous group were former British servicemen in the immediate post-war period. But many of the new immigrants were refugees from communism in Europe, others were former service personnel from colonial India, others came from Kenya, the Belgian Congo, Zambia, Algeria, and Mozambique. For a time, Rhodesia provided something of a haven for whites who were retreating from decolonisation elsewhere in Africa and Asia. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p58] ]
Rhodesian white settlers were considered different in character to white settlers in other British colonies. Settlers in
Kenyawere perceived to be drawn from 'the officer class' and from the British land owning class. Settlers in Rhodesia were perceived to be drawn from lower social strata and were treated accordingly by the British authorities:
"Foreign Office mandarins dismissed white Rhodesians as lower middle class, no more than provincial clerks and artisans, the lowly NCOs of empire." - Peter Godwin, "The Guardian" [The Guardian : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/story/0,,2216724,00.html If only ..., November 2007] ] However, it should be noted that whites never amounted to more than 5.5% of the country's total population (that is, 270,000 whites divided by 5 million total population in 1970 [
Demographics of Zimbabwe] ). Also, the white farming community never amounted to more than around 8% of the total white population and this proportion fell steadily after 1945 up to independence in 1980. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p63] ]
Various factors encouraged the growth of the white population of Rhodesia. These included the industrialisation and prosperity of the economy in the post-War period and the fact that the National Party victory in the 1948 South African general election made that country less friendly to British settlement and investment than was previously the case. It was also apparent as early as the 1950s that white rule would continue for longer in Rhodesia than it would in other British colonies such as Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) and Kenya. Many of the new immigrants had a "not here" attitude to majority rule and independence. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p59] ]
Rhodesia was run by a white minority government. In 1965 that government declared itself independent through a Unilateral Declaration of Independence ('UDI') under Prime Minister
Ian Smith. [BBC report: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/11/newsid_2658000/2658445.stm UDI of Rhodesia, 1965] ] The UDI project eventually failed, after a period of UN economic sanctions and a civil war known as the Chimurenga(Shona) or Bush War. British colonial rule returned in December 1979 (as 'The British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia'). The country then became the independent state of Zimbabwe in April 1980.
One characteristic of white settlement in Rhodesia was that the white community kept itself largely separate from the Black and Asian communities in the country. ["From Civilization to Segregation: Social ideals and social control in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1934" by Carol Summers, Ohio University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8214-1074-1] Urban whites lived in separate areas of town, and whites had their own segregated education, healthcare and recreational facilities. Marriage between blacks and whites was possible, but remains to the present day very rare. The 1903 Immorality Suppression Ordinance made "illicit" (i.e. unmarried) sex between black men and white women illegal – with a penalty of two years imprisonment for any offending white woman. [Gender and History, 2005 : [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.0953-5233.2005.00371.x article by Lucy Bland on black-white sex, see p3] ] The majority of the early white immigrants were men, so many white men entered into relationships with black women. The result was a large number of mixed-race persons, some of whom were accepted as being white. A proposal by
Garfield Todd(Prime Minister, 1953-1958) to liberalise laws on inter-racial sex was viewed as dangerously radical. The proposal was rejected and was one factor that led to the political demise of Todd. [Guardian: [http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,3604,811389,00.html Obituaries: Sir Garfield Todd] ]
Rhodesian whites had enjoyed a very high standard of living. The Land Tenure Act had reserved 50% of agricultural land for white ownership and black labour costs were low (around US$40 per month in 1975), which had a large effect in the context of an agricultural economy. [AFP Report on Rhodesia, 1976 : [http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF001975/Wright/Wright19/Wright19.html Robin Wright, para 38] ] Public spending on education, healthcare and other social services was heavily weighted towards provision for whites. Most of the better paid jobs in public service were reserved for whites. ["The Governmental System of Southern Rhodesia", by D.J. Murray, OUP, 1970] Whites in skilled manual occupations enjoyed employment protection against black competition. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p66] ] In 1975, the average annual income per head for Rhodesian whites was around US$8,000 (with income tax at a marginal rate of 5%) — making them one of the richest communities in the world. [ [http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF001975/Wright/Wright19/Wright19.html Propaganda: The Other Rhodesian War] ]
At independence probably around 38% of white Zimbabweans were UK-born, with slightly fewer born in Rhodesia and around 20% from elsewhere in Africa. ["A Chronicle of Modern Sunlight", author W.G. Eaton published by Innovision, Rohnert Park, California, 1996] The white population of that era contained a large transient element and many whites might better be considered foreign expatriates than settlers. Between 1960 and 1979 white immigration to Rhodesia was 180,000 and white emigration in the same period was 202,000 (with an average white population of around 240,000). [Ian F. W. Beckett, " [http://members.tripod.com/selousscouts/rhodesian%20army%20coin%2072_79%20part1.htm The Rhodesian Army: Counter-Insurgency 1972-1979] " (paragraph 17)] Many whites were relatively recent arrivals in the country and showed little hesitation about moving on after independence.
The status of the whites
The country gained its independence as
Zimbabwein April 1980, under a ZANU-PFgovernment lead by Robert Mugabe. Following independence, the country's whites lost their former privileged position. A generous social welfare net (including both education and healthcare) that had supported whites in Rhodesia disappeared almost in an instant. Whites in the artisan, skilled worker and supervisory classes began to experience job competition from blacks. Indigenisation in the public services displaced many whites. The result was that white emigration gathered pace. In the ten year period from 1980 to 1990 approximately 2/3 of the white population left Zimbabwe. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p117, fig2.3] ]
However, many whites resolved to stay in the new Zimbabwe. Only 1/3 of the white farming community left. An even smaller proportion of white urban business owners and members of the professional classes left. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p125] ] This pattern of migration meant that although small in absolute number, Zimbabwe's whites formed a high proportion of the upper strata of society.
A 1984 article in the "Sunday Times Magazine" described and pictured the life of Zimbabwean whites at a time when their number was just about to fall below 100,000. [ Sunday Times Magazine: [http://www.maryellenmark.com/text/magazines/london_sunday_times/904G-000-005.html 1984 report on whites in Zimbabwe] ] About 49% of emigrants left to settle in South Africa, many of whom were
Afrikaansspeakers, 29% in the United Kingdom and most of the remainder going to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. [W.G. Eaton, A Chronicle of Modern Sunlight, published by Innovision, Rohnert Park, California, 1996] Many of these emigrants identify themselves as Rhodesian. A white Rhodesian/Zimbabwean who is nostalgic for the UDI era is known colloquially as a " Rhodie". These nostalgic "Rhodesians" are also sometimes referred to as " Whenwes", because of the nostalgia of "when we were in Rhodesia"cite web | url = http://www.newint.org/issue155/briefly.htm | title = Rhodie oldies | year = 1985 | accessdate = 2007-10-29 | publisher = " New Internationalist"] A white who remained in Zimbabwe and accepted the situation is known as a "Zimbo".
The lifting of UN imposed economic sanctions and the end of the Bush War at the time of independence produced an immediate 'peace dividend'. Renewed access to world capital markets made it possible to finance major new infrastructure developments in transport and schools. One area of economic growth was tourism, catering in particular to visitors from Europe and North America. Many whites found work in this sector. Another area of growth was horticulture, involving the cultivation of flowers, fruits and vegetables which were air-freighted to market in Europe. Many white farmers were involved in this and in 2002 it was claimed that 8% of horticultural imports into Europe were sourced in Zimbabwe. [ SADC newsletter: [http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0000015/index.php Eddie Cross interview] ] The economic-migrant element among the white population had departed quickly after independence, leaving behind those whites with deeper roots in the country. The country settled and the white population stabilised.
Lancaster House Agreement, which was the basis for independence, had precluded compulsory land redistribution in favour of subsidised voluntary sale of land by white owners, for a period of at least 10 years. The pattern of land ownership established during the Rhodesian state therefore survived for some time after independence. Those whites who were prepared to adapt to the situation they found themselves in were therefore able to continue enjoying a very comfortable existence. In fact, the independence settlement combined with favourable economic conditions plus ESAP (see below) produced a 20-year period of unprecedented prosperity for Zimbabwean whites and for the white farming community in particular. A new class of "young white millionaires" appeared in the farming sector. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p194] ] These were typically young Zimbabweans who had applied skills learned in agricultural colleges and business schools in Europe.
"This is the best government for commercial farmers that this country has ever seen" John Brown (CFU president), 1989 [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p126] ]
(Zimbabwe's whites) "... kept their houses and their pools and their servants. The white farmers had it even better. With crop prices soaring they bought boats on Lake Kariba and built air strips on their farms for newly acquired planes. Zimabwe's whites reached an implicit understanding with Zanu-PF; they could go on as before, so long as they kept out of politics" - Chris McGeal, April 2008 [ The Observer : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/13/zimbabwe 13 April 2008, Zimbabwe's decade of horror] ]
White Zimbabweans with professional skills were readily accepted in the new order. For example, Chris Andersen had been the hardline Rhodesian justice minister but made a new career for himself as an independent MP and leading attorney in Zimbabwe. In 1998 he defended former President
Canaan Bananain the infamous "sodomy trial". [NewsPlanet, June 1998 : [http://www.sodomylaws.org/world/zimbabwe/zinews010.htm Sodomy Laws] ] At the time of this trial, Andersen spoke out against the attitude of President Mugabe who had described homosexuals as being "worse than dogs and pigs since they are a colonial invention, unknown in African tradition". [Electronic Mail: [http://www.sodomylaws.org/world/zimbabwe/zinews004.htm "Faggots"] ]
By the mid-1990s it is thought that around 70,000 whites remained in Zimbabwe. [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p62, fig1.6] ] In spite of this small number, the white Zimbabwean minority maintained control of much of the economy through its investment in commercial farms, industry, and tourism. However, an on-going programme of land reforms (intended to alter the ethnic balance of land ownership) dislodged many white farmers. The level of violence associated with these reforms in some rural areas made the position of the wider white community uncomfortable. Twenty years after independence, there were 21,000 commercial farmers in the country of whom 4,000 were white and 17,000 were black. [ SADC newsletter: [http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0000015/index.php Eddie Cross interview, see Q2] ] Natural market processes had diminished the influence of white farmers to a point where the government was no longer afraid to confront them.
The "land issue" is a problem that came to assume a very high profile in Zimbabwe's political life. ZANU politicians pressed for land to be transferred from white to black ownership regardless of the resultant disruption to agricultural output, in order to correct the injustice of the Rhodesian land apportionment. White farmers argued that this served little purpose since Zimbabwe has ample agricultural land much of which was either vacant or only lightly cultivated. On this last basis, the problem was really a lack of development rather than one of land tenure. White farmers would respond to claims that they owned "70% of the best arable land" by stating that what they actually owned was "70% of the best developed arable land" — and the two are entirely different things. [Online : [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/land/gp_zimbabwe.html the Zimbabwean Land Issue] ] Whatever the merits of the arguments, in the post-Independence period the Land Issue assumed enormous symbolic importance to all concerned. As the euphoria of independence subsided and as a variety of economic and social problems became evident in the late 1990s, the Land Issue became a focus for trouble.
In 1999 the government initiated a "fast track land reform" programme. This was intended to transfer 4,000 white farms, covering 110,000 km² (42,470 mi²) of mostly prime farmland, to black ownership. The means used to implement the programme were ad-hoc and involved forcible seizure in many cases. [Human Rights Watch report [http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/zimbabwe/ZimLand0302-02.htm#P112_20168 Fast Track Land Reform] ]
By mid-2006 only 500 of the original 5,000 white farms were still fully operational. [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p318] ] The majority of the white farms that avoided expropriation were in Manicaland and Midlands where it proved possible to do local deals and form strategic partnerships. However, by early 2007, a number of the farms were being leased back to their former white owners (although in reduced size and/or on a contract basis) and it is possible that as many as 1,000 of them could be operational again, in some form. [The Guardian, 4 January 2007 [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1982246,00.html Mugabe lets white farmers back] ] Of the 3,500 evicted white farmers it is reported that 2,000 are still in Zimbabwe and are turning their hands to new business enterprises. [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p326] ] One former white farmer formed a construction company and later contracted his bulldozers to the government for use in
"This is Africa, you have to make a plan and if that means doing business with guys that aren't very nice then so be it. It was cash up front - no questions asked. It's survival of the fittest, my friend ... if you want to live here you must play the game" anonymous, quoted in the Selby thesis [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p326] ]
While the expropriated white farmers themselves have generally moved on to other things, this has not been the case for some of their employees. Former white farm workers from the chargehand/foreman bracket have found themselves in much reduced circumstances. The post 2000 recession has seen the emergence of a class of "poor whites". These are typically persons who lack capital, education and skills — and who are therefore unable to migrate from Zimbabwe. Social workers have commented that blacks facing difficulties are usually able to fall back on support from extended families. Whites and coloureds have a much more individualistic culture and appear less able to cope with hardship. [Mopane Tree: [http://www.theshebeen.org/governance/85-zimbabwe-poor-whites-hit-hard-times.html "poor whites" in Zimbabwe] ]
University of Zimbabwe sociologisttold IWPRjournalist Benedict Unendoro, the " esprit de corps" of the white dominant class in the former Rhodesiaprevented the poor whites from becoming a recognizable social group because of the social assistance provided by the dominant social class on racial grounds. This system broke down after the founding of Zimbabwe, causing the number of poor whites to increase especially after 2000, when the confiscation of white-owned farms took its toll. As rich white land owners emigrate or fend for themselves financially, their white employees who mainly worked as supervisors of black labour, found themselves destitute on the streets of cities like Harare, with many found begging around urban centres like Eastlea. The land confiscated from white owners has been redistributed to black peasant farmers and smallholders, acquired by commercial land companies, or persons connected to the regime. [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p321] ] [Selby thesis [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p327] ]
Sympathisers of the expropriated white farmers have claimed that lack of professional management skills among the new landholders has resulted in a dramatic decline in Zimbabwe's agricultural production. [Selby thesis : [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf s6.4 'Assessing the fast track land redistributions', p314, notably Figure 6.2, p316] ] Indeed, in an effort to boost their own agricultural output, neighboring countries including Mozambique and Zambia offered land and other incentives to entice Zimbabwe's white farmers to immigrate. [ The Guardian, 27 February 2006 [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1718591,00.html#article_continue Zimbabwean farmers in Zambia] ]
By 2008, an estimated one in ten out of 5,000 white farmers remained on their land. Many of these continued to face intimidation. [The Sunday Times, 22 June 2008 cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article4187854.ece| title=Whites huddle and pray as mob closes in| ] By June 2008, it was reported that only 280 white farmers remained and all of their farms were invaded. [The Daily Telegraph, 26 June 2008cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/2196135/Zimbabwe's-last-white-farmer-forced-to-quit.html| title=Zimbabwe's last white farmer forced to quit| ]
On the day of Mugabe's inaugration as president on June 28th 2008, several White farmers who had protested the seizure of their land were beaten and burned by Robert Mugabe's supporters. A British-born farmer, Ben Freeth (who has had several articles and letters published in the British press regarding the hostile situation) and his in-laws, Mike and Angela Campbell were recently adbucted and found badly beaten. [The Daily Telegraph, 29 June 2008cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/2218691/Ben-Freeth,-a-British-born-farmer,-is-abducted-in-Zimbabwe.html| title=Ben Freeth, a British-born farmer, is abducted in Zimbabwe|] [News24, 30 June 2008cite web|url=http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/Zimbabwe/0,,2-11-1662_2349542,00.html| title=White Zim farmers attacked| ] [ The Times 30 June 2008cite web|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article4238024.ece| title=Farmer who exposed terror, Ben Freeth, is kidnapped with family| ] Mr Campbell, speaking from hospital in Harare, has vowed to continue with his legal fight for his farm. [ The Daily Telegraph 2 July 2008cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/2230414/Zimbabwe-Battered-white-farmers-vow-to-battle-on-against-Robert-Mugabe.html| title=Zimbabwe: Battered white farmers vow to battle on against Robert Mugabe | ]
John Bredenkampstarted his trading business during the UDI era when he developed expertise in “sanctions busting”. He is reported to have arranged the export of Rhodesian tobacco and the import of components (including parts and munitions for the UDI regime’s force of Hunter jets) in the face of UN trade sanctions. Bredenkamp was able to continue and expand his business after independence, making himself a personal fortune estimated at around US$1 billion. [The Guardian, 9 June 2006: [http://www.guardian.co.uk/zimbabwe/article/0,,1793719,00.html Tycoon flees Zimbabwe in private jet] ]
A number of foreign white entrepreneurs have been attracted to Zimbabwe in recent years. Controversial British businessman
Nicholas van Hoogstratenhas built up a 4200 km² (1620 mi²) land holding in central Zimbabwe through his corporate interests (mainly Messina Investments). Far from losing land to resettlement, van Hoogstraten has actually been able to purchase new property since 2000. Van Hoogstraten, a man with a colourful and criminal history, [The Observer, 15 January 2006 : [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/magazine/story/0,,1685103,00.html van Hoogstraten interview with Lyn Barber] ] has described President Mugabe as "“100 percent decent and incorruptible”" and "“a true English gentleman”". [Guardian, 21 April 2000 : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,212767,00.html British Multimillionaire bankrolls Mugabe party] ] Van Hoogstraten is reported to have arranged supplies for Zimbabwean forces in the DRC and to have underwritten arms deals for the Mugabe administration. [Selby thesis: [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf p324] ] Although, van Hoogstraten appears to have recently fallen out with the Zimbabwean establishment. [BBC report, 26 January 2008 : [http://news.aol.co.uk/british-tycoon-held-in-zimbabwe/article/20080126075109990009 van Hoogstraten held ....] ]
Several white Zimbabwean businessmen, such as
Billy Rautenbach, have returned to their native country after working abroad for some years. Rautenbach has succeeded in extending Zimbabawean minerals sector activity into neighbouring countries such as the DRC. [Zimnews : [http://www.zwnews.com/issuefull.cfm?ArticleID=10776 report on Billy Rautenbach] ]
Charles Davy is one of the largest private landowners in Zimbabwe. 53-year-old Davy is reported to own 1,200 km² (460 mi²) of land including farms at Ripple Creek, Driehoek, Dyer's Ranch and Mlelesi. His property has been almost unaffected by any form of land redistribution — and he denies that this fact has any link to his business relationship with MP and Minister Webster Shamu. Says Davy about Minister Shamu "I am in partnership with a person who I personally like and get along with"." [ Daily Telegraph report: [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=ZE3PM2FPNPMZVQFIQMGSFFWAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2005/06/11/wdad111.xml Charles Davy defends business interests] ] Other views on Shamu are less kind. [The Zimbabwean 2005 : [http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/22-july-2005/van-hoogstraaten.html see para 5] ]
Davy is married to Beverley, a former model and "Miss Rhodesia" of 1973. Their daughter Chelsy (born and raised in Bulawayo) is the long-standing girlfriend of
Prince Harry. Press reports [Mail on Sunday, 19 December 2004] quote Chelsy's Uncle Paul as saying that although Harry and Chelsy wished to marry, the British Royal Family would not allow this because of Chelsy's Zimbabwean connections. Chelsy may not have helped her own case by participating a little too enthusiastically in Prince Harry's celebration of his graduation from the Sandhurst military academy in 2006 and dressing inappropriately. Belfast-born murdered socialiteand naturalized Rhodesian and South African citizen, Hazel Cranemade her fortune as a diamond smuggler in the then Rhodesia. Crane's first husband was in the Rhodesian Armyfighting in the Rhodesian Bush Warwhen he was killed at age 25. Crane who had one child, and was pregnant with the couple's second turned to a life of crime after his death. Her activities included; smuggling diamonds and emeralds, making blackmarket currency deals, owning a striptease joint and selling hard-core pornography. In her posthumous biography, she describes how she would tuck emeralds into her beehive hairdo or pack them into her son's nappies for smuggling.cite web|url=http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/High-society-rocked-by-the-shady-past-of-one-of-its-own/2004/12/23/1103391892184.html| title=High society rocked by the shady past of one of its own| publisher=The Age| date =24-12-2004] She invested her profits in legitimate businesses, such as the Copa Cobana restaurant, one of Rhodesia's most popular and fashionable meeting places. In later life, she was a commodity broker. She was allegedely murdered by the Israeli mafiain 2003, near her mansion home in Abbotsford, Gauteng.cite web|url=http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/03/11/SouthAfrica_JewishMafia.html| title=Israeli Mafia confirmed active in South Africa| publisher=SABC| date =12-11-2003]
The political environment in Zimbabwe has allowed the development of an exploitative business culture, in which white businessmen have played a prominent role. [UN report: [http://www.afrol.com/Countries/DRC/documents/un_resources_2002_govt_zim.htm - Zimbabwe involvement in DRC minerals] ] [ House of Commons, 18 November 2002 : [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmhansrd/vo021118/text/21118w02.htm debate on Zimbabwe] ] When Zimbabwe was subject to EU sanctions arising from its involvement in the DRC from 1998, the government was able to call on sanctions busting expertise and personnel from the UDI era to provide parts and munitions for its force of Hawk jets. After 25 years of ZANU-PF government, Zimbabwe has become a congenial place for white millionaires of a certain kind to live and do business in. [ The Zimbabwean, 2005 : [http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/22-july-2005/van-hoogstraaten.html business backers of ZANU-PF] ]
Several cultural organisations existed during white-minority rule that mainly served the interests of the community. These included The National Art Gallery, The National Arts Foundation and the Salisbury Arts Council.
Nobel Prize winning writer
Doris Lessingwho lived in Southern Rhodesiabetween 1924-49 and had two children there has published works making light of the colonial experience and exposing racial hostilities. In her 1950 novel, The Grass Is Singingset in Southern Rhodesia in the late 1940s deals with racial injustice. The book was banned in Southern Rhodesia until independence in 1980. She visited her children in the country in 1956 but was declared a 'prohibited immigrant' and banned from coming back again for political reasons. She visited the country many times since independence and released her accounts of the visits in the book "African Laughter: Four Visits to Zimbabwe" in 1992. In her 2008 semi fictional/non-fiction novel "Alfred and Emily", Southern Rhodesia is a prominent backdrop in the second 'factual' part of her account of her parents lives. [Women's history cite web|url=http://womenshistory.about.com/od/writers20th/p/doris_lessing.htm| title=Doris Lessing| ] [Bloomberg 11 October 2007 cite web|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=anexY5Z5sGgw&refer=home| title=`Golden Notebook' Author Lessing Wins Nobel Prize | ] [ The Independent16 May 2008 cite web|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/alfred-and-emily-by-doris-lessing-brtwenty-chickens-for-a-saddle-by-robyn-scott-828942.html| title=Alfred and Emily, by Doris Lessing | ] Alexander McCall Smithwho was born and brought up in Southern Rhodesia, has also enjoyed success. In particular he is known as the creator of the Africa-inspired series The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agencyset in neighbouring Botswana. [ The Independent14 August 2004 cite web|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20040814/ai_n12805953| title=The Saturday Profile: ALEXANDER McCALL SMITH - The master of the feel- | ]
Peter Godwin (born Harare, 1957) is a well known writer and journalist. He has authored several books with a Zimbabwean background including "Rhodesians Never Die" (1984) and "When a Crocodile Eats the Sun" (2007). The theme of these books is the impact of political change in Zimbabwe on the country’s white community. Godwin regularly contributes to newspapers, TV and radio on Zimbabwean affairs. His sister is Georgina Godwin, until 2001 a presenter on Zimbabwe TV and radio. [The Stage : [http://www.thestage.co.uk/features/feature.php/20883/working-to-bring-hope-harare-international June 2008] ]
Along with Peter Godwin who tackles the issue of chaotic land reforms in Zimbabwe in "When a Crocodile Eats the Sun", Zimbabwean author
Catherine Bucklehas also tackled this issue. She has released the books "African Tears" and "Beyond Tears". The former deals with the emotional struggle that she and her family faced as war veterans invaded her farm. She also explores the traumatic situation facing farm workers and other farming families in similar positions to hers. In "Beyond Tears" she speaks to the family of a murdered farmer, to five farmers who were abducted as well as to rape victims. She also returns to visit her once-productive former farm, that has been burnt to the ground and turned into a squatter camp. [Books of Zimbabwe [http://www.booksofzimbabwe.com/page4aa.html#African%20Tears:%20The%20Zimbabwe%20Land%20Invasions%20-%20Catherine%20Buckle] ] [Cathy Buckle [http://www.cathybuckle.com/beyondtears.htm AFRICAN TEARSBEYOND TEARSThe truth about Zimbabwe] ]
South Africa-born novelist and poet
John Eppelwas raised in Southern Rhodesia and is a Zimbabwean citizen. His works have been released to critical acclaim in particular he has enjoyed success with "D G G Berry's The Great North Road".In particular he deals with themes such as the Rhodesian Bush War, independence and neo-colonialism. [ [cite web|url=http://msupress.msu.edu/bookTemplate.php?bookID=2954|title=Michigan State University Press|accessdate=2007-08-24] [cite web|url=http://www.postcolonialweb.org/zimbabwe/eppel/bio1.html|title=Postcolonialweb|accessdate=2007-08-24]
Zimbabwean journalist and author
Heidi Hollandhas enjoyed considerable success and has written for leading international publications such as The Sunday Times, The New York Timesand The Telegraph. Her latest book "Dinner With Mugabe" gained significant media attention and allows a rare insight into Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe. [The Observer 23 March 2008 cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/23/zimbabwe1|title=Face to face with a lonely tyrant bent on vengeance| ]
Artistic expression often portrays the "the melancholy white exile" from Zimbabwe who secretly longs to return home. [ The Guardian, March 2007 : [http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/politicsphilosophyandsociety/0,,2025931,00.html#article_continue book review] ] This ranges from the writings of Peter Godwin to the fictional leading character played by
Leonardo di Caprioin the film Blood Diamond. Godwin's writing appears much affected by the death of one of his sisters in a "friendly fire" incident during the liberation war in the 1970s.
Music and theatre
In particular patriotic folk songs were popular amongst the white community during the
Rhodesian Bush War. A leading musical figure was Clem Tholetwho married Ian Smith's step-daughter Jean Smith in 1967. In particular Tholet became famous for patriotic anthems such as "Rhodesians Never Die". He enjoyed gold status (60,000+) with his first album "Songs Of Love & War". [ [http://www.mazoe.com/clembiography.html Clem Tholet's biography] ] .
Another popular folk singer was
Northern Rhodesian-born John Edmondand former soldier of the (Southern) Rhodesian Armywho also enjoyed considerable success during the Rhodesian Bush War. In particular he had hits with patriotic folk songs such as 'The UDIsong' from his popular "Troopiesongs" album. [ [http://www.johnedmond.co.za/biography.html#John Bibliography of John Edmond] ]
Concert pianist Manuel Bagorro (born Harare, 1968) is the founder and artistic director of The Harare International Festival of the Arts. First held in 1999, the Festival was most recently held in April 2008 and was successful in attracting attention to the arts in Zimbabwe at a difficult time. [The Harare International Festival of the Arts : [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/outlook/2008/05/080522_festival_outlook.shtml BBC reports, May 2008] ] Bagorro's audio diary of the Festival, set against the background of the 2008 elections, was broadcast in instalments by the BBC World Service. The theme of HIFA was "north meets south" with contributions from African and European cultures.
Cape Town-based White Zimbabwean Simon Attwellis a band member of the popular South African group Freshlyground, playing the flute, mbira, sax, and harmonica. [BBC [http://www.bbc.co.uk/tyne/content/articles/2006/07/07/freshlyground_feature.shtml ROOTS MUSIC-FRESHLY GROUND] ] Freshlyground combines both African and European musical traditions. [Youtube video : [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fy6Ruj8rJMw Ma Cherie] ] Freshlyground participated in the 2008 HIFA.
Theatre was immensely popular across African colonies amongst bourgeoise white residents, often seeking the culture of European metropoles. The construction of larger theatres boomed in the twentieth century in colonies most populated by whites, such as
Kenya, Southern Rhodesia and the copperbelt of Northern Rhodesia. 'Little theatres' were also popular, often they were part of large sporting venues, gymkanahand turf clubs. In 1910 one author remarked on the popularity of theatre amongst Southern Rhodesia's white population; "the local population must have spent a considerable amount on theatre seats. Fifteen professional companies went on tour that year." [cite book|year=1995|first=David |last=Kerr|title="African Popular Theatre: From Pre-colonial Times to the Present Day"|publisher=James Currey Publishers] Theatres in Southern African colonies were usually situated next to a railway line. The premier European dramatic performance in then Southern Rhodesia took place in the southern region of Bulawayo. The development of rail infrastructure allowed the involvement of entertainers from neighbouring South Africa.cite book|year=1999|first=L. Dale |last=Byam|title=Community in Motion: Theatre for Development in Africa|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group] .
The National Theatre Organisation, formerly The National Theatre Foundation focussed on
Euro-centrictheatre productions. These included plays such as "A midsummer's Night Dream" and "No Sex Please, We're British".
An aspiring White Zimbabwean actor and playwright is Scott Sparrow, the 25 year-old
Rhodes Universitydrama graduate has been in several South African theatre productions as well as Zimbabwean productions when he was younger. In 2006, at the age of 23, he wrote his first play "Performers' Travel Guide", staged at the Intimate Theatre. Sparrow plays 17 characters in the one-man play concerning the disappearance of a woman's child ten years earlier. Along with South African veteran theatre-maker Nicholas Ellenbogen, he was invited to put on a play for the King of Venda. Sparrow directed the play titled "African Dream Salon" for the King. [Tonight 11 May 2006 : [http://www.tonight.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=358&fArticleId=3239937 Sparrow weaves his tale] ]
Film and broadcasting
The 1980 film "Shamwari" also known as "Chain Gang Killings" in the United States is an action triller about two escaped prisoners, one black, one white and their developing friendship. The film was set and filmed in Rhodesia and several local White actors starred such as
Tamara Frankein the role of Tracy. [ British Film Institutecite web|url=http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/344819|title=SHAMWARI| ]
Doris Lessing's Southern Rhodesia novel
The Grass is Singingwas adapted into a film by a Swedish company and released in 1981. Despite the majority of the original novel taking place in then Southern Rhodesia and earlier scenes in South Africa, the adaptation was filmed in Zambiaand Sweden. The film stars Karen Blackand John Thawas the poverty-stricken white farming couple Mary and Dick Turner and John Kanias the black houseboyand love-interest of Mary Turner. "The Grass is Singing" (film) is also known under the titles of "Gräset Sjunger" (Swedish) and "Killing Heat". [ Time Outcite web|url=http://www.timeout.com/film/newyork/reviews/70490/the-grass-is-singing.html|title=The Grass Is Singing | ] Another prominent performance was by Nicole Kidmanin the 2005 film The Interpreter, the final film by celebrated film director Sydney Pollack. Kidman plays the lead of Silvia Broome, a White African and New York-based United Nationsinterpreter raised in the fictional African republic of Matobo. In the film centred on Matabo's President's pending visit to address the UN in New York, Broome's parents and sister have alread been killed earlier by a land mine leading to their farm, and soon her brother is murdered in Matobo. There has been much speculation that Matabo is symbolic of Zimbabwe. The fictional flag of Matobo bears a striking resemblance to the Zimbabwean flag and in Zimbabwe there exists a Matobo National Park. There are also striking parallels between Matabo's fictional history and Zimbabwe's history, in particular the presentation of the Matoban president is similar to that of Zimbabwean President, Robert Mugabe. The fictional president is constanly referred to as the "teacher", a nickname shared by Mugabe, in reference to his teacing career. The striking parallels between Matobo and Zimbabwe provoked a reaction from the Zimbabwean government; Acting Information Minister Chen Chimutengwende said the film had "obvious connections" and that the Hollywoodfilm was part of a " CIAplot" to discredit the Southern African nation. [ Chicago Tribune22 April 2005cite web|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/topic/nyc-interpreter,0,4909413.story|title=The Interpreter | ] [ BBC5 September 2005cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4216168.stm |title=Zimbabwe accuses CIA of film plot | ]
The most significant recent portrayal of a White Zimbabwean was by
Leonardo DiCaprioin the 2006 film Blood Diamond (film). He plays the lead fictional character of Danny Archer, an ex- mercenary, diamond-smuggler and self-proclaimed "Rhodesian" whose parents were murdered on their farm by rebels. The adventure drama film is set in 1999 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. [ The Boston Globe8 December 2006cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/movies/display?display=movie&id=9301|title='Diamond' trades on action and star appeal | ]
The director of New Zealand's Cathay Pacific
Italian Film Festivalis White Zimbabwean Tony Lambert, who left Rhodesia at 17 during the Rhodesian Bush War [ New Zealand Herald20 September 2008cite web|url=http://www.nzherald.co.nz/employment/news/article.cfm?c_id=11&objectid=10533127|title=Interview: Tony Lambert| ] . The Italian Film Festival is held across the world. It presents the most contemporary films of Italian cinemaand these are decided upon by the Italian embassy, festival organisers and sponsors [ Italian Film Festival 2008cite web|url=http://www.italianfilmfestival.co.nz/home.htm|title=Italian Film Festival| ] . In New Zealand it is both the largest single cultural film event as well as the most significant Italian cultural event. [ The National Business Review26 August 2008cite web|url=http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/far-beyond-spaghetti-western-34418|title=Far beyond the spaghetti western| ]
In 1960 television was introduced into the then Southern Rhodesia. It was the first such service in the region, as South Africa did not introduce television until 1976 due to the potential ideological conflicts that it posed. The Rhodesian Broadcasting Corporation (RBC) TV was a commercial service carrying advertising, although there was also a television licence fee. Television reception was confined mainly to the large cities, and the majority of television personalities and viewers were from the white minority. The RBC used the
BBCas a model in that a government department was not responsible for it, but a board of governors (selected by Ian Smith) were instead [cite book|year=1969|first=Frank |last=Clements|title="Rhodesia: A Study of the Deterioration of a White Society"|publisher=Praeger] . Popular television shows included "Kwizzkids", "Frankly Partridge" and "Music Time" [ The Rhodesian Broadcasting Corporation 2007cite web|url=http://www.thenewrbc.com/|title=Broadcasting the sights and sounds of Rhodesia (archive)| ] . Possibly the best-known Director of the RBC was Dr. Harvey Ward. Prior to the introduction of television, RBC had developed a successful radio network, which continued. By 1978, three top white executives had fled overseas, including Dr. Ward who "probably more than any other person, became identified with the right-wing bias on Rhodesia's radio and TV networks." [cite book|year=2001|first=Gerard |last=Horne|title=From the Barrel of a Gun: The United States and the War Against Zimbabwe, 1965-1980|publisher=UNC Press]
The RBC was later succeeded by the Zimbabwe Rhodesia Corporation and later in its present form as the
Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation. Until her departure in 2001, the sister of author Peter Godwinwas a celebrity DJ for the corporation and television personality, and also described by Britain's The Guardiannewspaper as Zimbabwe's Sara Cox. She previously held a morning drive-time show and gossip column in Zimbabwe. Most recently she was involved in the London-based SW Radio Africa, a station with a purpose of broadcasting independent of Zimbabwean state interference. Godwin has conducted various powerful interviews for the station with figures such as Desmond Tutuand Zanu-PF firebrand Jocelyn Chiwenga. [ The Guardian24 November 2003cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2003/nov/24/broadcasting.arts1|title=Radio Free Zimbabwe| ]
Before independence, Rhodesian/Zimbabwean representation in international sporting events was almost exclusively white. Zimbabwean participation in some international sporting events continued to be white dominated until well into the 1990s. For example, no black player was selected for the
Zimbabwean cricket teamuntil 1995. [Henry Olonga website: [http://www.henryolonga.net/ first black cricket player for Zimbabwe] ] Rally driver Conrad Rautenbach (son of Billy, see above) won the FIAAfrican Championship scoring Dunlop Zimbabwe Challenge Rally in 2005 and 2006. [Motorsport, July 2006 : [http://www.motorsport.com/news/article.asp?ID=223120&FS=FIA-RALLY Zimbabwean Conrad Rautenbach secures victory] ] The iconic event is the all-white Zimbabwean women's field hockey team, captained by Ann Grant (formerly Ann Fletcher), winning gold medals at the Moscow Olympicsin July 1980. Ann Grant's brother is the cricketer Duncan Fletcherwho later became the England team manager.
As of 2007, a still disproportionate number of Zimbabwe's most famous athletes are white. In
tennis, the Black family of Cara, Byron and Wayne Blackand Kevin Ullyettare notable doubles players. In the 1990s, Zimbabwe's largely white cricket team was a strong one and included world class players such as Andy Flower, Grant Flowerand several others. Today Zimbabwe's National Cricket Team still has several white players including Brendan Taylorand Sean Williams. Also, Zimbabwe's most successful recent Olympic athlete is swimmer Kirsty Coventry, who won three medals (including gold) at the 2004 Summer Olympicsand four medals (including gold) at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Famous white Zimbabwean golfers include Nick Priceand Mark McNulty.
Although she represents South Africa, Rhodesian-born,
Charlene Wittstockwho was brought up in Bulawayo until moving to South Africa at age ten, has achieved success as a swimmer. She has also became a celebrity figure, thanks to her current romantic relationship with Prince Albert II Sovereign Prince of Monaco.
The involvement of whites in Zimbabwean politics
Political and economic background
During the UDI era, Rhodesia developed a siege economy as the means of withstanding UN sanctions. The country operated a strict system of exchange and import controls, while major export items were channelled through state trade agencies (such as ‘the Grain Marketing Board’). This approach was continued until around 1990, at which time
International Monetary Fundand World Bankdevelopment funding was made conditional upon the adoption of economic liberalisation. In 1991 Zimbabwe adopted ESAP (Economic Structural Adjustment Programme) which required privatisation, the removal of exchange and import controls, trade deregulation and the phasing out of export subsidies. [PRF paper: [http://www.saprin.org/zimbabwe/research/zim_trade_lib.pdf Moses Tekere] ] Up to the time of independence, the economy relied mainly on the export of a narrow range of primary products including tobacco, asbestos and gold. In the post independence period, the world markets for all these products deteriorated and it was hoped that ESAP would facilitate diversification. [News 24, January 2007 : [http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/Zimbabwe/0,9294,2-11-1662_2053821,00.html Zimbabwe, a Banutustan] ]
ESAP and its successor ZIMPREST (Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation) caused considerable economic turbulence. [ AfricaFiles 1996: [http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=3876 ESAP's fables, report on ESAP] ] Some sectors of the economy did benefit. But the immediate results included job losses, a rise in poverty, and a series of exchange rate crises. The associated economic downturn caused the budget deficit to rise which put pressure on public services. The means used to finance the budget deficit have caused hyperinflation. These factors created a situation in which many bright and qualified Zimbabweans (both black and white) had to look abroad for work opportunities. [ [http://www.tralac.org/scripts/content.php?id=4113 Report on brain drain from Zimbabwe] ] Zimbabwean politics since 1990 have therefore been conducted against a background of economic difficulty with the manufacturing sector (in particular) being 'hollowed out'. Although, some parts of the economy continue to perform well. The Zimbabwe stock exchange and the property market have experienced minor booms, while outsiders are coming to invest in both mining and land operations. Where some see crisis, others see opportunity. [Guardian April 2006 : [http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,1760716,00.html#article_continue report on Zimbabwe stock exchange] ]
In the period immediately after independence, some White political leaders (such as
Ian Smith) sought to maintain the identity of White Zimbabweans as a separate group. In particular, they sought to maintain a separate "White roll" for the election of 20 seats in parliament reserved for whites (abolished in 1987). Despite this, many White Zimbabweans embraced the political changes and many even joined Zanu-PF in the 1980s and 1990s. For example, Timothy Stampsserved as Minister of Health in the Zimbabwean government from 1986 to 2002.
More recently, an elite network of White businessmen and senior military officers has been associated with a faction of ZANU-PF identified with
Emmerson Mnangagwa, formerly Security Minister and later Speaker of Parliament. Mnangagwa has been described as "the richest politician in Zimbabwe". [AIM article: [http://www.warmafrica.com/index/geo/3/cat/1/a/f/thrid/13/sa/d/topic/304 January 2005] ] He is believed to have favoured the early retirement of President Mugabe and a conciliatory approach towards the regime's domestic opponents. This line has displeased other elements in ZANU-PF. In June 2006, John Bredenkamp (a prominent former Mnangagwa associate) fled Zimbabwe in his private jet after government investigations into the affairs of his Breco trading company were started. [newzimabwe.com : [http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/quit12.14272.html political and financial dealings of Bredenkamp] ] Bredenkamp returned to Zimbabwe in September 2006 after his passport was returned by court order. [The Times, 19 October 2006 : [http://business.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,19609-2410932,00.html British SFO investigate Bredenkamp] ]
In July 2002, 92 prominent Zimbabweans were subject to EU "smart sanctions" intended to express disapproval of various Zimbabwe government policies. These persons were banned from the EU and access to assets they own in the EU was frozen. [ UN press release, 2002 : [http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=29018 EU names Zimbabwe blacklist] ] 91 of those on the blacklist were black and 1 was white. The single white was Dr.
Many observers found the EU's treatment of Dr. Stamps to be curious, given that by July 2002 he was retired from active politics and a semi-invalid. Also, Stamps was widely rated to be a highly dedicated doctor who had never been implicated in any form of wrongdoing. [Remembering Zimbabwe, by Dr Amitabh Mitra: [http://www.boloji.com/memoirs/053.htm Stamps "the most dedicated doctor I had come across"] ] The same observers found it equally curious that the EU Commission did not include the wealthy white backers of Mugabe on the list. [ Daily Telegraph report: [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=ZE3PM2FPNPMZVQFIQMGSFFWAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2005/06/11/wdad111.xml see para 8 onwards] ]
The Movement for Democratic Change and the 2000 general election
From around 1990, mainstream white opinion favoured opposition politics as whites sought to maintain their position in the country through support for liberal economics, democracy and the rule of law. Whites played a leading role in the funding and management of the opposition
Movement for Democratic Change(MDC) party after 1999. Three out of four of the MDC's elected top executives in 2000 were white. [ Zimabwe's decade of horror : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/13/zimbabwe] ] Whites had lain low in the immediate post-independence period. But, in 1999 they raised their heads above the political parapet.
"White people accounted for only a small proportion of the party, but they were highly visible and had clout, in part, because they were the ones with the money and the cars. They could be seen delivering party propaganda and running its offices. The MDC and its white activists regarded all that as everyday politics. The Zanu-PF old guard saw an attempt to refight the liberation war" - Chris McGeal, April 2008 [The Observer : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/13/zimbabwe Zimbabwe's decade of horror 13 April 2008] ]
Roy Bennett, a white farmer forced off his coffee plantation after it was overrun by radical militants and then expropriated, won a strong victory in the Chimanimani constituency (adjoining the Mozambican border) in the 2000 general election. Bennett (a former Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwemember) won his seat for the Movement for Democratic Change, and was one of four white MDC constituency MPs elected in 2000. [ BBC: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/808007.stm Winners and losers] ] [Sokwanele: [http://www.sokwanele.com/articles/sokwanele/roybennettreleased_28june2005.html Roy Bennett released] ]
Other white MPs elected in 2000 included
David Coltart(a prominent human rights lawyer and founding legal secretary of the MDC) and Michael Auret (a civil rights activist of long standing who had opposed white minority rule in the 1970s). Trudy Stevensonwas a Ugandan white who had come to Rhodesia in 1972. Stevenson served as the MDC's Secretary for Policy and Research before being elected to Parliament. In July 2006, after attending a political meeting in the Harare suburb of Mabvuku, Mrs Stevenson was attacked and suffered panga wounds to the back of her neck and head. The MDC leadership immediately claimed that the attack was carried out by ZANU militants. But, while recovering in hospital, the MP for Harare North positively identified her assailants as members of a rival faction of the MDC. This serves to illustrate the violent and faction ridden nature of Zimbabwean politics. [ Guardian, 5 July 2006 : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1812700,00.html MDC faction attack politicians] ] Zimbabwean politicians (black and white) routinely accuse each other of murder, theft, electoral fraud, conspiracy and treason. It is often difficult to know the truth of these matters. [ New Zimbabwe.com : [http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/senate212.14368.html MDC supporters attack Mrs Stevenson] ]
One MDC spokesmen is Eddie Cross. [ Africanbios: [http://www.eddiecross.africanherd.com/eright.html Eddie Cross biography] ] Cross is a leading Zimbabwean business figure and serves as the MDC's Economic Secretary and shadow finance minister. Although critical of the ZANU-PF government, Cross has been an advocate of the economic liberalisation that the government has introduced.
The 2000 general election was arguably the most significant event in post-independence Zimbabwean politics. It was the first seriously contested election in the country since 1962 and was fought out against a background of intractable economic, social and political problems. The ZANU ruling party had been in power for 20 years and was widely considered to have run out of ideas. [The Guardian, 17 March 2000 : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,182109,00.html People are sick of Mugabe] ] Whites played a leading role in the campaign of the opposition MDC which almost won the election. [BBC report on 2000 election: [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/808007.stm Winners and Losers] ] Radical elements in the country perceived the MDC project to have been an attempt to restore a limited form of white minority rule and this produced a violent backlash. [ William Pomeroy speech: [http://www.pww.org/past-weeks-2000/Imperialism%20fails%20to%20block.htm caution, partisan account of 2000 election] ] [BBC report, October 2000 : [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/991284.stm Mugabe under pressure] ]
White emigration — particularly from within the farming community — picked up speed again after 2000. There is a link between the recent economic decline in Zimbabwe and white emigration, although which is cause and which is effect is open to debate. There has been an enormous black emigration in the same period. By 2008, some estimates were that the white population of Zimbabwe could have fallen to less than 30,000 [ AR report: [http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2004/07/whites_flee_zim.php caution, partisan comment] ] or even less than 20,000. [The International Herald Tribune 21 July 2008 [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/07/21/africa/AF-Zimbabwe-Glance.php Key facts about Zimbabwe] ] However, these last figures may be misleading since there is a large community of white Zimbabweans who work abroad on a contract basis or have moved their businesses abroad — while retaining a home in the country. One view is that the white population of Zimbabwe has been surprisingly resilient, and any improvement in the economic and political climate would bring many expatriates home again.
The Independence constitution contained a provision requiring the Zimbabwean government to honour pension obligations due former servants of the Rhodesian state. This obligation included payment in foreign currency to pensioners living outside Zimbabwe (almost all white). Pension payments were made until the 1990s, but they then became erratic and stopped altogether in 2003. [UK Parliament: [http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmfaff/111/111we03.htm Letter to the Clerk of the Committee from Mr Barry Lennox, 15 July 2004] ]
White communities in African countries suffered a variety of fates in the post-colonial period. In many countries (eg
Kenya, Namibiaand Botswana) the white communities survived and actually grew in number. In two particular cases, Algeriaand Zimbabwe, the previously large European communities have shrunk. In both these last cases, the white communities had put up a fight against decolonisation and many whites found it difficult to adjust to the realities of the world they found themselves in after independence. Many neutral observers feel that the failure of some newly independent African countries and their white minorities to come to terms with one another was to the mutual disadvantage of both parties. For example, expatriate white farmers and hoteliers from Zimbabwe have done much to revive agriculture and develop tourism in neighbouring Zambia. [ The Guardian, 27 February 2006 : [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1718591,00.html#article_continue Zimbabwean farmers in Zambia] ] [The Guardian, 22 July 2006 : [http://travel.guardian.co.uk/activities/wildlife/story/0,,1826000,00.html Zambian tourism sector grows at expense of Zimbabwe] ] Although much depleted in numbers, white Zimbabweans continue to play a leading role in the country's economic and political life.
In March 2008, Zimbabweans took part in the Parliamentary and Presidential elections. High profile white Zimbabwean candidates in these elections included
David Coltartfor the Senate and Trudy Stevenson, Eddie Cross, and Ian Kay [Christian Science Monitor : [http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0316/p01s04-woaf.html report on 2005 elections] ] [IAfrica News : [http://iafrica.com/news/specialreport/zimbabwe/463523.htm Ian Kay in 2008 election] ] for the House of Assembly — all of these running on the MDCtickets. Coltart, Cross, and Kay were all elected, while Stevenson failed to take the Mount Pleasant seat in Harare for the Mutumbara faction of the MDC.
The MDC won both the Parliamentary and Presidential elections. [The Zimbabwean : [http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12377:morgan-won-secret-police-docs&catid=31:top%20zimbabwe%20stories&Itemid=66 25 April 2008] ] In a normal political system, ZANU-PF would go into opposition and a new MDC government would come into office. Since 1980 Zimbabwe has existed in a post-revolutionary state run by a liberation movement. The process of transformation was therefore slow and painful. On 16 September 2008 the formation of a new "unity" government was agreed with MDC leader
Morgan Tsvangiraias Prime Minister. Senator Roy Bennettwas nominated to be Minister of Lands, Agriculture, and Resettlement while Eddie Crosswas nominated to be Minister of International Trade. [BBC : [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7623619.stm 18 September 2008] ]
* [http://home.iprimus.com.au/rob_rickards/viscounts/hunyani.htm The Viscount disasters of 1978 and 1979]
* [http://www.rhodesia.com/ Rhodesians Worldwide]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/7/newsid_2880000/2880795.stm BBC report on 1965 Rhodesian general election]
* [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/land/gp_zimbabwe.html The Zimbabwean Land Issue]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1718591,00.html#article_continue Zimbabwean refugee farmers help to transform Zambian economy (The "Guardian")]
* [http://www.maryellenmark.com/text/magazines/london_sunday_times/904G-000-005.html Sunday Times (London) 1984 report on whites in Zimbabwe]
* [http://www.zwnews.com/3-Main%20Body.pdf Selby, Angus (2006) “White Farmers in Zimbabwe, 1890-2005”, PhD Thesis, Oxford University]
Audio and Video
* [http://www.rhodesian.net/rhodesian_african_rifles.htm Sweet Banana, song of the RAR regiment (recorded 1978)]
*Salisbury in 1967: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzdVx4HhTfA "Suddenly - a City" You Tube]
*Zimbabwe tourism promotion video from 1995 : [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvfDJ2nQgDQ "Zimbabwe at its best" You Tube]
*ZTV commercial for Bata trainers, 1988 : [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CnoTFP9vCiM&mode=related&search= YouTube]
Zimbabwean cricket team
Blood Diamond (film), fictional portrayal of a white Rhodesian by Leonardo DiCaprioas the protagonist
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